How to cut a tile at home

How to cut tiles with an electric tile cutter?

If you plan to work with very hard and large format tiles, it is best to use professional equipment. an electric tile cutter. To work with such equipment requires certain professional skills and abilities. In particular, since the cutting process is quite complex and time consuming. However, still, if you are interested in what to cut ceramic tiles as quickly and accurately as possible, even with very large volumes, then the electric tool is the best choice. Such equipment is quite expensive, but it pays off after repeated use and can serve for several dozen years. The design of an electric tile cutter is almost identical to a modern circular saw. The main differences are the discs used and the availability of tubs for water.

Another feature of these machines is the ability to make neat tilted cuts. This is very useful when tiling outer corners. In this case, there is no need for aluminum or plastic corners. The product, which is docked in the corner with an undercut of 45 degrees, looks very interesting.

Here’s a quick start guide:

  • Pour water into the tray so that it overlaps the disk at 2-3 centimeters;
  • We measure out the part of the tile that needs to be cut and put it on the machine;
  • Then we press our blade against the machine and slowly move it against the disc. Strong pressure on the disk is not recommended, because it can stop;
  • Now it is necessary to make a cut on the second mowing line. To do this, gently lift the tile and do the same procedure.

How to cut a tile without a tile cutter: a few simple ways

Not every home craftsman has an arsenal of expensive professional devices. But sometimes when laying small tiled surfaces there is a problem of how to cut tiles without a tile cutter, which can cause certain difficulties. In this situation, use a variety of available technology, following the recommended sequence of actions. Preliminary material is soaked in cool water for 40-45 minutes.

Varieties of cutting

When working with ceramic tiles, you need to perform a variety of types of cuts.

  • Predominantly, the material is cut in a straight line with a mowing line. If there is less than 20 mm to the side edges, this kind of cut is considered curvy.
  • It is also sometimes necessary to cut a circular hole of a certain diameter in the tile.
  • Make shaped cutouts if necessary.
  • To obtain mosaic, small-sized elements prefer the method of crushing the ceramic tiles into individual pieces. In this situation, lay the material in a dense bag and use a heavy sledgehammer to break it into the necessary fragments.

Cutting tiles with an angle grinder

Most often, the question of what to cut tiles for the floor without tile cutter, solve with such a universal convenient tool in the work, as an angle grinder, which allows to perform a variety of dimensions and configuration of the mowing line. smooth curvilinear, complex shaped, clearly delineated straight.

For the tile cutting operation it is necessary to prepare:

  • Angle grinder, which is more commonly referred to as an angle grinder;
  • cutting wheel, oriented to work on durable products made of stone (you can take a diamond variety);
  • A vice, a portable clamp, or another simple type of clamp to hold firmly the tiles you’re cutting;
  • compact vacuum cleaner to remove dust;
  • safety glasses;
  • gloves;
  • special tight clothing with long sleeves;
  • Use of a respirator or cotton gauze is recommended.

After determining the necessary dimensions, conducts an accurate marking of the tiles. it is necessary to apply the cutting line on the face plane, using a sharp tool for scratching. A construction marker can be used. But it is necessary to take into account that in the process of work with the removal of a large amount of dust, the inked fishing line quickly rubs off.

If small cuts are made that are close to the edges of the tile, the material is placed on a flat tabletop. Can work on the floor. A piece of plywood is placed underneath to maintain the integrity of the coating.

Cut through the tiled surface first, penetrating a few millimeters. Usually, during this operation, it is enough to hold the tile on your own, or you can call for help from an assistant. If you perform curved cuts, then before sawing the tile without tile cutter, the material is securely attached to the countertop with a clamping clamp. If possible, fix it in a vise. For safety, cardboard or cloth pieces are put under the sponges.

  • Go over the marking several times, penetrating about 3 mm deeper with each pass. Such steps are performed until the necessary tile fragment is completely cut off.
  • If small segments are cut, about 20 mm in length, the material is cut through all of its thickness at once.
  • When making complicated edge cuts or curved lines it is advisable to mark on both sides. First make the cut 2,5-3 mm along the face. Then turn the material over and go through on the underside to the identical depth. Repeat several times. In this method, the front side is practically not damaged.

Using an electric jigsaw

In a situation where you need to quickly decide how to cut tiles without tile cutter and angle grinder, use an electric jigsaw equipped with a saw on the stone.

