How to learn to cut glass correctly.
Cutting and cutting glass is a very difficult process. Nevertheless, it is necessary to be able to do it correctly. There are many reasons for this. The grandson dropped the glass at the dacha with a ball. well, do not call the master from the city, which, moreover, may be hundreds of kilometers from the dacha village. I’m not even talking about the construction of a greenhouse. there is a dime a dozen of glass works, and any home craftsman has a glass cutter always at hand, well, if not everyone, then most of them for sure. In addition, now the sets of tools that our Women love to give us on February 23 and birthdays, in the hope that with its help a lot of all kinds of shelves and various handicrafts made with their own hands, are often already completed with them.
The technology is as follows:
- Preparing the desktop. There should be a perfectly flat surface. plywood or chipboard. You can lay thin hard cardboard.
The most popular shape for a glass cutter is a circle. Round windows are often used, mirror trimming is possible.
There is an easy way. A suction cup is installed in the center of the proposed circle. A rail is fixed on it with a nail at one end. Any glass cutter is attached at a distance of the radius of the circle. You can now scratch out the circle.
Further. the same method. Tapping the mowing line and separating cuttings from the finished circle.
You can use small mechanization. a tool for cutting glass of the Bohle system. It is a self-contained kit for cutting round glass blanks up to 20 mm thick. The suction cup is more durable here, with a hinge and a ruler. The boom is equipped with a movable carriage with a roller cutter that can rotate freely in the seat. By fixing the suction cup in the center of the glass, the master can rotate the bar with the cutter, adjusting the force. Before starting work, moisten the surface with a lubricating fluid. Cutting the glass in water will prevent small chips and allow the glass cutter to move more smoothly. After that, the cutting line is tapped with a special hammer with a calibrated impact force (included in the tool kit). Several passes must be made, each time increasing the effort. You will see when the crack goes through. After completing a full circle, cross cuts are made to the edge of the workpiece. This can be done with a regular glass cutter. Then the excess parts are separated from the workpiece. All that remains is to sand the end with regular sandpaper, and you have a wonderful smooth glass or mirror circle.
An oval is cut in a similar way. You just have to remember the school geometry course, and draw 4 sectors of a circle with different diameters.
Glass selection and preparation
If we consider all the possible areas of application of glass, then in the largest volumes it is used precisely in the glazing of buildings. If you decide to use this material just for the purpose indicated above, then the following recommendations will probably come in handy.
To get really high quality glass, it must have the following characteristics:
Circle Cut Glass in ONE Minute
- Blue or green end color.
- No defects in light transmission in the form of stripes when viewed into light. This can be observed only in those products for which the cooling or rolling technology has been violated. When using such glass, the image will always be distorted.
- No scratches and other damages on the sheet surface.
It is also necessary to correctly select the thickness of the glass sheet. To do this, consider the following.
If the length of the maximum side of the frame is less than 600 mm, then it is best to choose a glass sheet with a thickness of 2.5 mm. For frames in which this parameter exceeds 600 mm, a greater thickness is recommended. up to 3.4 mm. Please note that the performance of the frame and glass will change over time due to exposure to temperature. For the correct calculation of the dimensions, cut the glass sheet 3-5 mm less than the installation site.
Pay special attention to preparing the sheet for cutting. It won’t take you long.
- Only dry and clean glass can be cut. Therefore, be sure to wipe the surface with a damp cloth before starting work, let it dry, and then wipe it off again, but this time with a dry cloth.
- Old glass is not as strong as new glass. Therefore, after carrying out the above operations, we advise you to additionally wipe it with a rag dipped in turpentine, and then dry it thoroughly.
Glass cutting equipment
Industrial processing (especially of complex shape) is practically inaccessible at home. Any glass cutting machine is expensive. The acquisition will pay off only with the mass production of glass products.
Preparing glass for cutting.
The glass you just bought can only be lightly wiped with a rag and then wiped dry. For the latter, I recommend taking an old newspaper. before using it, crumple it well (sorry for such details, but you need to wrinkle it, since you do this when there is no toilet paper at hand) so that it adheres more tightly to the density of the glass. The best means for cleaning and drying glass, in my opinion, humanity has not yet found.
