A simple, but at the same time original solution is to make a pentagonal rug out of an ordinary round rug. It is enough to make some calculations at the beginning of knitting. Before proceeding with the execution of the first row around the initial ring, you should decide on the required number of loops, a multiple of 5. Depending on the thickness of the yarn, there may be 10, 15, and so on.
When knitting the second row, it is necessary to make constrictions from a certain number of air loops between the resulting five groups of loops. Their length is determined individually, based on the thickness of the material used.
Performing each subsequent circular row, do not forget about the additional addition of loops in each first and final loops of a separate group. Their frequency is determined visually in order to avoid both the formation of a domed rug and the presence of a fold.
After reaching the required diameter of the rug, the extreme row is closed with a connecting post, the loop is fixed, and the end of the yarn is hidden in the previously knitted rows.
Pigtail round rug
Another option for making a round rug is a combination of crocheting and sewing. This combined technique is used when the yarn is thick. It creates inconvenience in the circular knitting process. Therefore, to make such a rug, a very long chain of air loops from the prepared yarn is first knitted. Then it is evenly laid out in a spiral, securing each subsequent turn with the previous one with a needle and thread. The result is a not too rough, but dense rug.
Crocheting rugs from rags can also be done on the basis. The technique for making rugs in this way is called carpet. It consists in filling the cells of the warp with pieces of yarn or strips of fabric. The result is a fluffy, soft rug with a certain length of nap.
In order to knit such a rug, a special base is needed. Due to the repeated use of the finished product, it must be durable and wear-resistant, therefore, stram is used for such purposes. But due to its high cost and difficulty in acquiring, experienced craftswomen found an excellent way out of this situation.
They suggest making your own rug base. This will require strong cotton threads. Further, depending on the shape of the intended rug, as well as on the thickness of the material used, you should tie the mesh with the same cells. It can be a canvas from a regular alternation of single crochet and 1 chain stitch, or a column with 1 crochet and 2 air loops.
In the case of knitting round rugs, it is necessary to introduce additional cells into the mesh so that the base maintains an even horizontal position. The size of the mesh base should be equal to the final parameters of the product.
After making the frame, it should be carefully treated with waterproof glue. In this case, you need to ensure that all cells inside are not covered with adhesive film. Then let the base dry and you can proceed to the direct execution of the rug.
It should be noted that a special hook is intended for knitting products in carpet technique, which is a slightly curved tool with a closing head and a thick wooden handle. This structure of the hook is necessary for the convenience of gripping the yarn or material under the base broach and the formation of a fastening loop.
In addition to knitting the base for the rug, you should also pre-prepare the yarn. This process consists of cutting equal pieces of leftover thread or strips of fabric. The length should not be less than 6-8 cm, since, in addition to the pile, it is consumed for the manufacture of a fastening loop. There should be many of them, because one unit is used to close one cell of the base grid.
The color scheme in this technique can be varied. Using multi-colored pieces of fabric will create a bright rug with an abstract pattern. If a clearer pattern or ornament is provided, then it is necessary to prepare material of the corresponding color scheme. To make a rug with a pattern, the preliminary preparation also includes a pattern for the pattern in the cells for the convenience of translating it into reality.
To get started, you need to take the hook and wind it under the broach of the first cell. Fold the prepared strip of fabric in half and grab the resulting loop with a crochet. Pull it out over the base, holding the ends. Pull the connected ends of the strip through the loop formed. Pull up the resulting pile with your hand, while securing the loop on the base. Exactly the same operation should be carried out with each subsequent cell. For convenience, this knitting is recommended from right to left.
By filling one row of cells after another in this way, you get a solid, fluffy and very soft floor rug.
Round pattern floor mat
One of the interesting solutions for the manufacture of floor mats is various combinations of round fragments. They can be performed:
- from the same material in structure, but differ in color assortment;
- from fabrics of different composition and color;
- from several types of patterns.
The connection of motifs with each other can be done both when knitting the extreme row of each of the fragments, and after they are completely knitted. It depends on whether there is a preliminary layout of the elements or it is drawn up in the knitting process, how many and what sizes are harvested parts.
Knitting rugs (rugs) crocheted from rags, old things
In every family, over time, there are many things that have fallen into disrepair. These are children’s clothes with stubborn stains, old T-shirts that have served their life, and jeans. But many thrifty housewives have found a way to breathe a second life into this rag. and more popular among them has become crocheting rugs from the remnants of threads, rags, weaving them from various cords and ribbons, using carpet techniques on the basis. Some methods of making such a home attribute are given later in the article.
