How to lay tiles on the wall?
To glue the tiles on the wall, you need to dilute the adhesive mixture with water. The consistency should resemble heavy cream. The laying technology includes the following steps:
- A glue solution several millimeters thick is applied to the wall with a wide spatula.
- The same solution is applied to the tile in small portions and spread over the entire surface. Pay special attention to the edges. Then remove the excess with a comb.
- The tiles are installed on the wall and pressed tightly. It is aligned with the level or beacon elements.
- The adhesive, which protrudes along the edges, is collected, and the surface of the tile is cleaned with a damp cloth or foam rubber. Cured material is extremely difficult to clean.
- Crosses 2 mm or thicker are installed between the plates. It all depends on the preferences of the owners and the characteristics of the premises. Enough for 2 on each side and at the intersection of the seams. They are taken out after 30-40 minutes after installation so that they do NOT stick. Otherwise, they are difficult to remove.
- Repeat all steps with the next plate.
After laying all the tiles and the glue has completely hardened, they begin to fill the joints. To do this, the grouting material is diluted with water and the inter-tile space is filled with a special spatula. It is important to ensure that the material penetrates deep into the seam. For this, the grout is pushed inward with a spatula to fill the space to the edges of the tile. After drying, the material is removed with a soft cloth or sponge.
We make wall markings
After cleaning the surface, start marking the wall. It is necessary Not only to avoid distortions. The aesthetic side plays an important role, because the uniform distribution of seams over the entire surface looks more beautiful than the presence of undercuts under the ceiling and in the corners. Marking is especially important when you have to lay tiles with elements of different sizes or with a pattern.
NOT everyone knows where to start laying tiles. After all, you can only navigate along the mowing line of the floor when it is completely flat. Otherwise, it will NOT be possible to create vertical seams and it will be necessary to trim each tile.
To lay the tiles correctly, you need to find the middle of the wall and run the vertical and horizontal mowing lines. This place can be a seam or the middle of a tile. To determine how many whole elements fit on the wall, add the joint thickness to the tile dimensions, and then divide the wall length by the result. If the number is even, then the middle of the tile is placed in the center. When the number is odd, place a seam.
With respect to the first element, the rest are laid out on the floor, crosses are inserted between the edges. The remaining space around the edges is measured to determine how to cut the tiles. Elements at opposite ends must be the same size. After that, mark the position of the tile on the wall with a pencil.
Vertical rows often contain items. This can be a bath, shower or sink. When there are such requirements, the center of the wall is found and the tiles are placed next to it. To reduce the consumption of tiles, you should place them from top to bottom. In this situation, only the bottom row needs to be trimmed.
Align the surface. Glue thickness on the wall
Laying tiles on a wall with a completely flat surface is possible on the minimum admissible layer of glue. If there is a slight difference, then the required amount of the mixture may be 3-5 mm. When large adjustments are needed, the thickness of the adhesive can be much greater.
The method of laying tiles on a wall or floor, when the solution is applied to both surfaces, is considered optimal. However, sometimes craftsmen apply glue only to the tile or only to the wall, which affects the layer thickness and material consumption.
Wall tiles are only laid on a prepared surface. This requires:
- Level the surface;
- Prime the wall;
- Make markup.
First, remove all protruding elements. Any parts must be removed that will NOT allow the tiles to be laid or that could cause them to peel off.
How to cut?
If the amount of work is small, use a manual tile cutter. It is a platform on which the guides and cutter are mounted. When you press the handle, the knife cuts the material, and a special stop breaks the plate along the cutting line of the cut.
Another method involves the use of an angle grinder with a diamond disc. It is impossible to get an even cut in this way, but you can, if necessary, make an angle of 45 ° at the edges of the tile.
Laying tiles on the wall is possible only on a primed surface. The material has astringent properties, which allows deep penetration into the wall. After drying, the surface becomes rough, which increases adhesion to the adhesive.
Before applying the primer, the wall should be cleaned of dust with a stiff brush. All debris must be removed with a vacuum cleaner. Depending on the absorption rate, the wall is primed one or more times. Do this with a wide brush, in rare cases with a roller.
To put tiles on the wall, you need to remove the old covering, which may fall off. If there are greasy spots on the wall, it is necessary to remove them or knock out part of the plaster. Glue does not adhere well to such places. Then you should tap the walls with a hammer to determine the voids. In some places the plaster may flake off but not swell. Under the weight of the tile, such a section can fall off, therefore, with the characteristic sound of emptiness under the plaster, everyone is beaten off with a hammer or pickaxe.