Old glass is more difficult than new. It must be washed, moreover, very thoroughly (old glasses during their service are covered with soot, grease, again dust, etc. all this will interfere with normal glass cutting). After which it will need to be degreased, even turpentine is quite suitable for this. lightly wet a cloth and wipe the glass surface, then let it dry, it is better to let it dry in the room, again because of the danger of dust getting on its surface.
Take my word for it. the importance of the condition and degree of cleanliness of the glass is actually important, and not just senile grumbling.
A laser beam passing through a mirror lens is focused at a point below the plane of the glass. Then it comes back, reflected by the lower flat mirror.
The heating of the melancholy of the cut occurs evenly and quickly, there are no zones of thermal stress. This method requires tight control over the speed of movement of the cutter head. Cutting of tempered glass is possible with this technology.
Features of curly cutting glass with your own hands
Glass is one of the oldest building materials that people met many centuries ago. The first finds of glass products, as well as talismans and ornaments made of this material, are of a very venerable age. about 10 thousand years. In that distant era, glassmaking was practiced in Greece, Egypt and China. For many centuries, glass has been used exclusively to create mirrors, stained-glass windows to decorate rich houses and various jewelry.
The possibility of using glass for other purposes appeared only at the beginning of the 20th century, when the engineer Furko invented the technology of manufacturing sheet glass. It was then that they began to actively use it for glazing windows, although at that time the quality of the sheets was low. Subsequently, in the 50s of the XX century, a new technology appeared, proposed by Float.
Its main difference was that it was not only more productive, but also made it possible to create a glass sheet with a higher surface quality. Gradually, glass began to be actively used in a variety of areas: in construction, everyday life and industry. But no matter what this popular material was used for, everyone was interested in the issue of its processing and cutting.
How to cut glass in a circle
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How to crop an image in a circle and other paths in Word
And again we continue our conversation about cropping images. Today we’ll talk about how to crop an image, for example, along the contour of a circle or another contour we need. That is, to give the image any shape other than the standard rectangular shape. We will focus on trimming along the contour of the circle.
We will work in Word of the 2010 sample, that is, in Word 2010.
We are already familiar with the Crop tool and some of its options, and are familiar with various techniques for cropping images. Today we will take a look at the other options of this tool and start with the “Crop to Shape” option. This option is in the list of options that we met in previous meetings:
By a regular mouse click on the name of the “Crop to Shape” option, we will open the list of shape templates:
When you hover the mouse cursor over any of the shapes in the list, a tooltip appears with the shape’s name:
By clicking on any shape from this list, we will give our image the shape of this very selected shape. This could be, for example, an equal sign:
In general, any template shape.
Cropping the original image to the outline of the shape we selected does not change the original width and height of the image. If the image before cropping along the contour, for example, a heart had a size of 300×400, then having taken the shape of a heart, oval, cross, star, etc., it will still have a size of 300×400. To verify this, we just need to look at the size of the original image and the final image after curly cropping. The size of the images is displayed in the top bar of the options tabs (menus) next to the Crop option button. We remember that in order to see the hidden options and be able to do a lot with the image, you must first select this image with a mouse click:
In order to crop the original image along the contour of a circle or, in other words, make it round, but the “Circle” shape is missing in the list of shapes, we will use the existing “Oval” shape:
By left-clicking the “Oval” shape, we will get an oval-shaped image:
In our further actions, we will proceed from the fact that the main element of this image is the face of the animal.
Having taken the shape of an oval, the image still remains selected (captured by markers). Grab the middle left marker with the mouse and pull it to the right towards the animal’s face:
With this technique of cropping a picture, we rely on our eye. As soon as we feel that the image has become sufficiently round, then release the marker (left mouse button) and look at the result of our actions:
Using this technique, we must be prepared for the image to be distorted and become less realistic and proportional. In the case when we released the marker and saw that the image is not quite a circle, then we can additionally move other selection (transformation) markers.
If we do not rely too much on our eye, then we can help ourselves by first drawing a square, placing it behind the image, that is, in the background, and making the image itself a little transparent. Or vice versa. And right now, for our peace of mind and accuracy, when we have already cropped the photo along the contour of the circle, take and draw a circle and, focusing on its contour, edit the shape of our round image. Let’s do it.
