How to cut a metal corner at a 45 degree angle

How to properly cut a 45-degree angle

Sometimes it is necessary to trim this or that part or product at a certain angle. As a rule, you need to trim baguettes, moldings, platbands, baseboards and other similar interior elements at an angle of 45 degrees. Anyone can cope with this task. The main thing is not to rush, do not be nervous and everything will work out.

Buy prefabricated corner elements

metal, corner, degree, angle

Of course, the easiest way not to bother with trimming a particular part, and buy ready-made, not in need of processing and trimming. These details and elements are now commonly available in large supermarkets or smaller stores.

For example, with regard to the baguettes or fillets, they sell special corner elements that fit perfectly into the corner and do not need to be trimmed. They just need to be glued in place and pressed well.

The way to connect the trims without trimming

Trims today is often not trimmed at an angle to then join together, and make the junction at right angles. This method of connecting the trims does not require any special trimming, which is very convenient. In addition, this method looks more modern and attractive.

Trimming at an angle with a mitre cutter

If, however, it is necessary to angle cut a part, it is worth stocking up on the chisel. a simple device that looks like a small box. The frame has slots designed for a saw or a long, sharp knife. Of course, these slots are made in such a way that they form an even and accurate angle of 45 degrees.

However, the jigsaw can have many notches at once, at different angles. It is convenient, since with one device, you can cut any parts at different angles.

The adjustable power saws are also available. Slots in such a chair can be adjusted, allowing the master to set exactly the angle required at the moment. In particular, it is quite easy to move the slots of such a chisel to the position of 45 degrees.

It is now easy to trim the workpiece. Put a baguette, a platband or a baseboard in the chair, and then insert the saw into the slots and cut off the excess elementary. The resulting angle is a perfect 45 degrees.

What to do if you don’t have a power drill? Very simple. You need to make a template by which it will not be difficult to transfer to the workpieces the necessary markings. As a template, you can choose thick cardboard or anything else that will be appropriate in this case.

How to properly cut pipes of different metals at 45 degrees and 90 degrees

How to cut a pipe at a certain angle? It has already been said about straight-line cutting. Next, let’s look at techniques for cutting tubular blanks from different metals using a metal locksmith’s chair. In addition to the convenience of cutting, the wire cutter minimizes the amount of sawdust, which is important if the work is carried out at home.

The locksmith’s jigsaw consists of two assemblies:

  • Hand hacksaw, which has upper tubular guides that allow you to hold the tool strictly perpendicular to the direction of cutting;
  • The crossbar-like body in which preliminary holes are made. slots on both sides to help the person working to make accurate angular cuts (usually 90 ° and 45 °, but there are also mortises with the angle gauge, which can perform angular cuts in the range from 100 to 1150).

A distinction is made between cast and pressed wort. The former are cheaper, but they do not work well under the conditions of periodic bending stresses.

It is important to correctly select the performance of the hacksaw. Only precision tools with upper guides, which are additionally secured against bending by spring stops, are suitable for making angular cuts.

Choice of size locksmith Jigsaw produce by the following parameters:

  • Width of the jigsaw, which determines the maximum diameter of the workpiece.
  • Length of the jigsaw, which increases the accuracy of the cut.
  • availability of an angle gauge.
  • depth and width of through cuts in the side walls of a channel: the deeper they are, the less sensitive the tool is to cutting conditions. state of lubrication, increase in temperature of hacksaw blade and workpiece. On the other hand, when sawing large diameter pipes, an increased kerf width would impair the accuracy.
  • The material of the body: steel (cast or stamped) chisels should be clearly preferred to plastic ones, although the latter are lighter.

How to cut a pipe at a 45 degree angle? When working with a metal pliers, you must first file the material, and then, making sure the wall is perpendicular, gradually increase the pressure on the hacksaw blade.