In the form of a scarf
Crocheting rugs in the form of a scarf from rags can be done in 2 versions:
The difference between these methods is that with the longitudinal direction of knitting, you must immediately set the desired length, since it will not be possible to increase it later. With cross knitting, this possibility exists. The same applies to the width of the product. Its change is possible in the longitudinal direction, but not in the transverse direction.
Since the manufacture of rectangular rugs provides for straight and back rows, it is recommended to choose double-sided patterns for them, that is, so that they look the same from the front and back sides.
If knitting is carried out by the most usual method, with single crochets, then in order to avoid seals between the rows, with each subsequent knitting, the capture of the working thread should be done not under two arcs of the lower loop, but only behind the back. Thus, on the front and back sides, even horizontal or transverse stripes (depending on the direction of knitting) are formed, created by the remaining front arcs.
Crocheting rugs from rags using openwork hemstitching has become quite a popular phenomenon in the interior of many houses. This is due to the fact that the “gaps” formed between the rows can be decorated in a variety of ways. For instance:
- you can stretch a contrasting yarn or ribbon through the vertical constrictions;
- use to embed finishing details in the form of leaves, flowers, ruffles and so on in a standard pattern;
- during knitting, an LED cord can be embedded in some circular openwork rows. This will create not only coziness in the room, but will become an original addition to the interior.
For openwork rugs, it is recommended to use yarn of thin and medium thickness, since a finished product made of thick material will look awkward and rough.
Any pattern, as well as a scheme for its implementation, can be applied to floor rugs. A wide variety of them can be found on the Internet. Also, patterns of round napkins are suitable for this. But too complex and ornate openwork is still not worth using.
Firstly, operations with a large number of loops will be difficult due to the thickness of the yarn.
Secondly, in places with a large number of columns or their combinations, seals will be created, which will adversely affect the appearance of the finished product and bring discomfort during direct use.
Below are some patterns for floor rugs:
Due to the fact that denim is quite dense and rough, it is recommended to make strips of it for knitting floor rugs as thin as possible. But, the problem is that this material is very free flowing. During cutting, as well as twisting into balls, its structure quickly collapses and the strength of the prepared yarn is lost. To avoid such troubles, after cutting jeans into strips, it is advisable to process their cuts with fire. Sintered at the edges of the yarn for a long time prevent the yarn from shedding and create more comfortable conditions for working with it.
Due to its density, denim yarn is difficult to crochet. The best option for making a rug from this material will be a crocheted chain made of air loops, which will subsequently be assembled into a spiral and fixed in layers.
Knitting, knitting, crocheting, free knitting
- Jackets, ponchos, sundresses
- Bolero, sweaters, vests
- Tunics, dresses, skirts
- Tops, swimwear
- Shawls, scarves, hats
- Bags, accessories
- Knitted shoes, socks
- Napkins, tablecloths
- Plaids, bedspreads
- Drapes, curtains
- Knitting for animals
- Knitted flowers, accessories
- Sweaters, pullovers
- Jackets, vests
- Hats, scarves
- Knitted Socks
- Patterns, knitting patterns
- Crochet patterns
- Lace, motives
- Knitting conventions
- Crochet Conventions
- size table
Last update 07:12:09 AM GMT
The bolero is knitted in the transverse direction with a single fabric. Description given for all sizes.
Bolero sizes: 34/36, 38/40, 42/44, 46/48, 50/52
You will need: Anny Blatt yarn: 900/950/1050/1150/1250 g of white Nanook (62% wool., 15% alpaca, 23% polyamide, 45 m / 50 g); knitting needles number 7.
Elastic band: alternately 1 person., 1 out.
Striped pattern: 2 p. out. satin stitch, 2 p. persons. stitch.
Knitting density, striped pattern: 11.5 p. And 21 p. = 10 x 10 cm.
Attention! Bolero is knitted with one fabric, starting from the right sleeve.
Description of work: dial 20/22/24/26/28 sts, tie 10 cm with an elastic band. Add evenly in the 1st p. 2 p. And knit with a striped pattern, adding on both sides in each 4th p. 10 x 1 p., In each 10th p. 2 x 1 p. = 46/48/50/52/54 p. After 52 cm for the right shelf and back, re-dial on both sides 24/24/26/28/30 p. = 94/96/102/108 / 114 p.