Expand the “Insert” tab of the top menu, where, turning to the “Shapes” functionality, select the “Oval” shape. The cursor has turned into a crosshair of two lines, and we can start drawing a circle. The image with the animal should be highlighted with markers.
Hover the mouse cross-hair cursor over the upper middle marker of the image selection, and then, by pressing and holding the Shift key (to maintain the proportions of a perfect circle), we begin to drag the mouse cursor to the lower left corner marker of the image selection, thus drawing a perfect circle. Drag the cursor until the circle fits into the height of the face image:
As soon as this happens, release the left mouse button, and then the Shift key.
Now, let’s grab the circle with the mouse and drag it towards the round face image. Our task is to impose a circle shape on the image:
The alignment of the figure and the image happened:
The circle shape is still captured by the selection (transform) handles, that is, it is selected. Let it be so. that’s what we need.
Our next step is to remove the circle behind the image. Let’s perform this action using the “Text Wrap” option in the top menu of the “Format” tab, where we will select the “Behind Text” option (for better visibility, I filled the circle shape with red color):
After choosing the “Behind the text” option, the circle shape “hid” behind the image:
On the right side of the image, we can see only the smallest part of the red circle shape. Personally, I don’t see any sense in transforming the image to achieve the shape of a perfect circle. What should we do if the image that seemed to us round after cropping, when compared with the shape, turned out to be not at all the same:
Hover the mouse cursor over the image and click the left mouse button to select it. The images captured the selection (transformation) markers. All our further actions boil down to the fact that we, grabbing one side marker, then another, combine the image with the circle shape:
When we enter an image in a circle, then it is an image, it will be like this:
Now let’s get rid of the circle. Click on the image to select it with markers, and then turn to the “Move Backward” option in the top menu:
Let’s click on this option with the left mouse button, and our round image will be behind the circle shape:
Since we worked with an image, the visible selection with markers refers to the image. Let’s change the situation. Hover the mouse cursor over the circle shape and click to select it, and then press the Delete key:
This is the final version of the new round shape of the image.
Let’s move on to the second technique of cropping an image along the contour of a circle. Here knowledge of the image cropping techniques discussed in previous meetings will come to our rescue.
Let’s get started. Place an image on the sheet. Then draw a square shape. Why are we drawing a square? Because a circle inscribed in a square is a perfect circle. In addition, the presence of a square will simplify the preparation of the image for cropping along the contour of the circle.
So the image on the sheet:
Now we will repeat the already familiar actions. we will draw a square in the same way as we drew a circle shape. For this purpose, let us again turn to the “Shapes” functionality of the “Insert” tab of the top menu, where in the list of shapes we select a rectangle:
We and the program are ready to draw a square shape. Hover the cross-hair cursor over the upper middle marker of the selection (transformation) of the image and, by pressing and holding the Shift key to maintain the proportion, we begin to draw a square. Move the cursor in the direction of the lower right corner marker:
We do not pay attention to the fact that the square has crawled out of the image and even the sheet. everything is OK. As soon as we align the cursor with the marker, then first release the left mouse button, and then the Shift key. So we got a square, the length of the sides of which is equal to the height of the image. In order to facilitate our further work, we will make the square a little transparent. To do this, turn to the “Shape Format” functionality, where we will reduce the transparency of the square fill. The square shape should be highlighted with markers. Drag your mouse cursor to the top menu and in the “Shape Styles” section, click on the small arrow in the lower left corner of the section:
After clicking on this small arrow, the “Shape Format” functional window will open in front of us. Select the Fill option in this window to decrease the transparency by moving the slider for its adjustment. Reduce the transparency at your discretion:
Now we need to move the square to the left by such a distance so that the right side of the square coincides with the right side of the image, while the square should not go beyond the height of the image. You can move the square using the move arrow key on the keyboard, or grabbing the square with the mouse and dragging it to the desired distance:
The next step is to select the image. Hover the mouse cursor over the image and click the left mouse button to select it:
As a result of the selection of the image, the Format tab of the Picture Tools functionality appeared in the top menu. Click on the name of the tab to open it. we need the “Crop” tool. Next click on the “Trim” icon to open the tool options and select the option with the same name:
The image was captured by the cropping markers:
Grab the left middle marker with the mouse and drag it to the right in the direction of the lone bird:
We drag until a part of the square opens up to our eyes. We continue to hold the marker of the cropping tool with the mouse. As soon as we have seen part of the square, go back a little and align the crop marker with the left side of the square, that is, the left side of the image with the left side of the square:
Aligning the marker with the side of the square, release the mouse button (stop holding the marker). Here’s what we got:
Now, drag the mouse cursor to the right corner of the top menu and click on the “Crop” icon, open the list of tool options, select the “Crop to Shape” option, and in the expanded list of shapes, click on the “Oval” shape:
And here is the result of our actions:
After cropping, the image remained captured by the markers. Let’s use this and look at the size of the circular image in the top menu:
Now, by clicking the mouse, select the square and see its size:
After conducting a comparative analysis, we can see a discrepancy of 2mm. If you work carefully and slowly, and also remove the outline of the outline of the square (I did not delete it), then the dimensions of the round image and the shape of the square will be the same. If for us the ideal accuracy of coincidence is not important, then we can ignore a possible discrepancy of 2 millimeters. Visually, the discrepancy is not noticeable.
