How An Impact Drill Differs From A Conventional One

When to choose an impact drill?

  • Rare use of tools for drilling small holes. If you need to drill something periodically, but not too often, there is no point in buying a rock drill. Drills are more than enough to hang a picture, drill through metal, etc. When storing the tool, the drill Takes up less space than a hammer drill.
  • Working with wood and metal parts. the drill will handle these materials. Wood can drill any tool, and when working with steel or iron, a quality drill plays an important role.
  • Twisting and unscrewing fasteners. A drill is much more convenient to work with screws and self-tapping screws, even if it has an impact mode. If you use a hammer drill for this purpose, the percentage of rejects. damaged fasteners will increase, and the comfort during work will decrease.
  • Preferably work with soft materials. If you do not often need to drill concrete, stone or brick walls, then it is quite possible to do without a hammer drill.

How An Impact Drill Differs From A Conventional One

Impact drill or hammer drill. what to choose?

In this section, we decided to give examples of the effective use of a punch and impact drill, so that it would be easier for you to choose a tool for yourself.

The difference between an impact drill and a hammer drill

In a drill and a hammer drill, there are different mechanisms for the occurrence of an impact. The very design of THESE instruments suggests that they need to be handled differently when using percussion mode:

  • In the case of an impact drill, the operator has to Apply additional force, press on the tool. The stronger the impact on the drill, the faster the drilling takes place. But even with maximum effort, the impact force in a drill will be several times less than the lightest perforator.
  • When using a puncher, you need to apply force only to confidently hold the tool. On average, the pressure does not have to exceed 2-3 kg.

Impact function is basic for a hammer drill. But in a drill, even a percussion one, this is only additional functionality. On the other hand, this makes the drill a versatile and multifunctional tool.

The correct choice of tool should depend on what kind of work you are going to do. In short: a drill is suitable for minor repairs, carpentry, work with fasteners, and a hammer drill is suitable for constant work with concrete, stone and brick, dismantling and chipping walls.

The main differences between an impact drill and a hammer drill

Rotary hammer and hammer drill are tools that can partially replace each other. Both are capable of Punching holes, working with hard materials, and using blow in work. For this reason, one often hears questions about how these tools differ in general. Through the article, we will analyze what an impact drill and perforator are, what are the features of their design.

What is a puncher?

A hammer drill is also an electric tool, which differs from a drill in details of its design and specific use. In addition to the rotation of the nozzle, it also gives it a reciprocating motion. To create this movement, a special unit is provided in the perforator: a swinging (drunk) bearing. in straight perforators, and a crank mechanism. in barrel drills. Both units convert rotary motion into reciprocating and interact with the piston, transmitting a shock impulse to the nozzle.

Despite the fact that the hammer drill is similar to a drill, it is much more often used for dismantling work and, as a rule, is not used for working with fasteners. This is explained by the greater impact force of the hammer drill, its large weight, and the lack of chiseling mode in the drill.

What is a drill?

A drill is a hand-held power tool used to drill holes in materials or parts, twist and unscrew fasteners. The principle of its operation is that the motor converts electrical energy into rotation, and then transfers it to the nozzle. If the drill acts as a nozzle, the drill can be used for drilling, if the bit is used for working with fasteners. Drills are widely used in many areas, including construction, repair work, manufacturing, assembly work, carpentry, etc. Electric drills are divided into two subcategories: impact drills and hammerless drills.

A hammer drill differs from a hammer drill in that it has an additional mode. hammer drilling. The impact is generated by the interaction of the ratchets with the shaft. This allows the drill to tackle hard materials such as stone, brick and concrete. It cannot completely replace the punch, since it lacks power and impact force.

When is it worth choosing a puncher?

  • Working with hard materials. The hammer drill is much better at handling stone, concrete and brick. Its impact mechanism generates impact force sufficient for drilling and breaking concrete, as well as large fragments of stone, show itself many times more effective than a drill.
  • Drilling large holes. The hammer drill can work with large diameter bits, which is not the case with a drill. For example, if drills are rarely able to create holes in concrete with a diameter of more than 20 mm, then a hammer drill (when using a crown) can drill holes with a diameter of up to 120 mm.
  • Dismantling. One of the differences between a hammer drill and a drill is that it has an impact mode without drilling (chiseling). With its help, you can remove tiles, plaster from the walls, gouge walls, etc. The drill will cope with such tasks. it is not intended for them.

