How to cut a doorway in a concrete wall

How and what to do on your own

If you decide to make an opening in a concrete wall yourself, then to perform the specified work, you will need the following tools:

doorway, concrete, wall

  • puncher;
  • powerful angle grinder with diamond wheel;
  • sledgehammer;
  • welding machine;
  • studs with nuts and washers.

After that, markup is carried out, if the wall had additional insulation or wallpaper was pasted, old painting was applied, then all the finishing is first removed, and then the markings are made. With a large wall width, the markup will have to be done from different sides.

After you make a strobe in the wall, the channel should fit tightly into it. Before installing it, drill holes with a pitch of 30 cm for mounting the tightening fasteners.

The grooves are made on both sides of the wall, a channel is inserted into them and pulled together with pins. Such a design will allow you to strengthen the wall and after that, you can start creating an opening.

Now the area of ​​the opening is divided into squares, holes are drilled along their borders using a perforator, after which the work is performed by an angle grinder and fragments of the wall are removed.

Keep in mind that in some places the work will be relatively easy, while in other areas it is much more difficult to do this, since you will have to remove the reinforcement.

Cut with water

Waterjet cutting is less popular, in which case the work is done with a powerful jet of water and sand.

First, water is fed into a tank, where it is mixed with sand, after which, under high pressure through a nozzle with a diameter of about 0.4 mm, the mixture is fed to the cutting site.

To extinguish the residual force of the jet, a special water trap is used.

By adjusting the pressure of the jet of water, you can remove some of the concrete or make a through hole.

The main advantages of waterjet cutting are as follows:

  • the cut is neat and accurate;
  • during such cutting, the material does not heat up, therefore no harmful gases and vapors are formed; there is no strong noise and vibration;
  • you can make an opening at any angle;
  • the ability to create an opening of any complex shape.

The disadvantages of waterjet cutting include:

  • the equipment is large, so it cannot be used in apartments;
  • high cost of abrasive material.

In this case, the work is carried out by equipment with a thick-walled lance in the form of a pipe, through which oxygen is supplied.

The spear is heated to a temperature of 1400 degrees, and at its end the temperature reaches 2000 degrees. Popularly, this method of creating openings in a concrete wall is called laser cutting.

It is recommended to carry out the specified work not by reciprocating, but by rotational movements, while the drilling effect is created, but care must be taken that the tube does not go out.

The disadvantage of this method is that during work, molten particles of slag scatter, so the worker must wear a special protective suit.

Diamond cutting

This is the most popular and common way to create an opening in a concrete wall. Diamond cutting has the following advantages:

  • during operation, minimal danger to the wall is created;
  • since in this case the vibration is insignificant, then the risk of cracking will be small;
  • the ability to make an opening exactly along the marked lines;
  • during operation, minimal noise is created;
  • some dust and dirt is generated.

Despite the large number of advantages, this method also has a number of disadvantages:

  • high energy consumption;
  • during work, the tool must be cooled with water;
  • high cost of working tools.

Device options

If there is a need to create an opening in a concrete wall, then this can be done in several ways, each of them has its own pros and cons.

How to properly cut an opening in a concrete wall: all methods and necessary tools for a reliable device

When carrying out repairs, it is often necessary to make a new or expand an existing opening in a concrete wall.

If you decide to make a redevelopment of the apartment, then you may need to cut openings for windows or doors, including they can be performed both in the outer and in the inner walls.

How to expand a doorway

Often there is a need to expand the doorway. Inexperienced home craftsmen take an angle grinder with a diamond wheel for this and use it to cut off the excess part of the wall.

But this method is suitable only if the work is carried out in a non-living room, in which there is no furniture and no repairs have been made, this is due to the fact that during the performance of such work, a lot of dust and dirt is formed.

There is an easier way to enlarge the doorway, when using which there is little dust and dirt.

Read more:  How To Properly Drill A Concrete Wall With A Hammer Drill

Along the outlined contour, with the help of a perforator, holes are made close to each other, after which, with the help of a chisel and a hammer, the jumpers are removed and the unnecessary section of the wall is calmly removed, after which the slopes are made with plastering or drywall.

Punching punch and angle grinder

If the concrete wall is of small thickness, then the opening in it can be made using a hammer drill and a powerful angle grinder.

It will be very difficult to make an opening in the load-bearing wall in this way and it will take a lot of time.

In this case, first, holes with a diameter of 10-12 mm are made in the concrete wall using a perforator, every 3-4 cm, and then the concrete is cut using an angle grinder with a diamond wheel.

Cutting tool

Depending on the method chosen, you will need the following tools:

  • equipment for diamond cutting;
  • equipment for waterjet cutting;
  • equipment for oxygen-lance or laser cutting; 5
  • angle grinder with diamond wheel;
  • hammer drill with a victorious drill;
  • hammer;
  • chisel.

Robot tools

Drilling is used to punch technological holes, nests, furrows. An opening in a concrete wall, or its expansion, is most often done with the help of diamond cutting elements fixed in different types of tools. If the concrete is thin, the cutting can be done with an angle grinder (“angle grinder”) and discs 105-125 mm.

