Li-ion batteries of 18650 format The Li Ion 18650 battery is a high-tech battery that has a very high current output, low self-discharge and the ability to recharge at any time.
Li-ion 18650 batteries.
Li-Ion 18650 batteries. The most common lithium battery format today. 18650 batteries got their name on the basis of cell dimensions: 18. Battery diameter in mm, 65. Battery length in mm. Lithium batteries 18650 They are widely used in everyday life, they are installed in powerful LED lights, various power tools (screwdrivers, drills, wrenches, etc.), vapers are used in mech mods, box mods and other devices for vaping. Also lithium ion batteries 18650 found wide application in electric scooters, electric bicycles, electric moped and electric cars, which are widely used in everyday life. If you are an avid fisherman, hunter or just like camping with a stick. You probably need a 18650 flashlight battery. As you can see. 18650 batteries are widely used in everyday life and today almost everyone uses this type of battery.
Advantages of 18650 lithium batteries:
What are the advantages and why are they so good Li-Ion 18650 batteries and what led to such widespread use of elements of this type? Below we list the main features of 18650 batteries, which distinguish them favorably from cells of other types and compositions:
- High capacity and high energy density of 18650 batteries. Batteries of this format with a relatively small size can have a high real capacity of 3400-3600 mAh (for example, 18650 Sanyo NCR18650GA battery with 3500 mAh capacity).
- High current efficiency. Li ion 18650 batteries have low internal resistance and high current output, which can reach values up to 50C (where C. Is the battery capacity in Ah). For example, Samsung 25R batteries, the current output of which at impulse (short-term) load reaches 100 Amperes. Also, as an example, we can cite the Japanese 18650 Sony VTC5A batteries, which can operate with a continuous load of 35 Amps. Due to their high current output, high-current 18650 batteries are widely used in power tools, electric vehicles and e-bicycles;
- A universal 18650 format.A universal battery size that allows you to produce cells of small dimensions, but with a large capacity. The small size of 18650 batteries makes it possible to assemble various battery assemblies by welding the batteries together. Thanks to this, it became possible to assemble battery assemblies of any capacity, various current output and practically any voltage;
- Low weight of 18650 batteries. Due to the Li-Ion composition, 18650 batteries are lightweight (about 50 grams), which makes it possible to make battery assemblies of large capacity and relatively low weight (relative to lead-acid batteries);
- Durability of 18650 batteries.Most cells of this format are capable of withstanding up to 600 charge / discharge cycles with virtually no loss of their capacity (LiFePO4 batteries can withstand up to 2000 charge / discharge cycles);
- Lack of memory effect. Lithium-ion batteries 18650, unlike Ni-Mh batteries, have practically no memory effect and can be charged at any time at any stage of discharge. This property of li-ion batteries makes their use much more convenient in comparison with batteries with other chemistry;
- Low self-discharge. LiIon 18650 batteries have a very low self-discharge (about 1.5% per month), which allows them to store energy for a long time with practically no losses;
- Fast charging with high currents. Charge current for Li-Ion 18650 batteries can reach 4C (C. Battery capacity in Ah). In other words, you can charge high capacity 18650 batteries in just 1 hour or less.
Varieties of Li-Ion 18650 batteries (ICR, INR, IMR, NCR, NCO, IFR):
Lithium 18650 batteries differ in chemical composition (according to the material from which the cathode of a li-ion battery is made). Depending on what the cathode is made of, lithium-ion batteries 18650 are divided into: ICR, INR, IMR, NCR, NCO, IFR. These elements differ in their composition and properties. Let’s take a look at their main properties:
ICR 18650 batteries (LCO, lithium-cobalt). Have a cathode made of cobalt oxides (LiCoO2). The main advantage of ICR 18650 batteries is their low price compared to other subtypes of rechargeable cells. Batteries of this type have a low current output (usually about 1C) and cannot be charged with high currents. Basically, ICR 18650 batteries are used in laptop batteries, low-power flashlights, and other similar electronics. Popular ICR 18650 battery models are:
INR 18650 batteries (NMC, lithium manganese nickel). The cathode of these batteries is made of nickel, cobalt and manganese (Li (NiCoMn) O2). The addition of manganese and nickel to the battery makes it safe, high-capacity and able to quickly release energy. INR 18650 batteries combine low resistance and safety of manganese and high energy of nickel. These batteries can be used in power tools, electric scooters, drones, and vaping. From popular models 18650 INR the following can be distinguished:
IMR 18650 batteries (LMO, lithium manganese). These batteries have a manganese oxide (LiMn2O4) cathode. These batteries are the most high-current among all the 18650 battery types. The presence of manganese in the battery allows it to quickly release its charge without getting too hot. These batteries are much safer than batteries with ICR chemistry. Representatives of 18650 IMR batteries are:
NCR batteries 18650 (NCA, lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide). Batteries of this subtype are the safest lithium 18650 cells. NCR 18650 batteries are similar to INR, but without the high-current properties of manganese. NCR batteries have a lower current output compared to IMR and INR cells, but NCR batteries have a higher capacity and a longer life cycle. In addition, NCR batteries are more resistant to physical stress, which makes them safe battery assemblies for e-bikes and electric vehicles. Most popular NCR 18650 batteries:
NCO batteries 18650 (Lithium Nickel Cobalt Oxide, LiNiCoO2). Batteries with such chemistry are quite rare, they have an average capacity and low current output (6-8A). Representatives of NCO 18650 batteries are:
IFR 18650 batteries (LFP, lithium iron phosphate, LiFePO4). These batteries outperform other 18650 subtypes in several ways. Lithium iron phosphate 18650 batteries can operate at high currents (up to 40C) while maintaining a high capacity, they are durable. They have a large number of charge / discharge cycles (1000-2000 cycles), and they can also work well at low and negative temperatures. But along with the advantages, the 18650 LiFePO4 batteries have several significant disadvantages: a low nominal voltage of 3.2V (other Li-Ion batteries have 3.7V), a rather high self-discharge compared to other lithium-ion batteries. LiFePO4 18650 representatives:
Separately, in a nutshell, I would like to say about 18650 batteries with and without protection:
Li-Ion 18650 batteries with protection: Protected batteries are equipped with a special board that monitors the charging and discharging process and protects the battery from overcharging, overdischarging and incorrect polarity. The protection board makes the use of 18650 lithium-ion batteries safe in everyday life, and the protected batteries can be used at home without fear. Protected 18650 batteries are also called household batteries.
Li-Ion 18650 batteries without protection: These batteries do not have a protection board, so be careful when using them. Li-Ion 18650 batteries cannot be overcharged, over-discharged and short-circuited without protection. With all of the above symptoms, an unprotected battery can fail or even explode. Unprotected 18650 batteries are also called industrial, because they are mainly used in industry to make battery assemblies for power tools and other appliances.
Li-ion 18650 battery charge controller
Major manufacturers make standard 18650 lithium batteries without protection board. This controller, made in the form of an electronic circuit, is installed on top of the housing, slightly lengthening it. The board is located in front of the negative terminal, protects the battery from short circuit, overcharge, overdischarge. Protection is going in China. There are devices of good quality, there is an outright swindle, inaccurate information, the capacity is 9,000A / h. After installing the protection, the body is placed in a shrink film with inscriptions. Due to the additional design, the body becomes longer and thicker, it may not fit into the intended slot. Its standard size can be 18700, increase due to additional actions. If an 18650 battery is used to create a 12V battery that has a common charge controller, breakers on separate Li.Ion cells are not needed.
The purpose of the protection is to ensure that the energy source operates within the specified parameters. When charging with a simple charger, the protection will not allow overcharging and turn off the power in time if the 18650 lithium battery sat down to a voltage of 2.7 V.
Li-ion 18650 battery device
Lithium-ion battery manufacturing based on company sites Sanyo, Sony, Panasonic, LG Chem, Samsung SDI, Skme, Moli, BAK, Lishen, ATL, HYB. Other firms buy items, repackage them, claiming to be their own. They also write false information about the product on the shrink wrap. There are currently no 18650 Li-ion batteries with a capacity higher than 3600mAh.
The main difference between batteries and batteries is the possibility of multiple recharging. All batteries are designed for a voltage of 1.5 V, the output of a li-ion product is 3.7 V. The 18650 form factor means a lithium battery 65 mm long, 18 mm in diameter.
18650 Lithium Battery Working Mode Specifications:
- The maximum voltage is 4.2 V, and even a slight overcharge will significantly reduce the service life.
- The minimum voltage is 2.75 V. When 2.5 V is reached, special conditions for capacity recovery are required. When the voltage at the terminals is 2.0 V, the charge is not restored.
- The minimum operating temperature is 20 0 С. Charging at subzero temperatures is not possible.
- Maximum temperature 60 0 С. Explosion or fire can be expected at higher temperatures.
- Capacity is measured by Ampere / hour. A fully charged battery with a capacity of 1 A / h can deliver 1A of current for an hour, 2A for 30 minutes or 15A for 4 minutes.
Accumulators and batteries
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Lithium-ion battery capacity
Battery capacity is measured in ampere hours (Ah) or milliampere hours (mAh). This characteristic determines the duration of operation at normal load until the capacitance drops to zero. These batteries have a reduced memory effect (capacity drop when restoring a partially discharged battery).
Due to the presence of the controller, Li-ion batteries do not allow a complete discharge, which destroys the cell. The overvoltage during charging is also limited, so there is no drop in capacity. Excessive voltage by 4% reduces the capacity by half. Subsequent charge twice more.
These batteries have the largest charge capacity. Their disadvantages are as follows: cannot be used in devices with a large load, cannot be used for quick recharging, the elements can overheat and even ignite.
18650 batteries which is better
The main ones are as follows:
- Chemical composition;
- Availability of protection (electrical and mechanical);
- Current-voltage characteristics.