How to cut a square cut on a shaped pipe

You can saw a profile pipe in a similar fashion, but it would be easier to use an angle piece. The fixture is applied in turn to each side, for which the element to be cut will need to be rotated, and a marking is made. Next, the pipe must be firmly secured, and you can begin the work. You can use any appropriate tool for sawing. If you have to cut a lot of pipe, it is advisable to make full-fledged templates from the scraps. In this case you will have to measure only once.

metal, corner, degree, angle

When it is necessary to cut a pipe of large diameter, you can use a number of special devices and tools. It may be necessary if, for example, it is necessary to repair a pipeline.

  • angle grinder. The use of the angle grinder is justified in terms of the availability of the tool and the comparative cheapness of the work. However, in this case, do not count on high productivity, in addition, carrying out works in this way involves considerable risk.
  • Roller grinder. Such devices are also often called pipe cutters. In fact, such a device is the same angle grinder, but more adapted for this type of work. The machine includes a special base, where the element to be cut is fixed, as well as a cage with installed cutting rollers that perform the actual work. It is important to understand that each machine must be purchased for specific tasks, that is, for the size of the pipes.
  • Gas cutting. This variant is most often used for work with large diameters. Cutting is done with a high-intensity flame, and the cuttings are blown away with a gas pressure. The method can be considered the most practical and effective.

Gas cutting in this case is the fastest option

SEE The gas cutter on AliExpress →

There are other options for carrying out the task, like the use of plasma, waterjet or laser cutting, but in private use they are practically not used.

5 degree sawing

There are special tools for sawing, which you can buy at any construction store. The first of these is the jigsaw. This is a frame with special guides that can be used to cut the slats at 90 and 45 degrees. The convenience lies in the fact that it is possible to cut profiles, whether they are on the edge or flat, and to obtain different types of angles for different junction variants. We have sample chairs in our stores, so you know what to look for if you’re going to buy one. Let’s dwell on the work with the jigsaw.

Step One. 1. Take the skirting board 2. Lay it flat, face up 3. Mark it 45 degrees in the jigsaw.

Step two. 4. Remove the corner with a 45 degree notch. 5. Take the whole skirting board (you can take a small piece, the main thing is to make sure you have enough size) and put it face up. 6. Place the sawn slat squarely on the whole slat, combining them to make a right angle. 7. Let’s guide a straight trimmer line along the cut of the overlapped part of the skirting board.

Step 3. 8. Take the whole plank with the marking and put it into the chair with the marking facing upwards. 9. The marking must match the notches at 45 degrees. Check it out. 10. Saw off the corner along the marking 11. Slide the skirting board with the sharp corner to the part of the jig where the notches for straight 180-degree sawing are located.

Step Four. 12. Sawing off the angle in a straight line. You have a straight triangle, that’s what we want! 13. Align the triangle and the baseboard in reliefs 14. Glue the parts together and attach the baseboard to the wall. You have a perfect edge by using the notch!

Step one. 1. Take the skirting board 2. Put it with its base on the bottom of the jig saw. Lean it back against the edge (uncoated). We choose a 45 degree notch on the jigsaw. Note, the space between the sawed off corner and the wall of the jig must make a sharp corner. 3. Sawing off a corner.

Step two. 4. Using a new, straight skirting board. You can take a short piece. 5. Put it with its base on the bottom of the jig saw. We lean it against the edge with the back side uncovered. Using the saw blade we make a 45 degree notch. Attention, this must be on the other side!) from the first notch! Note the space between the sawed corner and the wall of the chisel should be an obtuse angle. 6. Sawing off the corner. We need it! 7. Align skirting board and corner. You have a great end piece with the saw cut! Notch the outer corner

Read more:  At what angle to cut the plinth

Step one. 1. Take the skirting board 2. Place it with its base on the bottom of the jigsaw. Lean it against the edge with the back side up (uncoated). Choose a 45-degree notch on the jigsaw. Note the space between the sawed corner and the wall of the jig should be a sharp angle. 3. Sawing off the corner.