An impact drill is a tool that is suitable for twisting and unscrewing fasteners and creating small / medium holes, preferably in wood, metal, tile and plastic. The hammer drill is better suited for difficult jobs, demolition and making large holes in concrete. By understanding the features of THESE tools, you can always make the right choice.

The difference in the design of the impact mechanisms

Both devices have a percussion mode, but the mechanism for playing the beat is fundamentally different. An electro-pneumatic mechanism for reproducing the impact is organized in the puncher. The engine rotates the shaft, the movement of which is converted into reciprocating piston movements. Compression is created between it and the striker, under the action of which the striker transmits the impact to the working nozzle (drill, chisel, drill or crown). Thanks to this work, the impact force is quite impressive, and the device can easily crush even the hardest concrete.

The impact mechanism of the drill has a completely different design. It consists of two ratchets (gears), one of which is movable, and the other is commentary. During engine operation and shaft rotation, a rigidly fixed ratchet causes the movable to move back and forth with a certain amplitude. Thus, the impact is transferred to the working attachment.

However, unlike a hammer drill, the drill itself transmits the shock impulse of the chuck itself, so the more the drill presses against the concrete, the stronger the blow will be. However, no matter how we press the drill against the concrete (even with our whole body on it), we will NOT be able to achieve the same impact force as a hammer drill, since the amplitude at the contact of the ratchets is too small. So, in perforators, the impact force can range from 1.5 J for the weakest to 20 J for powerful heavy models. For example, the Bosch GBH 240 has an impact force of 2.7 J. this is a common indicator for a domestic hammer drill, but it is also unattainable for a drill.

Read more:  How To Drill Concrete With A Hammer Drill

What is the difference between a hammer drill and a hammer drill?

At first glance, these are two identical devices, differing only in weight and dimensions. However, if you look under the hood, you can see their fundamental differences. Let’s figure it out.

Those of us who live in an apartment building have probably heard the sound of a hammer drill and a percussion drill, hammering the next wall. But do you know how these two devices work and how they differ from each other? We will tell you about their fundamental differences and explain in which case it is worth buying a hammer drill, and when you can get by with an impact drill.

Difference in operating modes

The hammer drill has three modes of operation:

  • Chiselling,
  • Drilling,
  • Hammer drilling.

The first mode turns the hammer drill into a jackhammer, which allows you to hammer in walls, dismantle old tiles and plaster, cut a gutter for wiring and much more. Impact drilling allows you to punch huge holes, for example for air conditioner mountings. No hammer drill is capable of this.

There are only two modes in the drill:

  • Drilling,
  • Hammer drilling.

But can a hammer drill completely replace a drill if it has more modes? In theory it can, but in practice everything is much more complicated.

Firstly, the drill and hammer drill have different rotational speeds of the chuck. If in a drill, for example, Makita HP1640, the rotational speed of the drill is 2800 rpm, then the hammer drill is 1000 rpm or even less. Such low speeds may simply not be enough to properly drill sheet metal. But for drilling wood is enough.

Secondly, the punch chuck is NOT rigidly fixed to the axis of the device, so there will be a slight play during drilling. And if you use an adapter, then the backlash will be even greater. Because of this, there is a possibility of damage to the Material, such as drills. That is why it is only necessary to use a hammer drill for drilling when the runout of the drill will NOT damage the workpiece material or the drill. For the same reason, we recommend using large drills with a perforator to drill small holes in metal, wood crowns and other large-sized bits. But drills thinner than 8 mm should be used with caution, as they can easily break due to play and beating.

Difference with a hammer drill

An impact drill differs from a non-impact drill by the presence of a ratchet mechanism, which transfers a reciprocating motion to the working tool. This function makes it possible to make holes even in brick and concrete.

Conventional Drill Indispensable for delicate work when you need to drill a hole in thin or fragile materials. The soft stroke of the drill allows you to obtain high cleanliness and precision of the machined surface.