After that, check how flat the wall surface is. If the differences are large, they should be compensated with plaster. Laying tiles on such a surface is much easier and faster. However, when the irregularities are not very noticeable, they correct protrusions or pits larger than 5 mm. All cracks and holes should be widened and covered with plaster. You can proceed to the next stage after the concrete solution has set.
Materials and tools
For laying tiles on the wall with your own hands, special and simple tools are used:
- Trowel or spatula;
- Construction water or laser level;
- Tile cutter or angle grinder;
- Crosses for tiles;
- Rubber spatula;
- Foam sponge;
- Grout spatula;
- Tape measure, ruler and pencil;
- Drill with a special mixing attachment;
- Large bucket or trough.
From materials you will need:
- Adhesive mixture;
An ordinary glass cutter can also
The easiest way is to use a conventional roller glass cutter. It is used for a small amount of work. The line of the cut is marked with a pencil using a ruler. A shallow furrow is drawn along the intended line of the mowing line. Breaking occurs by gentle pressure on the edge of the tile, installed on the corner of the countertop. The edge of the cut obtained in this way has noticeable irregularities and needs additional processing with abrasives. It is generally accepted that this option can only be suitable for thin wall tiles, and cutting the floor tiles is unlikely to work. Many craftsmen believe that it is impossible to cut porcelain stoneware with an ordinary glass cutter.
To cut round holes in ceramics or porcelain stoneware, you must use specially designed crowns. They are equipped with diamond segments or spraying, which is used for drilling. The hole diameter can be any with the introduction of such devices, ranging from 30 to 80 mm.
If you need to drill more for the installation of electrical or plumbing components, then it is better to use a ballerina drill. It consists of storms on brackets in the center and two cutters, with their position being adjusted to the center. Also for THESE purposes a hole saw and diamond bits are used. The principle is the same.
Lesson 19. How to cut tiles and how to cover them
We continue to renovate the bathroom and toilet. Last time we got acquainted with the technology of laying tiles on the floor. Now you know how to pre-mark the tiles, prepare the glue, and glue the tiles to the floor. Everything was simple, as long as the whole tile fit the length of the room. But now we come to the wall, and the whole tile does not fit. Today we will learn how to cut tiles and how to use them during cladding.
Figured breaking in ceramics is not easy. To do this, you must first make many cuts with a small step from the end to the figured cut. The smaller it is, the more accurate the bend will be on the ceramic. The cuts are made just short of the main cutting line. Then, with the help of forceps, each segment is gently broken out and unnecessary ceramics are removed with small bites.
We cut the tiles with a jigsaw
This tool is quite handy for straight and curved cuts, but not all types of tiles lend themselves to it. For ceramics, special diamond-coated saws are produced. It will be more convenient to work if you pre-mark the cutting line with a marker on the front side. When cutting with a jigsaw, the tiles are laid on a flat surface so that the cut-off part is freely suspended. Working pollen should be periodically moistened with water and promoted without undue pressure. Then the line of the cut will be neat, without chips, and you will enjoy a job well done.
The quality of the mowing line of the cut angle grinder depends to a large extent on the characteristics of the diamond wheel. Segmented discs are completely unsuitable for tile cutting, and solid discs Must be specially marked “for dry cutting” without water. Some manufacturers additionally mark such discs with a crossed out water drop.
How to properly trim already laid tiles for joining
It so happens that the repair was done a long time ago, but there is a need to replace the doors in the room where the tiles are laid.
We cut tiles without a tile cutter methods and nuances
Ceramic or porcelain stoneware tiles are very hard cladding materials, similar in many properties to glass. Therefore, the methods of cutting it will be similar. The same glass cutter, but it is worth warning right away that not all material can be cut equally effectively even in this way.
For example, a tile with a relief structure will be a difficult task and sometimes even unbearable for glass cutters.
The main task when cutting is that its cutting side remains flat and there are NO chips. Often, the cut edge is located under the baseboard or covered with vertical tiles, in which case you can NOT worry at all, but boldly take an angle grinder with a diamond cutting wheel. But even with this tool, you should be careful, as you can cut with a lot of chips.
Let’s consider the most effective methods of how to cut tiles without a tile cutter and with minimal scrap. Regardless of what you use to make a cut, drill a tile, you should always be extremely careful and DO NOT make sudden movements. You can accidentally slide the workpiece and break the thin element. Especially dangerous when it is L-shaped and one side is thicker than the other.