Step two. 4. With the second notch repeat the previous steps. Take the skirting board. 5. Put it with its base on the bottom of the chair. We lean it against the edge with the back side (without cover). Let’s make a 45 degree notch on the jig saw. The only difference from the previous step. it is necessary to lean against another notch at 45 degrees on the same side. Note the space between the sawed off corner and the wall of the jig saw should make a sharp corner. 6. Sawing off the corner. 7. Matching two baseboards. We have a perfect outside corner.

Step one. 1. Take the skirting board 2. Place it with its base on the bottom of the jig saw. We lean the back side against the edge (uncoated). We choose a 45 degree notch on the jig saw. Note the space between the sawed corner and the side of the jig saw must be at an obtuse angle. 3. Sawing off the corner.

Step Two. 4. Repeat the previous steps with the second notch. Take the skirting board. 5. Place it with its base on the base of the jig saw. Lean it against the edge, back side up (uncoated). We choose a 45 degree notch on the jigsaw. The only difference from the previous step is that you have to lean it against another 45 degree notch on the same side. Note the space between the sawed corner and the wall of the jigsaw should be an obtuse angle. 6. Let’s saw off a corner. 7. Aligning the two skirting boards. You have a perfect inside corner.

We use another tool. the mitre saw. This is a device where the saw blade is combined with a stand. The saw stand has circular markings on it, like a protractor, that measure the degrees by which you can turn the saw. All you have to do is set the saw blade to the right angle, turn the unit on and cut the saw straight. This is the fastest and easiest way to make cuts. And if you don’t want to buy an expensive tool that you only need once in 10 years, you can rent it. As the speed of the disk rotation is high, the masters recommend to glue the sawing area with masking tape to prevent formation of micro-fractures and material crumbling.

How to fix minor defects But even if there is no possibility to rent tools, and you doubt that you can evenly saw the corners, you can always use the filler glue “ADEFIX F”. This is a thick, white, dense, acrylic-based compound. When applying the mass fills the voids, and after drying, the joint can be sanded and painted, if necessary. And even if there are no large cracks, chips, and irregularities, then the seam can still be sealed with this putty. then the baseboard will look absolutely solid and monolithic. But acrylic glue, like any other water-based sealant, can’t stand direct contact with water and high humidity. Moisture will just wash out the acrylic particles from the cured joint. If the joint is painted together with the skirting board, then the acrylic, of course, insulates from moisture, but in very wet areas, such as bathrooms, to put skirting boards glued “ADEFIX F” manufacturer does not recommend.

How to cut a profile pipe evenly

You can saw a profiled tube in the same way but it will be easier to use an angle grinder. The device is applied in turn to each side, for which the cut element will need to be rotated, and a marking is made. Next, the tube must be fixed in place, and you can begin work. Any suitable tool can be used for sawing. If you have to cut a lot of pipe, it is advisable to make full templates from scraps. In this case, measure and measure work needs to be done only once.

Cutting sheet metal with an angle grinder

To cut different types and thicknesses of metal use appropriate cutting wheels with different thicknesses and diameters. The algorithm for cutting sheets is as follows.

  • To cut a sheet metal using an angle grinder, the sheet metal must first be laid on an even surface.
  • Mark with a chalk (marker) the exact dimensions of the cut fragments on the sheet.
  • Sawing is carried out along the marked lines, not changing the angle of the initial inclination of the disk to the working surface at the same time to avoid its jamming or damage of the power tool.

If the skills of sawing sheet metal with an angle grinder are absent, it is recommended that you first practice on a delicate material. this allows you to feel the work of the tool.

metal, corner, degree, angle

You need to think about what cuts the metal more effectively the lower near segment of the disk.

When cutting sheet metal, the following recommendations should be taken into account to obtain a quality result.