Such a tool makes straight cuts in a straight line quite easily. Also qualitatively makes curvilinear configurations with a fairly large diameter. Small radius rounded pieces are more difficult to obtain.

It is easier to work with a jigsaw (by the way, with a small amount of work, you can use the manual version of the tool) when sawing a relatively thin wall tile.

Difficulties may arise when cutting denser floor ceramic material.

Using a glass cutter

Another available tool that allows you to independently eliminate the problem of how to cut tiles without tile cutters and angle grinder, is the glass cutter.

It can be replaced with any other sharpened tool made of pobedite, diamond, or other hard material. These can be drills, knives, and other implements.

You will also need a metal rail for the work. If you use wooden or plastic rulers, you will need the utmost care, because the cutting edges can easily damage this material, and the line of the cut will be uneven.

When using a glass cutter, take into account that such a tool can only be used when cutting in a straight line of mitered tile line. Note that the minimum width of the fragments to be removed is 20 millimeters.

To get an even cut without chipping, it is necessary to scratch the top layer of the tile evenly along the entire length. With sufficient hardness and good sharpening of the tool, usually perform to the required depth of the furrow in one pass, applying sufficient force. Sometimes it is necessary to make several repetitions, achieving that the scratch is deeper than the main glossy layer.

Before carrying out the following actions on splitting tiles, the hard end of the glass cutter should be tapped on its underside, focusing on the line of the cut. Several techniques are then used to break the tile:

  • On the edge of the table. Place the notched ceramic finish on the edge of the table, which should coincide exactly with the cut line. Pressing the material with one hand against the tabletop, with the other hand sharply pressing down on the part to be cut. With the right action, the tile cracks directly at the mark.
  • Against a sharp corner. After finishing scratching the risk, the hands from both sides tightly grasp the tile. Then sharply striking a sharp corner. Orient the material so that the point of impact is exactly on the mowing line of the break. It is important that the corner element. metal or wood above the horizontal plane rises at least 10 cm. This will avoid hitting the surface with the hand, eliminating the distortion of the scythe line of the split tile.
  • On a solid rod. The prepared tile is laid on a hard enough long rod with the wrong side so that the place of the future split was exactly in the center of this device. With both hands, press sharply and evenly on both sides at the same time. As a rod take a pencil, a drill with a diameter of 8.5-15.5 mm and a length commensurate with the drawn line.
  • Between the clamps. Using this technique, you can break out a part of the tile, or you can cut it with a scythe line running the entire length of the material. Prepare two clamps. Rectangular scraps of thick plywood are used for this. Wooden bars are well suited. If necessary, make a homemade machine by connecting two pieces of plywood with self-tapping screws, allowing the tile to fit inside. It is important that the clamps have clear edges. The tile is placed so that the groove is exactly at the edge. Fix the upper clamp by pressing with your hand, and then sharply press the free edge of the tile.
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How to make round holes

Selecting options that demonstrate how to cut tiles without a tile cutter with their own hands, if it is necessary to get round holes in it, turn to household tools that have rotating tips. These include electric drill bits, such as screwdrivers, drills, rotary hammers or hand-held rotary knives.

It is important to set a relatively low RPM, not to exceed 500 RPM, in order to obtain a straight hole. The nozzles are chosen according to the diameter of the future hole.

Ø 20-30 mm

  • Lance-head drill bits, tile-oriented. Good for drilling common tiles.
  • Special drill bits with sharp-angled sharpening on one side. They can be used if one wants to drill even hard ceramic floor fragments.
  • Bits designed for stone and concrete, with tungsten carbide inserts. They are not durable, but can drill a few holes.

Ø 31-50 mm

  • Teeth. They can be corundum, diamond, carbide-tungsten. They are rather expensive.
  • Ballerina. It is a lance-shaped drill bit with a second cutter, which is set to work with the movement of the rod fixed on the central leg. Although the durability of such a nozzle is not high, it is valued for the ability to cut a variety of hole diameters.

If you want to get a hole in the tile over 50 mm in diameter, use an angle grinder.

Figurative pecking

Before you cut tiles without a tile cutter in order to obtain a shaped mowing line near the edge, you must first make incisions with small intervals between them. The cuts should be a few millimeters short of the main mowing line.