Another technique for cropping images along the contour of a circle, I refer to the use of SmartArt functionality. Using flow diagrams containing circle shapes, in which, in turn, we can place images. Such circle shapes differ from other circles by the presence of an image insert icon. This possibility is provided by the Word program itself. These images will be cropped to the outline of the circle automatically.
Let’s try this cropping technique. Expand the “Insert” tab of the top menu and click on the “SmartArt” icon:
The window for selecting a picture (flowchart) “SmartArt” has opened before us:
Let’s select the flowchart that contains circles. For example, this one:
Having selected, press “Ok”. After clicking the “OK” button, a block diagram will appear on the sheet:
We can see that the circles only provide text insertion. In fact, this is not the case, but more on that later. We will assume that this scheme does not suit us, and choose another, for example, this one:
But this block suits us. The circles of this block contain icons for inserting a picture:
We can use only one circle, and if necessary, then use all three.
Let’s click on the icon for inserting a picture on one of the circles and using the explorer of the operating system, select the desired image from our own folders or some other source. As soon as we select the image, it will instantly appear in the circle, taking, accordingly, its shape:
We do not cancel the selection of the circle. you will need it. If you accidentally dropped the selection, then click on the body of the circle to restore it and turn to the top menu. Having expanded the “Format” tab of the functionality of working with pictures, click on the icon of the “Crop” tool that appears so that we can correct the cropping of the image:
How to Cut Glass Bottles | 3 ways to do it
Activation of the Crop tool created a dark additional selection, directly under the very cropping of the image. Grab the selected image and move it around until it takes the desired position in the circle:
Then click on the “Crop” icon in the top menu or press the Esc key:
So we got the image of a round shape. The arrow in the picture above indicates the presence of a white outline, which is originally the outline of a circle shape. If we don’t need the outline, then delete it. We can, if we wish, leave it and even change the thickness and color of the mowing line. We can delete or change the mowing line of the contour in one of the two tabs “Format”. Each tab has a different functionality. One Format tab expands the SmartArt Graphics section options, while the other Format tab covers the Picture Tools functionality:
If we need three round images at once, then in this case we will place the images in the remaining two circles:
In order for the now circular images to fully leave the “SmartArt” flowchart, hold down the Shift key, select all three circular images one by one with the mouse clicks, and then copy them to the operating system clipboard by pressing the CtrlC key combination:
Now we need to get rid of the flowchart. Hover the mouse cursor over the block diagram frame and left-click. After this produced click, press the Delete key. We don’t worry about our circular images deleted together with the block diagram. they are stored by the operating system. Let’s return our images using the insert function. press the CtrlV key combination:
We can take advantage of the fact that all three images are selected. Let’s grab any of them with the mouse and drag them simultaneously to another place on the sheet:
For example, let’s place them in the center of the sheet:
Today we have covered just some of the techniques for cropping images along the outline of a circle and other outlines. In the next meeting, we will continue the conversation we started today and look at other Word tools that will also help us with curly cropping images.