A relatively new, but already very common way of cutting tiles and other sheet materials. The principle is based on the impact on the material with a powerful jet of water of small thickness, as a result of which there is no temperature effect on the workpiece, so it will not deteriorate and will NOT lose its qualities.
So, you have come to the edge of the room, and the whole tile does not fit into the floor:
- Take a tape measure and die the distance from the already glued tile to the wall.
- Subtract the width of the seam between the tiles for this length (the width of the cross).
- Mark the resulting length with a felt-tip pen on the new tile to be cut. Use a square for convenience. On the tile, it is best to dash with a felt-tip pen or marker, since the trace remains well and it is easy to erase it.
- Before cutting the tile, be sure to shake the tile cutter (clean it from dust from previous cuts).
- Then everything is simple: take the tile, insert it into the tile cutter so that your risk Marked with a felt-tip pen exactly coincides with the central risk on the tile cutter and Cut off the desired length.
In order to save material, to cut thin strips of tiles, you can use previously cut pieces of tiles.
How to cut wall tiles
No matter how excellent the material as a decorative coating is the tile on the walls, on the floor, etc., after laying it is very difficult to work with it.
- If it is necessary to cut holes (for pipes, sockets, wire passage, etc.);
- Cut through the groove for laying cables, pipes, etc.;
- Trim edge / joint (for example, when changing or moving a doorway)
- Other jobs.
Wall / Floor Tile Cutting Tool
For the first option, you may find it useful:
- Wall chaser with diamond discs. A very expensive tool, although it can be found at power tool rental locations. With him, work will take place with minimal effort, even in the absence of experience with tiles. Different models offer different functionality. You are primarily interested in the width and depth of the cut (determined by the diameter of the saw blades). Additional options such as laser marking of the cutting direction, dust extraction, etc. for an amateur. Although, if the room is residential, the possibility of wet cutting will be very important (during a dry saw, a large amount of dust rises on any stone, ceramics, etc., which ultimately not only complicates visibility, affects the respiratory tract, but also pollutes all adjacent rooms in the house or apartment).
- Angle grinder with diamond disc for a smooth cut. Angle grinder (“angle grinder”). the most budget option. The specified tool is in many ways similar to the wall chaser. However, due to the lack of special designs, it is difficult to make the cut perfectly flat in the plane. But the angle grinder can easily cope in hard-to-reach places, it will help to make cuts of complex shapes. Wet cutting with an angle grinder is not possible, so special measures will need to be taken to isolate the second rooms from dust when cutting tiles.
- Combination angle grinder with cut-off cover with dust extraction. In fact, the last accessory makes a wall chaser out of an angle grinder. There are even casing models with water supply (wet cut without dust), but they cost serious money.
- Jigsaw with fine diamond saw. Also an option with a small budget, but it is suitable only in SEVERAL cases, even more likely in rare exceptional moments, when part of the tile to be cut is not glued to a solid base (for example, on drywall), that is, there is an empty cavity behind the tile that allows the canvas to move.
How to make holes in laid tiles
If you need NOT a curly or straight cut, but a hole, an angle grinder or a wall chaser will not help.
- “Spatulas”, or drills for ceramics and glass. They are very fragile, often blunt, but they regularly fulfill their task, namely, making holes of small diameter in glass or ceramic (glazed) tiles. When working with such drills, do not exceed the force, the tile may burst. In order to keep the drill in working condition for a longer time, it is best to drill a hole with an increased diameter in the glaze, and continue drilling with other types of drills (of a smaller diameter).
- Bits with diamond edges. May be sold in kits (like center drill bits) or as individual pieces. There are special versions for drills (eg Metabo 627538000 and analogues). Crowns, unlike “blades”, allow you to make large holes in the tile, they can work with other materials, such as porcelain stoneware, gres, concrete, etc.
- “Ballerinas”. It is a two-piece system: a centering drill and a rotating adjustable cutting edge. For the correct stop, the system can be equipped with a special cover (it maintains the vertical position of the drill throughout the entire drilling process, which is very important for these types of drills). Such drills can cope with large hole diameters, and for this there is a need to buy a whole set of nozzles (crowns), all cuts are made with one adjustable drill. True, such drills break easily and require a special approach to work.