When everything is ready, use special wheeled pliers or ordinary pliers to gently break out segment by segment. The remaining pieces of ceramic are removed in small fragments.

It is more difficult to pick up a way to cut the tile without tile cutter, if the project requires to make a curved through figures, which are located inside the tile plate. For this purpose, first make a hole, and then in the direction of the hole begin to break out small fragments carefully with cutters. Along the border a deep groove is made with a sharp instrument, which prevents unnecessary chips.

Tweezers with a cutter

For a fairly thin tile, aimed for wall decoration, the problem of how to cut tiles without tile cutter, can be solved with the help of pliers, equipped with a cutter.

Observe the following sequence of operations:

  • On the outer plane of the material with a ruler and a marker is applied a precise marking.
  • Lead the cutting part of the pliers along this cut line, pressing the tool so as to make the groove without chipping and deformation of the tile. The movements begin in the direction from the far side towards yourself. Repeat the operation, if necessary, to obtain the desired depth of cut.
  • Then turn the tool over so that the pliers grasp the material along the marking. Squeeze and cut off the excess material.

If necessary, the edges of the cut are smoothed, using a nail file, and then sandpaper.

All of the discussed ways, demonstrating how to cut tiles without tile cutters, are available and allow you to perform the actions yourself, if a small amount of work is expected. It is advisable to train in advance to get the right skills to work on pieces of defective tile. This will allow you to more accurately determine the methods of work, the efforts made to get a quality cut of any shape.

How to cut tiles without a tile cutter. a few tips about forgotten technology

Everyone who is engaged in home repair, is faced with tile laying. Accordingly, this material must be cut. Modern technology mechanizes this procedure. There are manual, electric tile cutters, and even entire homemade machines. A beginner can easily cut out any material. tile, ceramic and even porcelain tiles.

But any equipment costs money. With a small amount of work, you can hire a tile cutter (although, again, not for free). And if you have to do this task regularly, from time to time? A few visits to a tool rental shop, and you’ll spend the cost of a brand new tile cutter.

How to cut tiles

There are special devices for cutting tiles. However, you can cut tile at home without a tile cutter. You can use devices for one-time work, others will cope with tiling on an industrial scale. I also differentiate between devices, depending on the type of tile.

Cutting ceramic with an angle grinder

This angle grinder can cut both ceramic and tile at home. The tool in skilled hands will make not only a straight line, but also a shaped one. First you need to prepare:

  • Tile.
  • Angle grinder or angle grinder.
  • Cutting and sanding discs.
  • Protective equipment. A mask or goggles are a must, and a respirator and overalls are worn as needed.
  • Vise or clamps.

Use a pointed object to make a preliminary marking. An indelible marker can be used. The lines of the mowing line, drawn with a simple felt-tip pen, will wipe off the mirror surface.

On the table where you plan to cut the tile, you need to lay a piece of plywood or other material so as not to spoil the surface.

If the cuts are shallow, the tile can be held back. Its weight and the friction force of the underside with the table are enough to keep it in place. In more severe depressions, you may need a partner’s help if you can’t hold the tile in place with your foot.

Curvilinear cuts will require clamping the tile in a vice, and it must be covered on both sides with a soft cloth or cardboard to avoid scratches.

In order to make a good fit, it is necessary:

  • Deepening to produce gradually, for one pass 2-3 millimeters in depth.
  • Small cuts must be made to the full thickness at once.
  • In order to prevent accidental contact of the disk with the face surface, it is recommended to draw a marking on both sides. Then make one continuous cut on the glossy part, and finish on the inside.

With an angle grinder, it is better to make shaped edges, and straight edges. with another, simpler, tool. This will avoid the cost of buying diamond discs, as well as the dust that rises when working this way.

Cutting with an electric jigsaw

If you don’t have an angle grinder at hand, you can use another electric tool nearby. When speed is not important, you can also use an ordinary jigsaw with a blade for stone works. Cutting tiles with such a device does not differ from the processing of any other material. Only a special saw and a preliminary soaking of the tile will be required.

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The jigsaw is not effective for thick tiles. It is suitable for wall covering and for sawing pieces with a large radius of curvature.

A glass cutter or any pointed object

This is another way to cut tiles without a tile cutter. This kind of tool only works on tile and a straight mowing line. There is also a limit on the width of the cut, which should be at least 20 millimeters. This will require the tool itself or a similar device. Diamond or pobedite drills can be used as a drill bit. Sometimes you can use a good utility knife.