  • To improve cooling it is necessary to water the place of kerfing, which will also increase the useful life of a wheel.
  • Proceed to cut metal only when the disk rotates: do not turn the tool if the stationary wheel is in contact with the surface of the workpiece.
  • To saw tinplate (thin sheet metal) otherwise cut out different geometric shapes, it is more convenient to use small, worked out circles (“splinters”).
  • Press the angle grinder with a significant force harmful: cutting should take place almost only under its own weight angle grinder.
  • If the cutting wheel will stop in a slot (at disconnection of the power tool), to renew work certainly only after its removal.
metal, corner, degree, angle

How to cut a profile tube at an angle

Marking a profile pipe is different from a round pipe. Its manual execution can lead to a significant error. The best way to solve the problem is to create a template for cutting from the same profile, but larger in diameter.

We need a small section of profile pipe. On it with the use of an angle gauge mark the angle of 45 degrees. Now use an angle grinder to cut off part of the workpiece along the marked line. The edges of the cut must be grinded, and the defects must be repaired. It remains simply to insert the original product into the template for cutting pipes at an angle. Then it is necessary to make a marking along the cut line of a larger profile. And then you cut the pipe itself at that angle.

The text describes how to cut the pipe at an angle of 45 degrees. When the marking is already completed, it is recommended to use an angle grinder. With its help it is possible to perform a straight cut. It can be replaced with a hacksaw for metal. You can also cut the product by welding, but you need experience with the tool, otherwise there will be irregularities. “How to cut a pipe evenly. tools and cutting methods”.

Now in construction stores you can find special tools for cutting pipes. But it is easier and cheaper to make a template yourself.

When carrying out work on the installation of gas or water pipelines, it is often necessary to change the direction of the line, with the pipeline is cut and then welded at the desired angle. Most often the direction is changed to 90 degrees, and the question arises. how to cut the pipe at 45 degrees to accurately connect the joints when welding.

The problem with 45 or 90 degree angles can be solved with the appropriate knowledge and techniques that will save not only time but also materials during the work. At other angles of turn to solve the problem with a ruler and a sheet of paper is not possible. to help you will have to call a computer technique.

Cutting at 45 degrees

Usually in order to turn the pipe on 45 degrees use fittings, elbows with an angle of rotation of 45 degrees, made of the same material as the pipe itself, if the pipe is steel, then the turns are welded from steel. For HDPE pipes there are electric-welded or cast 45 degree bends (note that the compression fittings with such an angle of rotation in Russia almost impossible to find).

But if you still need to cut a pipe of circular cross section made of steel or various plastics, then you need a template for cutting pipes at an angle, the shape is calculated by hand or machine. The task is greatly simplified if at an angle of forty-five degrees you need to cut a metal profile with a square cross section.

For cutting quickly, you can use an ordinary sheet of paper folded diagonally, with which to mark the surface for the future cut. using the folded paper, proceed as follows

  • spend on a straight surface of a profile in a place where the cut is made, strictly perpendicular to a line for a trimmer;
  • lay the folded diagonally folded sheet of paper against the side surface with its sharp end against the line so that the upper edge of the paper triangle is flush with the upper side of the metal profile.
  • spend a pencil line for a trimmer on a sheet lateral part at an angle of 45 degrees, then a paper corner adjoin to other lateral party and encircle it with a pencil (it is better to use a thin marker).

For sawing you can use an angle grinder with a disc for metal, first spending a thin line to trimmer on the markings, then gradually deepening it to complete separation of the edges.

When working with an angle grinder the following factor must be taken into account. when fully cutting edges, the disc can be damaged on the sharp corner, which will lead to its failure, and in the absence of protection on the angle grinder even to injury to the employee. Therefore it is desirable not to cut all the corner edges, and leave a narrow groove and then break up, grind subsequently the ledge.

Read more:  The Better To Grind Wood Angle Grinder

Making a template for metal profile trimming

If you need to cut a large number of pipes, you can make a template from metal profile of a larger diameter on a paper sheet by the above method. Angle of inclination is checked with a protractor or a construction angle. in this case, the two edges of the cut parts of the template are connected.

When working on the workpiece to be cut in the right place put the template and pressed firmly, the marking is applied sharply sharpened eraser when outlining the template contour. The part is cut in several steps with gradual deepening of the groove.