The main differences from the punch

These devices differ primarily in functionality. The main function of the hammer drill is hammering, and rotation is just one of the functions. It can work in three modes at once:

  • Rotation.
  • Rotation with impact work.
  • Impact work without rotation.

Rock drills use a pneumatic mechanism (like jackhammers) or electromagnetic coils. This explains the high power, you can not only punch holes in the walls, but also make water pipes in brick and concrete for wiring, sockets and switches.


The main disadvantage of the device is its large mass, so work requires more physical strength than with an impact drill, which is lighter than it.

The essential difference between the hammer drill is in the fastening of the working tool. Any electric drill has a cam chuck for the cylindrical shape of the tool, while the tool is attached to the hammer drill through special grooves. Therefore, you cannot use drills with a cylindrical shank on a hammer drill.

What is the difference between a hammer drill and a hammer drill and a hammer drill

For any construction and repair work, hand-held power tools are used. perforators, conventional and impact drills. At first glance, this tool looks similar, but differs in functionality. You should know how an impact drill differs from a hammer drill and a hammer drill, what is the difference between These power tools and how to choose them correctly.

How the impact drill works

This drill is designed for drilling holes in metal, wood, plastic and durable materials. in brick and concrete. Here, the electric motor through the gearbox, the rotation is transmitted by the cam chuck, in which the cutting tool (drill) is fixed. For working with hard materials, brick and concrete, one rotation is not enough to make a hole.

Here, a conventional drill is distinguished by the presence of a ratchet mechanism, which gives the tool a reciprocating motion. blows, it is they that allow drilling holes in a solid material.

The impact mode in such a power tool can be turned on and off. At idle, the striking mechanism does not work, it only starts when you press the tool.

Which is better to choose

There is NO universal tool. For fast and high-quality work, it is necessary to choose the right power tool, starting with a hammer drill and ending with a hammer drill. If you need to drill with infrequent percussion work, choose a percussion device. For large volumes of work on brick and concrete, it is better to purchase a hammer drill.

The difference in power tools is and was not. Of course, for high-quality performance of work, it is desirable for the master to have all three types.

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The hammer drill is used only for drilling holes and works in two modes: drilling without impact and drilling with impact.

Distinctive characteristics

Like any other construction tool, the hammer drill and hammer drill have a number of distinctive features:

  • Impact mechanism

Instruments have a different scheme of the impact mechanism:

  • The hammer drill has an electro-pneumatic and electromechanical unit of the percussion mechanism. It produces impact force and provides the most effective performance parameters of this kind of construction tool. In the electromechanical type, two coils cause the core to move under the influence of an electromagnetic force. The pneumatic mechanism involves the transfer of working energy through a rotating rotor that drives the piston. Due to the fact that the drill makes a reciprocating amplitude, the perforator does not require additional physical exertion or efforts, in contrast to an impact drill;
  • The drill has a more simplified impact mechanism design. It often consists of two ratchets, which are connected to the rotating chuck and the tool body.

The existing differences in the design of the percussion mechanisms of the drill and the hammer drill determine their different technical and operational standards.

  • Operating modes (or functionality)

Modern types of hammer drills are significantly ahead of the drill, since they have three full-fledged operating modes:

  • Single-mode or drilling. in the operation of the device, only rotations are used without the use of blows;
  • Three-mode. impacts without rotation (they are also called work in the jackhammer mode)
  • Dual-mode (rotation with impacts). perform drilling in combination with impacts.

Thanks to these three modes, the hammer drill can be used Not only for drilling, but also for other types of work. chipping off excess material, hollowing out grooves or niches in stone walls.

The drill will NOT be able to provide a high level of speeds, because its impact function is just one of the additions to the main

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Drills have only two modes and are presented in several varieties:

  • Due to its versatility and with the availability of additional tools, an impact drill can perform the functions of a mixer, grinder, hammer drill and screwdriver. Ordinary. allow drilling holes in wood and metal products. They also have a subspecies, which are called “corner drills”. they make holes in hard-to-reach places;
  • Drill-mixers. have an extended auxiliary handle and high torque. Used to prepare a variety of building mixtures;
  • Drums. in their design they can combine the functions of drilling and impact. With their help, you can drill brick and concrete;
  • Screwdrivers. in addition to their main function, they can turn or unscrew screws.
  • Total weight of the power tool

Depending on the weight, rock drills are classified as:

  • Lightweight. the weight of the structure reaches 2-4 kg
  • Medium. within 5 kg;
  • Heavy. weight exceeds 5kg.