The ruler, on which the cut will be made, it is necessary to have a metal one, because the wooden one can be spoiled if the knife is torn from the mowing line.

The cut should be made slowly and carefully. Particular attention should be paid to the initial and final pressure on the tool. It is usually insufficient at such times. If you don’t cut through the edges well, the break in these areas will be uneven.

In order to cut ceramic tiles at home, you can use improvised means. The drill or knife must be traversed several times until the upper layer of the tile has been cut through. The number of strokes depends on the hardness of the tool.

You can split the notched tile in several ways:

    Taking the tile from both sides on both edges of the notch, clearly, from a distance of 10-15 centimeters hit the edge of the table. The corner itself must be straight and rigid. Apply the blow carefully, without hitting the surface with the palms of your hands.

  • You can put a flat bar under the entire length of the tile along the mowing line notch. It should protrude over the edges by a few centimeters. Firmly press both sides with both hands. If the length of a piece of tile is large, carry out this operation in several steps.
  • For breaking in clamping devices, the tile should be wrapped in cardboard and clamped between the jaws of the mowing line notch. You can make a homemade clamp from the two metal corners or wooden bars, fastened with bolts or pins.

How to Cut Tile for Beginners

Drilling techniques

The process begins with the selection of drills or crowns of any diameter. Any drilling tool is suitable, either electric or manual. A variable speed control is advisable for drills. This is important for the safety of the cutting accessories, because speeds at high speeds quickly wear down the tips. And also in this case the probability of chipping of enamel increases.

Holes are made with special sharp-angled drill bits. However, they have a high cost. But it is possible to drill through a surface of any hardness, and the period of use of such a tool is long. The use of inexpensive lance-shaped tile drill bits is suitable for occasional, small amount of work. If used on tiles, one tool is enough for twenty holes. Diamond drill bits should be used only as a last resort.

For large round openings, you can use a crown with a sputtering or ballerina.

The subtleties of working with porcelain stoneware

Tiles are finished not only the walls, but also the floor. The harder porcelain tiles are used for this purpose, they are cheaper than marble or granite, but are not inferior in durability.

Many people wonder how to cut tiles without a tile cutter. In this case you can also use an angle grinder with cutting wheels.

tile, home

Basic requirements for the tool for processing porcelain tiles at home:

  • It is necessary to use only discs, specially designed for cutting porcelain tiles and other hard materials, with a diamond coating of maximum height.
  • The angle grinder must be equipped with a speed regulator.
  • To avoid chips, it is recommended to buy solid metal disks of minimum thickness.

Recommendations for preparing the workplace and cutting:

  • Choose a stable, even surface to hold the tile securely in place. It is recommended to put a thin layer of foam plastic underneath.
  • Secure the workpiece with clamps.
  • Using a marker or glass cutter is carried out with a scythe line to cut. It is recommended to glue scotch tape on the surface of the workpiece in order to minimize the likelihood of chips.
  • It is necessary to saw at a small distance from the marking, so that there was a reserve for subsequent alignment and sanding the cut.

How to cut the floor tiles in the home review of options

Many problems arise during the repair work of those who try to master the construction technology on their own. So, for example, for an experienced tiler will not be difficult to lay a tiled floor, a beginner does not always know how to cut the floor tiles, what tools do you need to use in order to lay a perfectly even row of tiled revetment. So it makes sense to talk about this issue in more detail.

How to cut tiles with an angle grinder without dust and chips

Ceramics is a rather fragile material. To cut it perfectly, you need skill and adherence to some rules. When working with an angle grinder you are unlikely to completely get rid of dust and occasional chips, but here are some tips to help reduce their number.

tile, home

Recommendations for working with an angle grinder without chipping:

  • The greatest likelihood of chipping occurs when the cutting blade comes out of the workpiece.
  • It is recommended to reduce the intensity of rotation at the beginning and at the end of the cut.
  • Ceramic tile should not be cut all the way through, it is enough to leave a deep groove in it. On a miter saw the workpiece will be easy to break by hand.

If you want to avoid chips as much as possible, start cutting on the right side of the marked saw blade. In this case, if splinters occur, they can be removed with a grinding wheel.