Next, knit from the side of the back in a straight line, and from the side of the shelf, close the right shelf for the okat in each 6th p. 1 x 1 p., In each 2nd p. 9 x 1 p. / In each 8th p. 1 x 1 p., In each 4th p. 1 x 1 p., In each 2nd p. 8 x 1 p. / In each 10th p. 1 x 1 p., In each 4th p. 2 x 1 p., In each 2nd p. 7 x 1 p. / In each 12th p. 1 x 1 p., In each 4th p. 3 x 1 p., In each 2nd p. 6 x 1 p. / In each 14th p. 1 x 1 p., In each 4th p. 5 x 1 p., In each 2nd p. 4 x 1 p. = 84/86/92/98/104 p. After 65/67/69/71/74 cm from the typesetting edge close on the right side 1 x 37/38/41/43/48 p. = 47 / 48/51/55/56 p.
After 77/79/81/83/86 cm from the typesetting edge, re-type on the right side for the left shelf 37/38/41/43/48 p., Then add in every 4th p. 1 x 1 p., In each 2nd p. E / 8/7/6/4 x 1 p., In each 4th p. 0/1/2/3/5 p. = 94/96/102/108/114 p. After 90/94/98/102/108 cm from the typesetting edge, close on both sides 24/24/26/28/30 p. = 46/48/50/52/54 p., then close 2 x 1 p. in each 10th p., 10 x 1 p. in each 4th p., tie 10 cm with an elastic band, evenly decreasing in the 1st p. 2 p., And close the remaining 20/22/24/26/28 p.
Sew side seams and sleeve seams. For the plank, dial 28 sts, knit with a striped pattern. As you knit, fasten the strap along the edge of the product, close all the loops when the required length of the strap is reached. Fold the plank in half and sew along the edge of the entire garment.
Sausages and products from pork, lamb, beef and meat of other types of slaughter animals and birds. Acceptance rules and sampling methods
Sausages and pork products,
lamb, beef and meat of other types of slaughter animals and birds
Acceptance rules and sampling methods
Sausage products and products of pork, mutton, beef and meat of other kinds of slaughter animals and poultry
Acceptance rules and sampling methods
Date of introduction 07/01/1974
This standard applies to stuffed, boiled-smoked, semi-smoked, boiled, uncooked smoked, raw, liver and blood sausages, meat loaves, sausages, sausages, pork, lamb, beef and meat of other types of slaughter animals and poultry (boiled, boiled- smoked, smoked-baked, baked, fried and uncooked smoked), salted bacon in half carcasses, as well as brawn, jellies, jellied meat and pates and sets the rules of acceptance and sampling methods to determine the main indicators: organoleptic (appearance, color, smell, taste. consistency), chemical (moisture, protein, fat, sodium chloride, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorus, starch residual acid phosphatase activity) and bacteriological.
(Modified edition, Amendments No. 1, 2).
RULES OF ACCEPTANCE
1.1. The products are accepted in batches. A batch is understood as any number of sausages or products from pork, lamb, beef and meat of other types of slaughter animals and birds of the same species, variety, name, produced during one shift, subject to the same technological production regime.
A batch of salted bacon means pork half carcasses salted at the same time in one vat. Each batch of products must be accompanied by a document of the established form, certifying its quality.
1.2. To control the appearance of the product, a sample is selected in the amount of 10% of the batch volume.
1.3. To carry out organoleptic, chemical and bacteriological tests, the selection of units of products subjected to control according to clause 1.2 is selectively carried out:
from products in the shell and products from pork, lamb, beef and meat of other types of slaughter animals and birds weighing more than 2 kg
– in the amount of two for all types of tests, and with the simultaneous selection of product units for organoleptic, chemical and bacteriological tests, each product unit is first of all selected for bacteriological tests;
from products in the shell and products from pork, lamb, beef and meat of other types of slaughter animals and birds weighing less than 2 kg
– in the amount of two for each type of test;
from products without a sheath. at least three for each type of test.
1.4. Upon receipt of unsatisfactory test results for at least one of the indicators, a repeated selection of a doubled number of product units is carried out. Retest results apply to the entire batch.
1.1.-1.4. (Modified edition, Amendment No. 1).