Friday 1 February 2013.
how to cut glass without a glass cutter in a circle
The cutters, which have a tetrahedral shape, are fixed in relation to the axis of the glass cutter at an angle of 20-22`. In diamond glass cutters, the cutters with a curved cutting edge are on the same straight line with this axis. And if a beginner got down to business, then a glass cutter with such a position of the cutter will greatly facilitate the process of cutting glass.
It should be borne in mind that diamond cutters for home use are divided into two types. The former have incisors with a square pyramid and are more suitable for experienced carvers. The second glass cutters have cutters with a curved cutting edge, such tools are easier to handle for beginners with little experience in cutting glass.
But not all tools are equipped with natural diamonds, some glass cutters have synthetic diamonds. By the way, they are not inferior in efficiency to natural diamonds and their cost is much lower. But, glass cutters with synthetic diamonds should be used if the glass thickness does not exceed 5 mm.
The diamond is firmly attached to the holder with silver solder. The holder has slots that can conveniently break off narrow strips of glass. The glass cutter, as a rule, has a wooden handle. A diamond glass cutter can cut glass with a thickness of up to 10 mm, and the total distance of the cut glass surface reaches at least 10,000 m.The blunt cutting edge is easy to change, for this you need to loosen the retaining screw on the holder and turn the cutter again.
This is a glass cutter whose working element is a small diamond. Despite the fact that such a glass cutter is, figuratively speaking, a “glass cutter with a beard”, it has not lost its relevance today, moreover, it is considered one of the best, although now there are many modern high-strength materials.
If you are not a professional glass cutter, then in the event of a situation when it is necessary to glaze something, the question naturally arises: how to cut glass? But first you need to choose the right glass cutter. Glass does not tolerate mistakes, and this entails, first of all, additional financial costs, and secondly, of course, loss of time and nerves, which is also important. For each case, there are special glass cutters, the characteristics of which will help you decide which one to take in your hands and be satisfied with the result of your work. Let’s start in order.
How to crop an image in a circle
In this tutorial for beginners in Photoshop, I’ll show you how to crop an image in a circle. Watch the video or read the text version!
Usually, when we think about cropping images, we always think of them as rectangles or squares. If we use the Crop tool (C) (Frame), then we have no other options.
But who says we need to use the Frame tool? In Photoshop, you can easily crop a photo using the Selection Tool. To crop the image in a circle, we’ll use the Elliptical Marquee Tool (M). I will be working in Photoshop CC, but recent versions will work as well.
This is what a circular cropped image looks like with transparent corners so you can easily upload it to the internet or apply in another design.
Oval Region Tool
Select the Elliptical Marquee (M) from the toolbar. By default, it sits just below the Rectangular Marquee Tool (M) in the same tab. Therefore, right-click on the Rectangular Marquee Tool and select the desired tool from the drop-down list.
Invert the selection
At this point, we have selected the area inside the circle. But we need to select the area that is located around it.
To do this, go to the Select menu and select Inverse from the drop-down list of commands.
How to create a selection
With the Oval Region tool selected, click inside the image and drag to make an elliptical selection. To make it perfectly round, hold down the Shift key while creating it. Don’t worry about positioning the selection, in the next step we will move it to the desired location. Just make sure the circle is large enough to fit the entire area you want to keep.
When you’re done release first the mouse button and then the Shift key. Otherwise, the selection will again acquire a free ellipse shape.
Convert the background layer to regular
If we look at the layers panel, we can see that our photo is located on the background layer.
Before we start cropping the image in a circle, we need to convert the background layer to a regular one. The reason is that after cropping, transparent areas will appear around the image, and in Photoshop, background layers do not support transparency.
To transform, we need to rename the background layer. In Photoshop CC, just click on the lock icon on the right side of the layer. In Photoshop CS6 and earlier, hold down Alt and double-click the background layer.
The program will instantly rename the “Background” layer to “Layer 0”. It has now been converted to a regular layer.
Crop excess transparent areas
To crop the excess transparent areas surrounding the photo, go to the Image Trim menu.
In the dialog box, under Based On, select the Transparent Pixels option. Make sure Top, Bottom, Left and Right are all selected under Trim Away (these should be selected by default).
Click OK to close the Trim dialog box. Photoshop will instantly crop excess transparent areas around the photo.
Opening the image
As always, let’s start by opening the image in Photoshop. Here is a photo of a girl. which i will use.