Wet cutting

Wet method implies that the cutting edge will be in contact with the liquid in the process: the working edge is immersed in water, or it is fed by a jet.

This method is more difficult to implement, but it has advantages:

Cutting paving tiles: nuances and tips

Tile sidewalk looks beautiful if the bars are well matched to each other, hatches and curbs. Rectangular, square and shaped tiles are available in different sizes, and the bases in which the elements are laid have a variety of sizes and shapes. Therefore, in order to create a beautiful, correct laying of the area, the bars have to be cut. Cutting paving tiles is carried out with the help of special tools and machines.

Features of the initial stage. how many tiles to take

Before you go to the store, you need to calculate the number of items in the lining. To do this, divide the area of the sidewalk by the area of the bar. To the figure obtained, add 10%, if the area has many curves. 15%. Builders recommend buying all the material at once, as in different batches of goods paving stones may differ in color, structure and other quality indicators.

Some builders first lay solid tiles, and then fill in the corners and curves of the sidewalk with sawn elements, others do it immediately, in the course of the work. Especially when paving large areas.

Safety rules

It is necessary to observe safety rules when sawing. This helps to avoid cuts, other injuries and dust inhalation.

  • Only serviceable equipment should be used for the paving work.
  • Cutting tools must not be blunt, broken or bent. Only blades that are recommended by manufacturers are used.
  • The tiles are sawn in closed overalls made of thick fabric, closed shoes.
  • The builder will need work gloves, a construction respirator, safety glasses, headphones.
  • When sawing you must not bring your hands close to the sharp and rotating parts.
  • Hold tools during work in the way it is written in the instruction to devices.
  • Do not remove protective guards, which prevent sparks and dust from flying around.

Necessary tool

A complete list of necessary tools and equipment includes:

    ;

  • Guillotine for cutting paving slabs;
  • hacksaw for metal;
  • Disks. diamond, grinding;
  • sandpaper or paper;
  • files;
  • Hammer, mallet;
  • pencil (regular colored or construction);
  • metal tape measure;
  • steel ruler and angle;
  • pliers;
  • chisel or chisel.
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Cutting features

Paving slabs are produced by two methods. vibrocasting and vibro-pressing. In the first case, liquid concrete with fillers is poured into the molds, while in the second, semi-dry mixes are used. the quality of vibrocasting differs from vibro-pressing for the worse. Cast blocks have an inhomogeneous layered structure, a smooth surface, and deteriorate much faster than pressed blocks.

The tools for cutting vibrocast paving slabs are not different from those for sawing vibrocast paving stones. The difference in the cutting technology is that cast tiles are cut mainly crosswise, and vibro-pressed blocks can be cut in any direction.

tile, home

Both types of tile lend themselves well to shape cross cutting. When sawing pieces and laying paving stones, take into account that the gap between the elements of the laying should be 3-5 mm.

Preparation work

At the preparatory stage the places for sawing are determined and electric extensions are connected. Cutting paving tiles with their own hands is carried out on wooden planks, a pallet with ledges. It is better to make it portable, to saw in a convenient place. Some craftsmen also cut without using wood, for example, by stacking tiles on top of each other.

The place for sawing must be at a sufficient distance from the paving slab, so that dross and pieces of flying stone will not damage the tiles. Keep flammable materials, dry grass and anything that can catch fire from sparks. Keep solid and sawn logs away from dust and dirt.

For convenience of work, tools for marking. ruler, pencil, angle, tape measure, hammer, put on a table or stool. There should also be consumables and tools for processing cuts.

Methods of cutting tiles

According to amateur builders, the best way to cut paving slabs is cutting them with an angle grinder. If you need to cut several bars, a regular handheld metal saw is enough.

Another type of sawing equipment. a guillotine knife. This is a small device that quickly and qualitatively cuts and chips stone and artificial tiles and bricks. Stationary and mobile cutoff machines and concrete saws are used less often for cutting paving stone.