SAMPLING FOR ORGANOLEPTIC AND CHEMICAL TESTS
2.1. Point samples are taken from the product units selected under clause 1.3 and combined samples are made from them: one for organoleptic tests, the other for chemical.
2.1.1 From sausage products, spot samples are taken with a mass of 400-500 g to determine organoleptic characteristics, and for chemical tests, spot samples are taken with a mass of 200-250 g, cutting off from the product in the transverse direction at a distance of at least 5 cm from the edge.
Combined samples, respectively, weighing 800-1000 g for organoleptic tests and 400-500 g for chemical tests, are made up of two spot samples from different product units.
2.1.2. Spot samples are taken from sausages and small sausages without violating the integrity of the product units.
From several point samples, two combined samples weighing 400-500 g are made.
2.1.3. Single samples are cut from zelts and products in bladders in the form of segments weighing 200-250 g.
From point samples from different product units, two identical combined samples weighing 400-500 g each are made.
2.1.4. Spot samples are taken from languages to determine organoleptic indicators without violating the integrity of the product.
To take point samples for chemical tests, the tongues are cut in half in the longitudinal direction.
Two point samples from different languages make up a combined sample.
2.1.5. From products without shell (meat loaves, pies, jellies, jellies), two combined samples weighing 600-750 g each are made up of several spot samples (at least three samples weighing 200-250 g).
(Modified edition, Amendment No. 2).
2.1.6. From pork, lamb, beef and meat products of other types of slaughter animals and poultry, point samples are cut in the transverse direction of the product at a distance of at least 5 cm from the edge weighing 200-250 g for chemical tests and 400-500 g for organoleptic tests (with excluding adipose tissue and skin, if any).
Of two spot samples from different product units, two combined samples weighing 400-500 g for chemical tests and 800-1000 g for organoleptic.
2.1.7. From the hind legs, a cut is made along the entire thickness of the ham at the junction of the tibia and femur and a point sample weighing 400-500 g each is cut.
From two spot samples from different hams, two combined samples weighing 800-1000 g are made: one for organoleptic tests, the other for chemical.
2.1.8. From the front hams, a cut is made across the entire thickness of the ham at the junction of the scapula and humerus, and a point sample weighing 400-500 g each is cut off. From point samples from different product units, two combined samples weighing 800-1000 g each are made: one for organoleptic tests, the other for chemical.
2.1.9. From salted bacon, combined samples for organoleptic and chemical tests are taken from two half carcasses, and four spot samples are cut from each half carcass: from brisket, loin, shoulder blade and ham weighing 200-250 g each.
From the loin and brisket, a cut is made between the sixth and seventh ribs along the entire width of the half carcass, after which it is divided into two samples.
From the scapula, a cut is made across its entire width in the direction from the scapula to the neck, then half of the cut piece is cut.
From the hind leg, a cut is made in the direction from the spinal column to the head of the femur.
2.1.10. From smoked pork heads, combined samples weighing 400-500 g are “from cuts of cheek meat from three units of production. From smoked rolls, shanks and ribs, combined samples weighing 400-500 g are made up of several spot samples obtained from different product units.
2.1.11. To determine the organoleptic characteristics of poultry pastroma, two spot samples are taken without violating the integrity of the products.
Single samples from poultry pastroma for chemical tests are separated from the bone and cut off the edges in the transverse direction at a distance of no more than 2 cm.
Combined samples with a mass of at least 200 g are made of two spot samples from different product units: one for organoleptic tests, the other for chemical.
SAMPLING FOR BACTERIOLOGICAL TESTS
3.1. For bacteriological testing, samples are cut with a sterile knife or other sterile instruments.
3.2. Point samples are taken from the product units selected under clause 1.3 and a combined sample is made from them.
3.2.1. At least two 15 cm long spot samples are taken from sausages from the edge of the loaf. Make up a pooled sample from two spot samples.
3.2.2. From sausages and small sausages, spot samples are taken from different places, without violating the integrity of the product units.
Multiple spot samples make up a pooled sample.
3.2.3. Two units of product are taken from the languages and a combined sample is made from them.
3.2.4. From products from pork, lamb, beef and meat of other types of slaughter animals and poultry, point samples are cut over the entire thickness with a length of at least 10 cm from two product units.
Make up a pooled sample from two spot samples.