Chisel for cutting pipes with your own hands

Use of the template is not very convenient. you have to make a cut along the line, holding the angle grinder by weight, which leads to big inaccuracies. If you have a welder, you can make a simple jig. guides for the disc of the angle grinder, not allowing it to go sideways.

To do this, use a previously made template, in the side of which is drilled a hole and weld the nut. When working, the homemade jig is put on the profile, a bolt is screwed into its nut, and the device is pressed against the profile surface. Angle grinder with a metal disk performs a cut by slightly pressing the disk against the side surface of the device. It is clear that with prolonged work the edges in the jigsaw gradually wear down, and although the process occurs simultaneously on all edges, over time there will be some errors. Therefore, it is better to make the device from hard, wear-resistant metal, in order to increase its life and obtain a more accurate tool.

Cutting at 45 degrees

Usually, in order to turn the pipe in 45 degrees use fittings, bends with an angle of rotation of 45 degrees, made of the same material as the pipe itself, if the pipe is steel, then the bends are welded from steel. For HDPE pipes, there are electric welded or cast 45 degree bends (note that the compression fittings with such an angle of rotation in Russia almost impossible to find).

But, if you still need to cut a pipe with a circular cross section of steel or various plastics, then you need a template for cutting pipes at an angle, the form is calculated by hand or machine. The task is greatly simplified if at an angle of forty-five degrees you need to cut a metal profile with a square cross-section.

For quick trimming, you can use an ordinary piece of paper folded diagonally, with which to mark the surface for the future cut. When using folded paper, proceed as follows:

  • On the straight surface of the profile in the place where the cut is made, conduct a strictly perpendicular line for the trimmer;
  • to put a sheet of paper, folded diagonally, with its sharp end to the line, so that the top edge of the paper triangle is flush with the upper side of the metal profile.
  • spend a pencil line for the trimmer on the side of the sheet at an angle of 45 degrees, then the paper corner is attached to the other side and outline it with a pencil (it is better to use a thin marker).

For sawing, you can use an angle grinder with a disc for metal, first conducting a thin line for a trimmer on the markings, then gradually deepening it to complete separation of the edges.

When working with the angle grinder is necessary to consider the following factor. when fully cutting edges of the disk can be damaged on the sharp corner, which will lead to its failure, and in the absence of protection on the angle grinder even to injury to the employee. Therefore, it is desirable not to cut the corner edges all the way through, but to leave a narrow groove and then bend it, grind down afterwards the ledge.

Making a template for trimming metal profile

If it is necessary to cut a large number of pipes, you can make a template from a metal profile of a larger diameter on a paper sheet by the above method. The angle of inclination is checked with a protractor or a construction angle piece. in this case the two edges of the cut parts of the template are connected.

At work on a detail in a necessary place put a template and it is tightly pressed, the marks are put by a sharply sharpened screwdriver at outlining a template contour. The part is cut in several steps with a gradual deepening of the groove.

The chisel for cutting pipes with your own hands

Using the template is not too convenient. you have to make a cut along the line, holding the angle grinder on the weight, which leads to large errors. If you have a welder, you can make a simple jigsaw. guides for the angle grinder disc, not allowing it to go sideways.

To do this, use a previously made template, in the side of which a hole is drilled and welded nut. At work a homemade jig is put on a profile, a bolt is screwed into its nut and the device is pressed to the profile surface. Angle grinder with a metal disk to make a cut, slightly pressing the disk to the side of the device. It is clear that with prolonged work the edges in the jigsaw gradually grind down, and although the process occurs simultaneously on all edges, over time some errors will appear. Therefore, it is better to make the device from hard, wear-resistant metal to increase its life and get a more accurate tool.

5-degree pattern. 45 degree angle template

Often the do-it-yourselfer urgently needs to make some measurement or marking at a certain angle, and either an angle or protractor is not at hand. In this case, a few simple rules will help him out.