- Drilling installations. Professional equipment with original drills and crowns. The of the kits and sharpening of consumables are very expensive, they are not suitable for domestic use, only if you call the foreman at home with payment for a hole.
- Drills and drills with victorious tips. Oddly enough, but will win easily copes with ceramics. True There may be difficulties with the initial centering of the drill. When working with a hammer drill, it is imperative to turn off the hammer drilling mode.
Like drills a tile on a wall?
Drilling holes in the tiles may be needed already in the last stage of the repair.
Finishing work is being completed, it remains only to weight or fix the interior items on the wall. A clumsy approach to tile drilling will lead to nuisances such as chips, cracks and scratches. We will tell you how to drill a tile on the wall so that it does not crack, and the result is flawless.
- You cannot press on the tool with great force. the application of force should be moderate so as not to break the tile.
- Drill tile seams is allowed only if the hole diameter does NOT exceed the seam width.
- To work with tiles, choose a drill with a smooth switching of speeds.
- If the tile is very fragile, use a hand drill that creates minimal vibration.
- It is convenient to mark a point for drilling with a clerical proofreader. The liquid will roughen the surface and improve the adhesion of the tile.
- Glass drills are suitable for processing ceramic tiles.
Which drill to choose?
Drills for brick and concrete are definitely not suitable for installing dowels. they can destroy and damage the tile cladding. As a result, you will have to re-lay the problem area. Coaters recommend purchasing special drills with a spear-shaped tip for such purposes.
- Protect tiles from slipping with masking tape or adhesive plaster.
- Marker or felt-tip tent center of the hole in the form of a cross.
- Prepare a drill of the selected type and diameter, insert into a drill or screwdriver.
- Drill the tile at low speeds, add speeds already in the process.
- When the drill touches the wall, turn off the drill and change the drill to a conventional one (for concrete or brick) of the same diameter.
- Drill the hole to the target depth, focusing on the length of the dowel.
- Remove dust from the recesses and insert the dowel
Drill and drill selection
When the unit is prepared, it remains to choose the type of nozzle aimed at solving certain tasks:
- Diamond coated drills. They give the best drilling results even in very hard tiles, but due to the high cost, it makes sense to use them only for a large amount of work.
- Drills tipped out will win. They do well with soft tiles and tiles of medium hardness. It is recommended to drill ceramic tiles on the wall with so-called feather drills. they have a small sharpening angle, and do not allow damage to the tile glaze.
- Lance drills. Suitable for dowel insertion, low cost and enviable service life.
- One-sided sharpened carbide drills. THESE attachments reduce the risk of overheating and make handling very fragile and thin tiles easier.
- Tungsten carbide core drills. Versatile components that can easily cope Not only with the most durable tiles, but also with marble, brick and porcelain stoneware.
What is required for processing?
The best option for working with ceramic tiles is a cordless or cordless screwdriver. Its high rotation speed (800-1000 rpm. / Min.) Allows you to easily cope with the processing of tiles. An alternative to a screwdriver is an electric drill, or its manual modification if you have to drill a small hole.
How to drill a tile?
What tasks are most often pursued by drilling a ceramic finish:
- Laying of a water supply system or other communications;
- Installation of an electrical outlet;
- Hanging shelves, mirrors, hooks and holders;
- Heated towel rail insert;
- Installation of a clothes dryer.
Before starting drilling, they are determined with the type and quality of the tile. Density, strength, fragility, glaze characteristics and porosity of tiles. all these factors affect the outcome of the drilling process and the choice of tools.
Another nuance is the assessment of the tile fastening density. Knock the cladding without effort. A dull sound will indicate the absence of voids in the coating. you can drill it. If the sound is ringing, there are cavities in the tile, which, when drilling, can lead to fractures and chips.
What else can you drill?
The device can drill holes up to 9 cm in diameter, including irregular shapes, for which there are suitable crowns. But due to the manually movable bracket, the edges of the hole are uneven. Therefore, it is advisable to use Ballerinas in cases where the perforation will be covered with something.
Distinctive features of drilling
The difficulties in installing dowels are similar to standard drilling in tiles. They consist in an increased smoothness of the coating, which can interfere with a reliable stop and installation of the drill. In addition to the methods described above to reduce slip (masking tape and removal of glaze), you can use a conductor.
This device is a wooden or metal plate with holes of different diameters. The size of the hole is selected based on the dimensions of the dowel. They drill very carefully, because at the same time you will have to hold both the jig and the screwdriver, and even control the quality of drilling.