3.2.5. From the hind legs, a cut is made across the entire thickness of the ham at the junction of the tibia and femur and a sample of at least 10 cm is taken.
3.2.6. From the front hams, a cut is made across the entire thickness of the ham at the junction of the scapula and humerus and a sample 10 cm wide is taken.
3.2.7. From products without a shell (jellies, pates, etc.), spot samples are taken from at least three units of products weighing 200-250 g each.
3.2.8. A combined sample from salted bacon is taken according to clause 2.1.9.
Two product units are taken from poultry pastroma and a combined sample is made from them.
PACKAGING AND LABELING OF SAMPLES
4.1. Selected combined samples for organoleptic and chemical tests are packed individually in cellulose film in accordance with GOST 7730, parchment in accordance with GOST 1341 or other materials approved by the USSR Ministry of Health for use in the meat industry. Combined samples for bacteriological testing are packed in sterile parchment paper or sterile containers. All samples are numbered.
4.2. If it is necessary to send samples to a laboratory located outside the place of their collection, samples are packed in a combined container (box, bag, jar), which is sealed or sealed.
Samples must be accompanied by a sampling report indicating:
the name of the enterprise that developed the product and its subordination;
the name of the organization where the samples were taken;
designation of the standard in accordance with which the samples were taken;
the name, type, grade of products and the size of the batch from which the samples were taken;
production dates, indicating the shift for perishable products (jellies, brawn, liverwurst sausages, blood products, pates) and the hour of production;
designation of the normative document according to which the product was developed;
document number and date of delivery-acceptance;
the results of the control of the appearance of the party;
the purpose of sending the product for testing;
places and dates of sampling;
names and positions of persons who took part in product inspection and sampling.
How To Make Nutella Babka Twists | Delish
(Modified edition, Amendment No. 1).
DEVELOPED AND INTRODUCED by the Ministry of the Meat and Dairy Industry of the USSR
V. M. Gorbatov, Cand. tech. sciences; G. L. Solntseva, Cand. biol. sciences; A. G. Volkova
APPROVED AND INTRODUCED INTO EFFECT by the Decree of the State Committee of Standards of the Council of Ministers of the USSR 05/21/1973 291
REPLACE GOST 9792-61
4. REFERENCE REFERENCE DATA
|Designation of NTD referenced||Item number|
The limitation of the period of validity was removed according to the protocol No. 4-93 of the Interstate Council for Standardization, Metrology and Certification (IUS 4-94)
REPUBLICATION with Amendments No. 1, 2, approved in July 1984, June 1989 (IUS 11-84, 10-89)
Indication: for protection from the external environment of the operating wound, wound surfaces obtained outside the hospital.
Note. The gauze is used soft, hygroscopic, fat-free.
– cut gauze for napkins in size: 20×25 cm. for small, 30×40 cm. for medium, 60×40 cm. for large
– fold the gauze lengthwise from both sides to the middle (in the middle of the napkin, the ends touch)
– fold the napkin folded along the width (the ends touch in the middle of the napkin)
– bend the napkin in the middle, at the point of contact of the ends of the napkin
– fold napkins by 1O pieces, tied with strips of gauze
Note. Make sure that there are no gauze threads in the prepared napkins to prevent them from getting into the wound
Medical educational portal kbmk.info
For large and small wipes and tampons
- for the treatment of the surgical field
- operating wounds
- when dressing wounds
Note. The gauze should be white, soft, absorbent and fat-free.
Cut out gauze for balls in the size: 6×7 cm. for small ones, 11×12 cm. for medium ones, 17x 17 cm. for large ones;
– fold the prepared piece of gauze lengthwise from both sides to the middle
– fold the gauze in half, wrap it around the index finger (a bag is formed)
– tuck the free ends into the resulting triangle
– fold the gauze balls into a prepared gauze bag, 50 pieces each
Note. Make sure that there are no gauze threads in the prepared balls,
to prevent them from getting into the wound.
Organization of work in the operating unit. Dressing material (napkin, turunda, ball, tampon)
Making a large swab
For balls, large and medium napkins
Indication: for protection from the external environment of the operating wound, wound surfaces obtained outside the hospital.
Note. The gauze is used soft, hygroscopic, fat-free.