If it is necessary urgently to draw a right angle, and there is no square, it is possible to use any printed edition. The angle of the paper sheet is a very precise right angle ( 90 deg.). Cutting (punching) machines in printing houses are set up very precisely. Otherwise the original roll of paper will begin to cut crookedly and askew. So you can be sure that this angle is exactly a right angle.

And if there is not even a printed edition or it is necessary to build a corner on the ground, for example when marking the foundation or a sheet of plywood with rough edges? In this case, the rule of the golden (or Egyptian) triangle will help us.

A golden (or Egyptian or Pythagorean) triangle is a triangle with sides that relate to each other as 5:4:3. According to Pythagoras’ theorem, in a right triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the cathetuses. Т.е. 5×5 = 4×4 3×3. 25=169 and it is undeniable.

Therefore, to construct a right angle, it is sufficient to draw a straight line on the workpiece for a trimmer of length 5 (10,15,20, etc.д. multiple of 5 cm). And then, from the edges of this line, begin to measure off 4 (8,12,16, etc. divisible by 4 cm on one side.etc. in multiples of 4 cm) and on the other side 3 (6,9,12,15 etc.).д. multiple of 3 cm) distance. You should get arcs with a radius of 4 and 3 cm. Where these arcs intersect each other and there is a right angle (90 degrees).

Such corners are usually used for making rectangular frames. The material from which the frame (baguette) is made is sawn at an angle of 45 degrees and joined. If you do not have a plane or protractor handy, you can get a 45-degree angle pattern as follows. It is necessary to take a sheet of writing paper or any printed matter and to bend it so that the line for a bending trimmer passed exactly through a corner, and edges of the bent sheet coincided. The resulting angle and will be equal to 45 degrees.

House lamp made of wood with their own hands

Angle of 60 degrees is required for the construction of equilateral triangles. For example, you need to saw such triangles for decorative work, or to precisely set the power ledge. Angle of 30 degrees is rarely used in its pure form. However, with its help (and with the help of an angle of 90 degrees) construct an angle of 120 degrees. And this is the angle needed to construct equilateral hexagons, a figure very popular with carpenters.

To build a very accurate template of these angles at any time, you need to remember the constant (number) 173. They follow from the ratio of the sines and cosines of these angles.

Take a piece of paper from any printout. Its angle is exactly 90 degrees. From the corner on one side measure 100 mm (10 cm).) and the other is 173 mm (17.3 cm). Connect these points. So we got a pattern, which has one angle of 90 degrees, one of 30 degrees and one of 60 degrees. You can check with a protractor. everything is accurate!

Remember this number 173 and you can always draw 30 and 60 degrees.

When marking workpieces or constructions on parts, in addition to the angles themselves, their ratio is very important. This is especially important when making rectangular details or for example when marking foundations, or when cutting large sheets of material. Incorrect construction or marking brings a lot of unnecessary work or a lot of waste later on.

Unfortunately, even very accurate marking tools, even professional ones, always have a certain margin of error.

Meanwhile, there is a very simple method of determining the rectangularity of a part or construction. In a rectangle, the diagonals are absolutely equal! So, after drawing, you need to measure the diagonal lengths of the rectangle. If they are equal, all is well, it really is a rectangle. If not, you have built a parallelogram or rhombus. In this case you should “play” a little with the adjacent sides to achieve exact (for this case) equality of the diagonals of the marked rectangle.

Cutting at 45 degrees. How to saw at a 45 degree angle

During home repair work, you may need to saw materials at a 45-degree angle. Usually this is done for joining two parts “into a whisker”, that is 90 degree angles (frames, baseboards, door trims, etc.). To be happy with the result of your work, it is important that the adjacent parts of the workpieces are precisely aligned. To do it without a special device. a crosscut is extremely difficult, especially for a beginner.