Cutting with an angle grinder

For cutting will suit an angle grinder with a power of 2 kW or more, For work on stone and concrete is best suited diamond cutting tool. It gives a thin cut, and the block sawing process takes a few seconds. Diamond disc for cutting paving tiles with an angle grinder is chosen based on the thickness of the stone. Usually a blade with a diameter of 23 cm is enough. Cutting is carried out as follows:

  • Use a pencil and ruler to mark the cutting line.
  • Fix the tile horizontally on a wooden base (with clamps, clamps, or just a foot).
  • Turn on the angle grinder and bring the top to the marking. The blade must be placed strictly perpendicular to the surface of the block.
  • Sawing is done by running the disc from one edge of the marking to the other, plunging it inside the cut until the pieces are completely separated.
  • If the process slows down, you can add some fine sand to the saw.

For dry cutting angle grinder wheels reinforced with a fine diamond are available. The cuts are precise and of good quality, but they create a lot of dust. If you work with a wet cutting disk, there will be no dust, but in this case you must ensure that the working blade is moistened, or water is supplied to the cut.

the angle grinder during work, hold by two handles, the main handle on the body, and the top handle.

The blade guard must not be removed to avoid injury.

Using the guillotine

Guillotine knife. a device for cutting (more correctly, for chopping) stone, bricks and concrete. It can only be used to make straight cuts. The guillotine is a machine with a steel blade (above) and a horizontal platform for setting the stone (below) in the body. A screw that lowers the knife down, or a long lever, is used to create the barbed force. The cutting process is as follows:

  • Paving slabs are placed on the platform (table), aligning the line of the marking with the blade of the knife guillotine.
  • Tighten the side screws so that the blade rests against the bar and the object locks in place.
  • Push the lever (or turn the upper screw, which creates pressure) and the bar is split.

Guillotine knife is convenient for large amounts of work. Only a sharp blade is good for cutting stone, so you need to monitor the condition of the blade and keep it in good condition. When chipping with a blunt knife chipping will be uneven, rough. They get yellowing and other burn marks on it from overheating. When working with a guillotine knife can not put his hands under the blade when splitting a bar.

Special devices

Professional equipment that builders and rescuers have in their arsenal can be used to cut tiles. These are saws for cutting concrete blocks, curbs, and walls. Among wide assortment of saws there are a lot of models that can cut not only concrete but also reinforcement hidden in it.

  • Power concrete saws are powerful devices with a disk, chain, or an element resembling an electric jigsaw with a replaceable blade (they are called saber saws). Electric saws are powered from the mains or battery.
  • Hydraulic saws. devices with a chain mechanism or diamond cutting blades. They are used in places where there is no access to power supply.
  • Concrete chainsaws are also equipped with discs or a cutting chain. They are only used outdoors.

The special (professional) equipment also includes a cutting machine for cutting paving tiles and stone. These units consist of a bed, a metal work table, electrical equipment and auxiliary elements. The cutting tool of the machine is a diamond disc. Tile feeding under the diamond disc is done manually, on larger units. automatically.

What kind of disc for cutting paving tiles is the best, is determined by experience. The smaller the diameter of the cutting tool, the thinner the blade and the less likely it is that the tile will split. In cutting machines cutting is performed with water supply.

Cutting

The cut or splinter has a sharp edge, so it will differ in appearance from the solid tile. The contrast is especially noticeable if the bars are shaped and beveled. Additional treatment will help smooth out the corners and make the pieces look more aesthetically pleasing. Chips are especially uneven if the concrete contains granular filler. Additional processing of tile cuts can also help eliminate such flaws.

Corners are cut and smoothed with a roughing and sanding disc. The discs can be put on an angle grinder, or use a special grinder.

Large protruding chips can be sawed with a hacksaw for metal, chipped with a hammer and chisel. If the amount of work is small, the cuts are smoothed with a file, then. with a sanding sponge or paper with coarse and medium grain.

Cutting tiles is a responsible operation that requires patience. A sloppy fit of parts, improper cutting of bars can negate the impression of a beautiful tile and a pattern conceived by a master. That’s why it’s important not to hurry, to make correct marking and to use high-quality tools. Beautiful, carefully paved paths and decks will last for decades and delight owners’ eyes every day.

With what and how to cut decorative stone correctly

Decorative stone refers to materials of artificial origin, repeating the appearance and, in part, the properties of natural stones: granite, marble, tuff, sandstone, etc. п. The modern development of technology, makes it possible not only to imitate any natural finishing material, but also to ensure its good workability.

For a finisher on the site it is important to know how to cut a decorative stone, how to drill it, how to mount a solid object from separate parts. The solution of these problems requires acquaintance with the properties of such materials.