The average hammer drill weight can range from 1kg to 4kg.

The hammer drill and hammer drill differ in the number of parts used and how they are attached:

  • For drilling in hammer drills, drills with victorious surfacing are most often used. The most vulnerable part of the tool is the ratchet. Therefore, when choosing a drill, it should be borne in mind that under heavy loads and severe vibration, they wear out very quickly;
  • In hammer drills, in addition to drills, drills are also used, which are fixed in chucks using a special system of clamps and grooves of a special shape

Having a certain degree of freedom in the movements of the drills in the chuck, the load on impacts in the hammer is significantly reduced.

Here the diameter of the cartridges depends on the possibility of using small or large drills when working.

Unlike an impact drill, the hammer drill contains a special adapter that allows you to change cartridges if necessary.

Another positive point when choosing a hammer drill is the effect of less vibration on the hands of the master due to the softening air cushion located in the pneumatic percussion mechanism.

  • Performance

Determined by the value of the impact energy. In a hammer drill, it fluctuates between 1.5-20J and is always an order of magnitude higher than that of an impact drill. This largely depends on the mass of the device and the pressing force of the master. The technical characteristics of perforators can also indicate the frequency of blows per minute: from 4 to 4.5 thousand blows in more powerful models and 2-3 thousand in less powerful ones.

Taking into account the same power of tools, a hammer drill is always much more expensive in comparison with the price of an impact drill. However, one should not forget that the rock drill belongs to the category of professional tools, so its cost fully justifies itself. drilling speed and durability in operation.

Remember that working with a hammer drill requires three times less effort than using an impact drill

Impact mechanism

The rotary motion of the electric motor is converted by means of a crank mechanism or a special swinging spherical bearing into a reciprocating piston motion. Under the action of compression in the cavity between the piston and the ram, the latter accelerates and through the hammer transmits its energy to the tool. drill, chisel, drill, crown, etc. For more information about the punch device, see the article Punch device.

The impact mechanism of the drill is much simpler. It consists of two ratchets, one of which is connected to the drill body, the other to a rotating chuck. When the impact function is disabled, the ratchets do NOT contact each other due to the stopper located between them. When the drill is switched to the impact position, the stopper is removed and when the drill is pressed against the material, the ratchets begin to contact, skipping each other. In this case, the chuck and the drill are given an axial reciprocating motion.

The difference in the design of the percussion mechanisms determines a significant difference in the technical and operational characteristics of the hammer drill and the hammer drill.

What it is?

An impact drill powered by a 220 volt network can be either professional or household. The household device is NOT designed for continuous and productive work, they should be allowed to “rest” on average every 15-20 minutes.

When drilling various hard surfaces, which are made of materials such as concrete, brick, shell rock, a drill with a hammer mechanism is required. If there is none, then situations often arise when it is not possible to drill concrete. The reason is simple: The cutting edge of the drill cannot capture hard fractions without first chipping. This means that the drill will simply slide over the material, and will not cause any damage to it.

A device with a percussion mechanism simultaneously acts as a mini-puncher, which allows you to work with almost any material.

The drill can be two-speed with reverse or three-speed with reverse, the presence of various functions makes it possible to choose the best option for work.


Plastic materials (wood, plastic and so on) are “cut” with a drill. Stone, brick “give in” only with the participation of a mechanical impulse.

The advantages of an impact drill are that it is possible to work with any material.

Among the shortcomings, it should be noted: the drilling accuracy is noticeably inferior to a good drill. Excessive background noise is also observed in percussion mode. Household drills have low performance.

For household work, the power of 560 W is quite enough, this is enough to drill even concrete with holes with a diameter of 15 mm. Impact Drill Benefits:

  • Compactness;
  • Little weight;
  • Versatility of use in a domestic environment;
  • Convenient functionality;
  • The ability to work with a variety of materials;
  • The ability to work with various drills;
  • Ease of use and repair;
  • Long service life.