Read more:  Devolt Angle Grinder Speed ​​Control

Prepare an angled jig to help you cut a precise 45-degree angle on a piece of wood without difficulty. This tool is an inverted “U” profile with gaps on the sides for the saw blade. These are usually at 45, 60, and 90 degree angles. The more complicated power saws can be fitted with freely definable kerfs, or have a pivoting design that enables the saw to be positioned in the optimum position.

Buy a ready-made joinery tool at a building supply store with a wooden, metal or plastic tray. For the beginner this is the best option. If you want, you can make a simple plane with your own hands from three boards or plywood strips (thickness. about 1,5-2 cm).

Drill a few holes in the walls of the future jigsaw, apply joinery glue to the ends and assemble the box (tray) of the jigsaw. Secure the angle piece with screws. The walls of the tool should lie strictly parallel one to the other; the bottom and each side make clear perpendiculars.

Mark a 45-degree angle with a pencil, add more groove lines if necessary. Use a protractor to keep your calculations straight.

The most responsible thing is the slots. We recommend that you do it with the same hacksaw you will later use in the finished jigsaw. Start sawing without exerting too much pressure on the working tool and hold the blade. Make the cut on one side first, then on the opposite side.

Start machining the lumber. Secure the jigsaw on a workbench or work table with a screw clamp (clamps for fixing parts) or with screws. Then make a mark for the future sawing on the rail (board, baseboard) and put the workpiece in the box. Press it firmly against one of the side walls of the template, aligning the marks with a 45 degree angle cutout.

Insert the hacksaw into the slots of the jigsaw and saw the workpiece. The saw’s operation will be limited to fixed cuts, and you will make a smooth and precise cut.

When sawing baseboards make sure the corners of the room are really right. If the walls are very uneven, the angle of cut on the workpieces should be corrected. Measure the joints of the interior walls with an angle meter and divide the result in half (baseboard joint “in the whisker”). To make an accurate cut, it is recommended to make grooves with a given angle in a homemade jigsaw. Another option is a store swivel tool that allows you to change the angle from 0 to 180 degrees in increments of about 15 degrees.

5 degree pattern. 45 degree corner template

Often the home handyman must urgently perform some measurement or make a marking at a certain angle, and there is no square or protractor at hand. In this case he will be helped by some simple rules.

If one has an urgent need to construct a right angle but does not have an angle book, one can use any printout. The angle of a sheet of paper is a very precise right angle ( 90 deg.). The cutting (punching) machines in printing houses are set up very precisely. Otherwise the original roll of paper will begin to cut crookedly and askew. So you can be sure that this angle is a right angle.

And if you do not even have a printed edition, or need to build an angle on the ground, such as when marking the foundation or a sheet of plywood with rough edges? In this case the golden (or Egyptian) triangle rule will help us.

A golden (or Egyptian or Pythagorean) triangle is a triangle with sides that relate to each other as 5:4:3. According to Pythagoras’ theorem, in a right triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the cathetuses. Т.е. 5×5 = 4×4 3×3. 25=169 and it is undeniable.

Therefore, to build a right angle, it is sufficient to draw a straight line for a trimmer with a length of 5 (10,15,20, etc.) on the workpiece.д. divisible by 5 cm). And then, from the edges of this line begin to measure off on one side 4 (8,12,16, etc.).On the other side. 3 (6,9,12,15 etc.), and on the other side. 3 (6,9,12,15 etc.).д. a multiple of 3 cm) distances. Arcs with a radius of 4 and 3 cm should be obtained. Where these arcs intersect each other will be a right angle (90 degrees).

Such angles are usually used in the construction of rectangular frames. The material from which the frame (baguette) is made is sawn at an angle of 45 degrees and joined. If you do not have a plane or protractor handy, you can obtain a 45-degree angle pattern as follows. It is necessary to take a sheet of writing paper or any printed publication and bend it so that the line for the trimmer passed exactly through the corner, and the edges of the bent sheet coincide. The resulting angle and will be equal to 45 degrees.