Spraying water during operation will help reduce dust and save the disc. If contact with water is not safe, you will have to cut it dry. But to cool the segments, after a certain time, you will have to remove the disk from the cutting zone, and let the machine run “idle” (from 10 to 50 seconds).

You can cut an opening with a depth of more than 10 cm using professional circular saws (hydraulic, electric cutters), they will quickly cut concrete to a depth of 15-16 cm on one side. Discs 350-400 mm are used. When cutting concrete, workers must wear respirators, concrete dust can enter the lungs and cause serious illness. You also need to wear gloves and glasses.

Strengthening the opening

Cutting doorways, as a rule, in accordance with the project is accompanied by its strengthening. Depending on the material of the walls and floors, the project may provide for preliminary strengthening before the start of work. To do this, to the right and left of the future opening on both sides of the wall, technological telescopic racks (at least 4) are installed, which, as the hole in the wall is arranged, will take on the loads from the ceiling. After arranging the reinforcement of the opening with metal structures (corners, channels, I-beams, fastening plates and drilled pins), the technological racks are removed.

For some walls (especially brick), reinforcement is done before cutting the opening using powerful I-beams (exceeding the opening width by 150 ÷ ​​250 mm on each side), which are installed in the grooves above the upper cut of the opening on both sides of the wall. Through the drilled holes, the beams are pulled together with studs, after tightening the nuts are scalded. After removing the building material from the opening, the beams are fastened to each other by welding with additional metal plates.

Important! The reinforcement of the opening must be carried out in strict accordance with the developed project. A change in the technology or quality of the materials used (for example, the use of metal products with a lower steel grade than indicated in the project) will lead to a deterioration in the strength characteristics of the entire building.

How to make a doorway in a brick wall?

The steps taken when punching an opening in a brick wall are different from cutting a concrete panel. The masonry consists of rows with bandaging of seams. The top of the doorway should line up with the joint. You cannot cut bricks lengthwise. Such actions will weaken the tub and cracks will go along the partition.

After applying the markings, they begin to strengthen the opening in the brick wall by inserting the upper lintel. Above the marked mowing line, a row of bricks is selected. A lintel is embedded in the void with a length greater than the width of the passage.

Further actions are aimed at cutting an opening in a brick wall with the selected tool. If the masonry lends itself to disassembly, then it is wiser to pick out the bricks with a pry bar. The seams are drilled with an electric drill. Uneven lugs on the end of the doorway even out the angle grinder.

Coordination of openings in load-bearing walls

The device or expansion of the opening must be carried out in accordance with all norms, with the permission of the relevant authorities. When a redevelopment decision is made, different indicators are taken into account:

  • the floor on which the redevelopment is being carried out (the higher the floor, the less the load on the wall);
  • year of construction of the house;
  • the width of the opening and its placement (joint of slabs, distance to external walls);
  • the condition of the walls in the room.
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Redevelopment can be carried out by organizations that have permission to perform such work. Recently, people are increasingly redeveloping buildings, expanding old openings in the walls, equipping new ones. Diamond cutting is the leader in dismantling robots. With the help of cutting elements, concrete with a thickness of more than 60 cm is cut. The water-jet cutting method is the most environmentally friendly and safe. Oxygen-lance drilling is effective, but requires some training and skills, there is a risk of burns.

As you know, the safety of the building itself and, accordingly, the people living in it depends on their condition. Therefore, permission for such a project is not always given, for this it is necessary to carefully study it and prove that the opening will not cause any harm to the bearing wall.

Types and characteristics

Oxygen lance drilling

Openings in concrete are made using oxygen lance drilling. cutting, where an oxygen lance is used (a thick-walled metal pipe saturated with oxygen). The lance is heated to 1360-1400 ° C, this is done with the help of foreign objects (welding, torch). When the lance is lit, the heating source is removed. The end of the pipe burns, heating up to a temperature of 2000 ° C. To increase the thermal force, a steel bar is placed in the spear. During the robots, the tube comes into contact with concrete, this will help overcome the resistance of dense-melting slag. The concrete surface does not emit its own heat, does not oxidize and cools quickly if the tube is removed. Therefore, during the robots do not reciprocate. To make the punching more effective, the tube is rotated (drilled) during cutting, but make sure that it does not go out.

This type is sometimes dangerous for workers, hot slag particles can fly up to several meters.

Diamond cutting

For concrete partitions, the doorway diamond cutting method is used using an angle grinder or circular saw. The cutting element of the tool is a diamond-coated metal disc.

The diamond cutting method has many advantages:

  • low vibration level eliminates the appearance of cracks even on loose partitions;
  • in the process of cutting, an accurate thin cut is entrusted along the marked contour and at the desired angle;
  • the noise level of the working tool does not exceed the permissible threshold specified in the sanitary standards;
  • small amount of debris due to the absence of chips, which is impossible to get when using a hammer drill.

Among the disadvantages are the costs of purchasing expensive diamond discs. During work, the concrete wall is moistened with water, but fine dust still spreads in the room.