Impact drills also have a number of disadvantages:

  • Mechanisms are low-power, they can cope only with a limited amount of tasks;
  • To work with hard materials for a long time requires physical effort;
  • Strenuous operation of the unit when working with concrete quickly leads to its deterioration;
  • The drill “hits” the material as hard as a hammer drill.

A good drill can be used not only for drilling various holes, but also for many other jobs. Drill differentiation:

  • Ordinary;
  • Drums;
  • Rechargeable;
  • Powered by the network;
  • Mixers;
  • Corner;
  • Diamond work.

A professional drill is more powerful, capable of working for a long time without any complaints. Such a tool costs three times more.

The main purpose of the tools

The main difference between a hammer drill and a hammer drill lies in their functional purpose:

  • For a hammer drill, this is drilling in materials that are not very dense (wood, plastic, soft metals, etc.). In addition, the percussion functions of the drill allow you to drill even concrete and brick. In conventional models, the working effect produced largely depends on the pressing force of the master. Therefore, to obtain an optimal and acceptable impact energy, the pressure force should reach 10-15 kg
  • For a hammer drill, this is chiselling. The impact function is built into the hammer drill initially, as well as drilling. At the same time, it is not recommended to put pressure on the hammer drill, as this can lead to tool breakage. The maximum pressure limit should not be more than 5 kg.

Depending on the general functions, a hammer drill can perform a fairly wide range of work in comparison with the functionality of an impact drill:

  • Chopping and driving in rods;
  • Chipping concrete walls;
  • Drilling of various surfaces, including wood, concrete and steel;
  • Chips, brick chips, knocking down tiles, removing plaster and making holes;
  • Tightening bolts, screws or self-tapping screws

Working conditions. Network

When choosing a corded drill, you should be guided by three important criteria.

  • Engine power. The higher this indicator, the more work you can handle in a short period of time. But powerful drills powered by the mains are often bulky, so this factor should also be taken into account.
  • The rotational ratio of the drill depends on the power of the device, the higher the ratio, the greater the performance of the drill.
  • Torque is also very important, it shows how easily resistance is overcome during spindle rotation.
Read more:  Difference between Impact Drill and Puncher

But it should also be borne in mind that power drills, where there is a detachable power cord, have proven themselves best in the work. It is convenient to work with it, its optimal length is four meters.

How the impact drill works

In addition to the normal torque, the hammer drill motor drives the chuck and drill into reciprocating motion. Due to this, the working edge of the drill splits the material at the point of contact, and by means of rotation removes the broken parts and takes them out of the working area.

Drilling is much more efficient, but requires special carbide-tipped drills. For example. victorious. They do not have cutting edges in the classical sense, but resemble a chisel firing pin. Only pointed shape.

Bit soldering on the drill

The device of an impact drill is more complicated than a conventional one. But not enough to radically increase its value. There is a ratchet wheel on the chuck axis. On the body there is a working stop tooth. When the ratchet is locked (normal drilling mode), only the torque from the gearbox is transmitted to the shaft.

Working in this mode is no different from a conventional Electric Drill. When the master switches the hammer drill to the drilling-chiseling mode, the ratchet engages with the stop, and the shaft vibrates along the axis. The gear wheel seems to slide off the stop all the time.

In this case, the drill literally bites into the material. To reduce wear, the percussion mechanism works only when the drill is pressed in the direction of drilling. When idling, the shaft runs vibration-free.

The principle of operation of the impact mechanism Electric drill

The rotor and stator of the electric motor also experience parasitic vibrations, which also adversely affects the tool resource.

Sharp shaking negatively affects the operator’s hands, increasing fatigue;

Here, the constant work in the “drilling-chiseling” mode, joints begin to hurt.

  • The force and amplitude of the reciprocating movements are small, therefore, such a drill is NOT capable of too strong and hard materials;
  • Such a mechanism cannot provide the “chiseling” mode without rotating the shaft;
  • Requires regular maintenance and lubrication of the ratchet.
  • How a simple drill works

    The electric motor, with the help of a gearbox, transmits torque to the chuck, and then to the drill. The operator creates pressure in the direction of drilling, the drill with its working edges cuts the material in layers, going deeper into the hole. This rule applies when the material is soft and pliable.