– cut the gauze for the preparation of the dressing material
– bend the trimmed edges of the gauze inward by 5-6 cm and fold in half in the same direction twice
– fold the resulting strip of gauze 60×10 cm in half (the lower half of the napkin should be 5-6 cm longer than the upper one)
– fold the tampon in half again, the free edge of the lower layer of gauze is wrapped around the tampon to grab it during the operation
Note. A medium swab is prepared as well. A small swab is folded twice in half in the longitudinal and transverse directions, then tucked inward by 1-2 cm of one of the short edges of the piece of gauze, the long edges of the gauze are tucked over each other
Making a turunda
Indication: for draining purulent wounds.
Equipment: bandage 5 cm wide.
– cut the bandage into pieces 40-50 cm long
– tuck the ends of the bandage on both sides inward by 1-1.5 cm
– fold a piece of bandage along the length on both sides so that the ends meet in the middle of the segment
– fold the piece of bandage again along the length so that the ends connected in the middle are inside the piece of bandage
– iron a piece of bandage on the edge of the table to secure
– wind the prepared turunda around 2-4 fingers of the left hand
– remove from the fingers and pull the rest of the turunda into the hole left after removing the turunda from the fingers
Making a tampon
Indication: for tamponade of bleeding wounds.
Equipment: bandage 1O cm wide, 5 m long.
– fold the bandage in small pieces longitudinally so that the ends meet in the middle
– fold the segment again so that the ends connected in the middle are hidden inward
– iron a piece of bandage on the edge of the table to secure
– roll the tampon into a ball
Note. Prepare the tampon in small pieces. The resulting 4 layers of bandage are cut transversely into pieces 20, 30, 50 cm long.
Cross knit pullover
The translation was made especially for “Handmade Runet”.
When reprinting, be sure to indicate the active link to Darievna.ru.
(the photo is enlarged on click)
(translated from Portuguese)
Size: bust 86 cm
(Russian alternative for this yarn: option 1, option 2, option 3)
Elastic band 2/2: 2 persons., 2 out.
Fantasy pattern scheme:
(all images are enlarged on click)
The diagram shows the beginning of the sleeve (the arrow shows the middle of the sleeve) and the loops that will form the back pattern. On the front, the patterns are arranged symmetrically to the back patterns.
Knitting density: 19 p. X 25 p. = 10 x 10 cm (front surface)
The pullover is knitted in one piece, starting from the bottom edge of the left sleeve. Cast on 46 stitches on the needles and tie 5 cm with an elastic band 2/2, in the last row of elastic, add 13 stitches evenly. Then knit with a fancy pattern according to the scheme (the arrow in the diagram shows the middle of the sleeve). Knit, adding on both sides in each 8th row 12 times 1 p.At a total height of 42 cm, add 4 pts on both sides in each 2nd row 1 time 4 p. And 3 times 9 p.Include the added loops in the fantasy pattern ( see the diagram to the left and right of the arrow). At a total height of 55 cm, to form the neckline, divide the knitting into front and back. Knit the back for the first 73 sts. At a total height of 75 cm, temporarily set aside the back loops. Knit 72 sts in front, closing on the right in each 2nd row 4 times 2 sts. Then knit 14 cm straight on the remaining loops of the front and then add on the right in each 2nd row 4 times 2 sts. At a total height of 75 cm, combine loops of the front and back on one knitting needle and continue knitting with a fancy pattern. At a total height of 85 cm, close on both sides in each 2nd row 3 times 9 sts and 1 time 4 sts. Then reduce on both sides in each 8th row 12 times 1 st. Continue knitting with an elastic band 2/2, with this, in the first row of the elastic, evenly subtract 13 points.Tying with an elastic band 5 cm, close all the loops according to the pattern.
On the lower edge of the back, dial 86 sts, tie 20 cm with an elastic band 2/2 and close all the loops according to the pattern. Do the same along the lower edge of the front.
Cast on 46 sts on the needles, tie 50 cm with an elastic band 2/2 and close all loops according to the pattern.
Assembly and finishing:
Sew side seams and sleeve seams.
Sew a collar seam. Sew collar to neckline.
Section 21. Wood as a natural structural material
Wood is one of the most common materials that people have learned to process since ancient times. A huge number of wood products surround us now: household items, furniture, sports equipment, musical instruments and much more.
In grade 5 you will master the basic operations and techniques of wood processing, learn to use a variety of tools with which you can make simple and useful things.
Having comprehended the basics of artistic carving, you can decorate your room, kitchen with wood products, make a gift to friends and family.