Reinforcement of the opening

After cutting the opening or expanding it, the walls must be reinforced with additional metal structures. There are such types of reinforcement of openings:

  • Single row. reinforcement is performed using a channel. A U-shaped frame is made around the opening. In such structures, different types of channels and methods of fastening to the wall can be used. Places where the channel does not adjoin the wall are filled with mortar.
  • Corner. edging with corners on both sides of the wall is performed, the corners are fastened to each other with pins, metal plates. Such constructions are used most often.
  • Combined. channel and corners are used for strengthening.

Cutting concrete openings

Nowadays, people often have to deal with the redevelopment of premises, it is often necessary to expand the doorway. Punching concrete used to be quite long, noisy and laborious, but with the help of modern tools it is possible to cut an opening in a concrete wall with minimal labor and time savings. There are several types of cuts to quickly make a straight hole. It is important to know that the punching of doorways in concrete, their expansion can lead to cracks and deformation of structures, therefore, the redevelopment of premises should be coordinated with the appropriate structures.

Waterjet method

The waterjet method (cold cutting) is not far behind in popularity. Openings in concrete are made by the action of a jet of water mixed with sand (abrasive) with a diameter of up to 0.4 mm. Pressurized water enters the tank, where it mixes with sand, then exits through the nozzle at a speed of up to 1000 m / s and enters the cut material. To extinguish the residual force of the jet, a special water trap is used. With low pressure, it is possible to remove concrete without touching the reinforcement, and high pressure allows you to cut through.

This method has advantages:

  • precision and accuracy of the cut;
  • compliance with environmental standards, absence of gases, harmful vapors;
  • there is no thermal and mechanical effect on the slot;
  • Punching does not cause strong noise, vibration
  • cutting can be done at any angle;
  • the doorway is easy to give an unusual shape.
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The disadvantages of waterjet cutting include the high price of abrasive and the large size of the installation, which does not allow its use in residential buildings.

Diamond cutting

This is the most popular and common way to create an opening in a concrete wall. Diamond cutting has the following advantages:

  • during operation, minimal danger to the wall is created;
  • since in this case the vibration is insignificant, then the risk of cracking will be small;
  • the ability to make an opening exactly along the marked lines;
  • during operation, minimal noise is created;
  • some dust and dirt is generated.

Despite the large number of advantages, this method also has a number of disadvantages:

  • high energy consumption;
  • during work, the tool must be cooled with water;
  • high cost of working tools.

Reinforcement of the opening

If you make an opening in the wall of a multi-storey building, then it must be strengthened so that the bearing capacity of the building does not decrease.

This can be done in several ways:

Saw Through Block For a Wider Door

  • with the help of channels;
  • using corners;
  • combining channels and corners.

The easiest way is to reinforce the opening with metal channels. When attaching the channel, it does not always fit snugly, therefore, the voids that appear must be repaired with mortar.

When using corners, they fit more tightly to the finished opening, the elements of the reinforcing structure are connected to each other by welding.

The most often used is the combined option, when the upper part of the opening is reinforced with a metal channel, and its sides are reinforced with a structure made of metal corners.

Technology

During the first stage, diamond drilling of holes in concrete and diamond cutting are performed. These operations are the most modern in the technology of working with concrete structures. The price of a quality instrument in this case cannot be low.

Advice: it is better to entrust such tasks to highly professional specialists who will be able to perform them in compliance with the parameters specified in the terms of reference to the millimeter.

The use of a diamond disc avoids the appearance of cracks and chips on the wall surface. As a result, the cuts have a smooth surface, which greatly simplifies their further processing.

In addition, this type of drilling in concrete does not leave behind a large amount of dust and waste. Also, cutting reinforced concrete with diamond circles does not make sharp and loud noises, and the walls are not exposed to rough blows.

It can also be used to process:

You can work without any problems in inconvenient places. very close to the floor or ceiling.

Tip: if you need to cut an opening in a concrete wall with perfectly straight and straight sides, you just need to contact the professionals who will do all the work as efficiently and quickly as possible.

Wall saws using this method can work equally effectively both horizontally and vertically. Since perfect precision is achieved during work, the output is smooth openings in the concrete wall, which do not require additional effort for finishing.

Reinforcement of the bearing wall in accordance with GOST

Punching punch and angle grinder

If the concrete wall is of small thickness, then the opening in it can be made using a hammer drill and a powerful angle grinder.

It will be very difficult to make an opening in the load-bearing wall in this way and it will take a lot of time.

In this case, first, holes with a diameter of 10-12 mm are made in the concrete wall using a perforator, every 3-4 cm, and then the concrete is cut using an angle grinder with a diamond wheel.

Diamond cutting

One of the most popular is diamond cutting of concrete. This method has several advantages:

  • Work safety for walls. The vibration level is much lower than with a hammer drill, which significantly reduces the risk of cracks.
  • Accuracy. The method allows you to cut exactly along the mowing line marking and at the desired angle.
  • Low noise level (within sanitary standards).
  • Minimum dust and debris. Such cutting of openings in concrete does not provoke the appearance of cracks and chips as when punching, the result is the absence of debris.

The disadvantages of this method include high energy consumption, the need for cooling with water and the high cost of consumables (circles with spraying).