    So to speak, if there is something to “cut”. Otherwise, the operator may not have enough forces to move forward. This is the main difference between a conventional drill and a percussion drill. An indisputable advantage is ease of use and the ability to perform work with high precision.

    Shockless Electric Drill with Speed ​​Switching Function

    The presence of a speed control adds versatility in terms of drilling various soft and low-melting materials.

    What is the difference between a drill and a hammer drill

    The hammer drill works on the same principle as the hammer drill, only the chiseling mechanism is implemented differently. In this case, it is the impact energy that is used, taking into account the mass and inertia of the impact mechanism. The force is realized with the help of compressed air. as in a jackhammer. Actually, the “jackhammer” mode is provided in any rotary hammer, regardless of size.

    In this, the master talks with examples about the main differences between a hammer drill and a drill.

    The principle of operation is as follows:
    On the shaft with a chuck and a working attachment (chisel or drill) strikes the striker connected to the ram. The ram gets its energy from compressed air, which appears from the operation of the piston. The piston is driven by a crank mechanism or an oscillating bearing.

    Schematic representation of the hammer hammer mechanism

    The hammer drill’s impact mechanism works with great force and amplitude. Air damper prolongs tool life and protects operator’s hands. At the same time, the work efficiency is an order of magnitude higher than that of an impact drill. Durability also on top.

    • High complexity (compared to impact drill) and cost;
    • Bulky mechanism and high power consumption;
    • Inability to perform more or less accurate work;
    • The tool is heavy, so it is easy to work with it for a long time;
    • Regular lubrication and cleaning of the piston group and bit holding mechanism.

    In this you will find a comprehensive answer to the question: What is the difference between a drill and a hammer drill.
    The comparative review considers the following points:

    • Visual comparison of rock drill and hammer drill;
    • Attachment of drill and drill bit (difference in chuck)
    • Tool power and performance;
    • Convenience of work.

    What to choose an impact drill or hammer drill? Many people prefer both.

    When choosing a home power tool, we tend to be guided by emotion rather than common sense. Mistakenly believing that “there is never too much of a good tool,” amateur craftsmen purchase bulky and expensive devices for performing simple household chores.

    • 1 How does each of THESE instruments differ from the second?
    • 2 How a simple drill works
    • 3 How the hammer drill works
    • 4 What is the difference between a drill and a hammer drill
    • 5 Which power tool to give preference?

    In order not to shoot at sparrows from a cannon, consider the most popular device. an electric drill and its functional varieties:

    • The drill is simple;
    • Hammer drill;
    • Perforator.

    An electric shock drill looks very similar to a shock drill

    How each of THESE instruments differs from the second?

    The purpose of any drilling device is obvious. Punch holes in various materials. Depending on the characteristics of the workpiece, drilling requires a certain amount of energy. Different types of drills make the operator’s job easier, but there are also more advanced ways to improve tool efficiency.

    For example, to give translational vibrations to the nozzle. Then the drill acts as a chisel or bolt. over, with a classic drill, even with diamond dusting, you cannot drill a hole in reinforced concrete in a short time and with one copy of the nozzle.

    Which power tool to give preference?

    The question is rhetorical. There is NO universal tool. precisely, there are such copies. but no more than to formally fill the consumer niche. The quality of work leaves much to be desired. Therefore, a smart choice: each type of work has its own tool.

    If you drill holes in familiar materials, such as metal, wood or plastic, your choice is an ordinary drill. The tool is compact, inexpensive, and not tiring to work with. Power (and, accordingly, size) is not difficult to choose.

    If you need to make holes in brick walls occasionally, buy an impact drill. The power tool costs a little more, but gives a certain versatility. You turn on the “chiseling-drilling” mode only when necessary, the rest of the time you work with precision drills and pliable material.

    At the same time, the compactness and low power consumption allow the use of the cordless version of the drill. A cordless drill is more like a screwdriver, but we’ll cover that in another article. For a large rock drill (even in the smallest version), the option with a battery is not available.

    If you are starting repairs in the house, or building a garage, you cannot do without a puncher and this article will help you choose it. Especially if you need a classic jackhammer. In this case, it is not necessary to send a conventional or impact drill to the closet. A compact and lightweight power tool is essential for fine finishing.