House lamp made of wood with their own hands

A 60-degree angle is required to construct equilateral triangles. For example, you need to saw these triangles for decorative work or accurately set a power ledge. The angle of 30 degrees is rarely used in its pure form. However, with it (and with a 90 degree angle) construct an angle of 120 degrees. And this is the angle needed to build equilateral hexagons, a figure very popular with carpenters.

To build a very accurate template of these angles at any time you need to remember the constant (number) 173. It follows from the ratio of the sines and cosines of these angles.

Take a sheet of paper from any printed publication. Its angle is exactly 90 degrees. From the corner on one side measure 100 mm (10 cm).), and the other is 173 mm (17.3 cm). Connect these points. So we have a pattern which has one angle of 90 degrees, one of 30 degrees and one of 60 degrees. You can check with a protractor. everything is exact!

Remember this number. 173, and you can always construct angles of 30 and 60 degrees.

When marking blanks or plotting on parts, in addition to the angles themselves, their ratio is very important. This is especially important when making rectangular parts or, for example, when marking foundations, cutting large sheets of material. Incorrect construction or marking brings a lot of unnecessary work or a lot of waste later.

Unfortunately, even very precise marking tools, even professional ones, always have a certain margin of error.

There is, however, a very simple method of determining whether a part or a design is rectangular. In a rectangle, the diagonals are absolutely equal! So, after constructing, you need to measure the diagonal lengths of the rectangle. If they are equal, it’s okay, it’s really a rectangle. And if not. you have built a parallelogram or rhombus. In this case, it is necessary to “play” a little adjacent sides to achieve the exact (in this case) equality of the diagonals of the marked rectangle.

Ending at 45 degrees. How to saw at a 45-degree angle

During home repair work you may need to saw materials at a 45 degree angle. This is usually done to join two parts “in the whisker”, that is, 90 degree angle (frames, skirting boards, door trims, etc.). To be happy with the result of the work, it is important to absolutely precisely fit the adjacent parts of blanks. To do it without a special device. a jig. is extremely difficult, especially for the novice craftsman.

Prepare an angled template that will help you easily make an accurate cut of the wood workpiece at an angle of 45 degrees. This device is an inverted “U” profile, on the sides of which slots are made for the hacksaw. Usually they are 45, 60, and 90 degrees. complex chisels are additionally equipped with arbitrary fixed slots, or have a pivoting design. it allows you to set the saw in the optimal position.

Buy a ready-made carpentry tool at a hardware store with a wooden, metal, or plastic tray. For the beginner, this is the best option. If you want, you can make a simple joiner with your own hands from three boards or plywood strips (thickness. about 1.5-2 cm).

Drill some holes in the walls of your future jigsaw, apply glue to the ends, and assemble the box (tray) of the jigsaw. Fix the corner template with screws. The walls of the tool must lie strictly parallel one to the other; the bottom and each sidewall make clear perpendiculars.

Mark the corner of 45 degrees with a pencil, and add additional groove lines if necessary. Use a protractor to make sure you don’t get your calculations wrong.

The most responsible thing is the slots. We recommend making them with the same hacksaw that will later be used to cut into the finished jigsaw. Begin sawing without exerting too much pressure on the working tool, hold the blade. Saw one side first, then the opposite side.

Start cutting the lumber. Clamp the jigsaw to the workbench or work table with screws or clamps. Then mark your future sawing on the lath (plank, baseboard) and put the workpiece into the box. Press it firmly against one of the side walls of the template, aligning the marks with a 45-degree angle kerf.

Insert the hacksaw into the slots of the jigsaw and cut the wood. The saw will be limited to a fixed kerf, and you will make a clean, precise cut.

When sawing baseboards make sure the angles in the room are really right. If the walls are very uneven, the angle of the kerf on the workpieces should be corrected. Measure the inner wall joints with an angle gauge and divide the result in half (baseboard joint “in the whisker”). To make an accurate cut, it is recommended to perform grooves with a given angle in a homemade jigsaw. Another option. a store swivel tool that allows you to change the angle from 0 to 180 degrees in increments of about 15 degrees.