The acquired skills will always be useful to you in life.
Wood as a building and construction material is obtained from tree trunks. When making various wood products, it is necessary to take into account the type of wood. From the lessons of natural history, you know that trees with foliage are called deciduous, and those with needles are called conifers. Deciduous trees are birch, aspen, linden, alder and other species. Conifers are pine, spruce, cedar, fir, larch, etc.
The trunk of a tree (Fig. 79) has a thick part. a butt and a thin one. a top. The outside of the trunk is covered with bark. The bark consists of an outer cork layer and an inner bast layer.
Fig. 79. The structure of a tree trunk: 1. core; 2. annual rings; 3. core; 4. sapwood; 5. cambium; 6. bast layer; 7. cork layer
The cork layer of the bark is dead, and the bast layer serves as a conductor of nutrients from the roots to the crown.
Wood is the main inner part of the trunk. It consists of many layers. growth rings. Each year, the trunk grows from the side of the cambium layer by one ring. The ring is composed of soft wood on the inside and hard wood on the outside. The tree’s age is determined by the number of growth rings.
Growth rings are formed by wood fibers located along the trunk. Fiber consists of elongated chains of tree cells.
The loose and soft center of the tree trunk is called the pith. From the core to the bark, core rays diverge in the form of light shiny lines. They carry water, air and nutrients into the tree. In some tree species, the core rays create a beautiful pattern on the radial section of the trunk.
Species of wood are determined by the following characteristic features: belonging to deciduous or coniferous, by smell, texture, hardness and color. If you cut the wood along the grain, a characteristic pattern will be visible on the plane of the cut. This pattern is called texture. The beautiful surface of wood is said to have a rich pattern. The wood texture of some wood species is shown in Figure 80.
Fig. 80. Wood texture: a. walnut; b. Karelian birch; in. mahogany
Various timber lumber is obtained from wood.,
When sawing tree trunks in the transverse direction, logs are obtained, and in the longitudinal direction, such types of lumber as timber, bars, boards, plates, quarters, slabs are obtained (Fig. 81).
Fig. 81. Timber: a. four-edged timber; b. two-edged timber; c. bars; g. edged board; d. unedged board; e. plate; g. quarter; h. croaker; 1. face, 2. edge, 3. butt, 4. rib
Bar. sawn timber with a thickness and width of more than 100 mm. If the timber is sawn off on both sides, then it is called two-edged, and if on four sides, then four-edged.
Bar. lumber less than 100 mm thick and less than double thickness.
Board. lumber up to 100 mm thick and more than double thickness.
Plates are obtained by ripping a log in half, and quarters into four pieces.
Slab. sawn side part of a log.
Lumber has the following elements: faces, edges, edges and ends.
The face is called the wide, and the edge is the narrow plane of the lumber.
The end is called the end cut (plane) of the lumber.
The edge is the line intersecting the planes of the lumber.
Along with sawn timber, wood materials obtained by other methods are used. These include: plywood, chipboard and fibreboard.
Plywood is a wood-based construction material. It is obtained by gluing three or more sheets of peeled veneer on top of each other (fig. 82).
Fig. 82. Plywood gluing: a. veneer sheets; b. plywood
Peeled veneer is obtained by cutting wide shavings from a rotating log (block) with a sharp knife on a peeling machine (Fig. 83). At the same time, the log, like a roll, is rolled into a veneer tape.
Fig. 83. Scheme of obtaining peeled veneer: 1. log; 2. knife; 3. clamp; 4. veneer tape
The veneer strip is cut into square sheets, which are dried in dryers. Then the sheets are smeared with glue, placed on top of each other so that the fibers of adjacent sheets are perpendicular, and glued together under a press. This is how plywood is made.
Plywood is stronger than wood, almost does not dry out and does not crack, bends well and is processed. It is used in house construction, furniture manufacturing, mechanical engineering.
Rotary cut veneer is used for the manufacture of products from bent glued wood, such as chairs, boxes, tables, golf clubs.
Chipboards (chipboards) are produced by simultaneous pressing and gluing of crushed wood in the form of shavings, sawdust, wood dust. Chipboard is made with a thickness of 10-26 mm. These slabs are durable and hardly warp. They are used to make furniture, doors, partitions, walls, floors. However, particle boards emit substances harmful to health. Therefore, it is undesirable to use them in residential premises.
Fiberboard (MDF) (hardboard) is obtained by pressing in the form of sheets of steamed and crushed wood pulp to individual fibers. Hardboard has a flat and smooth gray surface, it bends well. Fiberboard is used for interior decoration of premises. walls, ceilings, floors, as well as for the manufacture of furniture and doors.
A significant disadvantage of plywood, chipboard and fiberboard is that they are afraid of dampness. Under the influence of moisture, plywood delaminates, and the boards swell, lose strength and crumble.
Practical work number 23
Determination of species of wood, lumber and wood materials
You will need: samples of lumber, plywood, chipboard, fiberboard.
How to cut laminate flooring: choosing the right tool for cutting
In order to properly lay the laminate flooring, you need to be able not only to connect the laminate panels, but also to cut them correctly. Otherwise, it will be impossible to “fit” into the area of the room, as well as to observe the traditional chess pattern of the coating. Since you cannot take laminated boards with your bare hands, you can entrust cutting them to one of the hand or power tools.
Construction knife tool
A regular construction knife can also be used to cut laminate flooring. For example, if you are almost finished with your flooring, there is only one board left to cut, but the angle grinder suddenly breaks down. There are no other tools at hand, but cutting needs to be done urgently. Then a construction knife will come to the rescue. Place a ruler on the front side of the laminate board, and make a deep cut along it with a knife. While holding the board on one side of the cut, press down on the other side. Laminate must break, just like ceramic tiles when hit by a tile cutter.
The best result in cutting laminate can be achieved by using a jigsaw for this purpose. It is a lightweight, very easy-to-use tool that will quickly be approached by any newbie master. Even a woman or a teenager. Cutting with a jigsaw is carried out at high speeds, which avoids damage to the structure of the fiberboard. If you act at the same time quickly, confidently, then the cut will turn out to be almost perfect.
The main thing in using a jigsaw is the choice of the file. Modern tools are usually initially supplied with special files for cutting laminate. They are distinguished by a special shape, pitch and way of setting the teeth. However, ordinary metal files. narrow, with small teeth will cope with this business just as well.
In order not to damage the decorative surface, the cutting line is applied (with a pencil or chalk) to the wrong side of the laminate board. It is laid on a table (chair) with the wrong side up so that the part that is planned to be cut is in a suspended state. They fix the laminate lying on the table with one hand, and quickly cut off the excess part with the other.
Choice of cutting tools for laminate flooring
The main characteristics that a tool for cutting a laminate at home should have are:
- the convenience of use
- compactness and low weight
- the possibility of obtaining an even cut, without cracks and chips
The last point, the meaning of which is not to spoil the appearance of the laminate board after cutting, is decisive for most DIYers. However, its significance is still exaggerated. In any case, chips up to 5 mm in size on the finished coating will not be noticeable. defects along the edge of the panels will disappear behind the skirting boards.
So what are the best tools for cutting laminate flooring??
Tool Angle grinder (angle grinder)
The angle grinder is a handy tool, indispensable in the DIY’s drawer. It can cut almost anything, including laminate. For a beautiful edge, without cracks and chips, when cutting, you need to turn the laminate board with its front surface. In this case, discs are used for metal, concrete or ceramic tiles.
The disadvantage of using an angle grinder (and a circular saw too!) Is the large amount of dust that will be generated when cutting laminate. Also, this action can be accompanied by the smell of burnt wood. Therefore, you need to do cutting on an open balcony or on the street.
Laminate Cutter Tool
Laminate cutter, on the other hand, allows you to cut at a professional level. Most often, this tool works like a guillotine. a knife, which, with the help of a handle, is lowered onto the surface of the laminate and cut into it. The cutter operates easily, without chipping or noise. You don’t need to use force or skill to use it. Perhaps this is the easiest tool to use, allowing you to get excellent results in any conditions.
Since this cutter is used exclusively for laminate flooring, it only makes sense to buy it for professional installation. For finishing several rooms of an apartment, this option is considered impractical.
Laminate flooring can be successfully cut with a regular hacksaw for wood. But this will have to expend energy, because its teeth are large enough and will bite into the laminate, and not cut it out. Smaller teeth on a hacksaw for metal. this is what you need to use for cutting.
A hacksaw is very often used for cutting with small amounts of work. In construction teams, this method is not used, due to the increased time costs and labor intensity.