Wood sanding with your own hands
Sanding wood by hand, although it requires a lot of work, but instead provides a number of important benefits: less aggressive processing, better control over the process and high quality surface treatment in inaccessible areas. in corners, on the smooth curves and other reliefs of any complexity.
Hand technique is indispensable for sanding between coats, as it ensures the most delicate work and eliminates the risk of rubbing the applied finish. When using the same abrasive hand sanding guarantees a better surface than sanding with a grinder, angle grinder or drill.
About sanding pads and making them with your own hands
Sanding blocks (sanding pads). an indispensable assistant in the arsenal of a carpenter. These uncomplicated devices provide uniform contact of sandpaper with the treated surface, increasing the speed and quality of work performed. Using such pads, you will significantly improve the quality of grinding, prolong the life of the abrasive, avoid fatal defects in the form of depressions and rounded edges.
To get hold of such a sanding tool does not need to spend extra money. It is not difficult to make their own hands from dense foam or wood scraps. Check out some easy sanding block designs in our gallery.
How to choose sandpaper to work with wood?
There are quite a few characteristics by which to classify sandpaper. But the main and most important parameter, which should be guided when choosing a sandpaper, is the size of its abrasive grains. t.н. grit index. For specific tasks when working with wood choose a certain type of grit.
TABLE: CHOICE OF ABRASIVE FOR WOODWORKING
Practice shows that a set of five varieties of abrasives is enough for a craftsman to perform basic tasks:
- P150; P180; P240 (wood processing before finishing);
- P280; P400 (intercoat and surface finishing).
Read all about the fine points of paper selection in this article.
dry or wet sanding?
For intermediate sanding of finish coats. stain, varnish, polyurethane, etc.д. Traditionally, two techniques. dry or wet. are used.
Dry sanding increases the efficiency of the abrasive and gives better control of the work process, which is especially important in the intermediate sanding stages of delicate coatings. The disadvantage of this method is that the sandpaper quickly clogs. This problem is partly compensated by sandpaper with an anti-clogging stearate coating.
Wet sanding of wooden products as a moisturizer use mineral oil, white spirit or plain soapy water. the abrasive clogs much more slowly and lasts longer. But the mess formed from the foam and shavings significantly complicates the sanding process. It is necessary to constantly wipe the surface and carefully control the result of sanding.
How to sand the wood properly?
Sanding technique. The wood is sanded actively along the grain or at a slight angle, but without excessive pressure on the block. The movement should be as light as possible, on the second or third pass with a fine grit emery cloth with almost no pressure.
Surface preparation for surface finishing. Preparing wood for the application of finish (lacquer, oil, mordant, polyurethane, etc.).If it is necessary to sand the surface continuously, start with abrasive P120 or P150 (depending on the nature of the roughness). Then change to grit P180 and finish with P240.
Intermediate sanding coatings. If the finishing coat is applied in layers, each layer is intermediately sanded with a fine grit P280 abrasive paper. For finish polishing sandpaper P400 is used. To remove the slightest roughness of the glossy finish use the abrasive grain size of P600.
The demanding nature of the finishing coatings to sanding. Matt types of coatings are not as demanding to the quality of sanding as the glossy ones. At the same time, a dark stain will expose all the imperfections of a poorly executed sanding.
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What and how you can sand
The purpose of sanding wood. as quickly and effectively as possible to remove defects, while leaving no visible deep scratches. For this you can use special tools. now their price is not too high.
In the free sale can be found several varieties of sanders:
Not only abrasive wheels, but also brushes can be installed on the angle grinder. So, for sanding wood is actively used nylon brushes. They allow you to make the surface not only smooth, but also to highlight the texture of the wood, choosing softer fibers. The process is called brushing.
For large surfaces of wood and wood-based materials (veneer, chipboard, fiberboard, plywood) belt sanders and surface sanders are best suited.
Decorative items, furniture, toys, frames, many still prefer to sand by hand, and this is not such a bad way. it allows effectively and without extra cost to achieve a perfectly smooth surface. At least when working with their own hands will not have to think about where to get a grinder (ask a neighbor, buy in a store, rent, leaving a deposit).
Belt type machine
Belt sanders are so called because the sandpaper is made in a belt format and it moves continuously due to the rollers. This machine is designed for intermediate and rough sanding. But in order to achieve perfect smoothness and a perfect finish (especially true for those involved in furniture manufacturing), you will have to additionally use other sanding equipment.
Different types of sandpaper can be mounted on the belt sander. And, for example, if fine grit sandpaper is installed, it is possible to achieve quite a normal result for joinery workpieces to be painted. And, say, in order to remove long scratches you would have to sand in steps, changing the grit several times.
The belt sander has excellent performance. But at the same time it should be admitted that the belt on it stands in such a way that not all points and notches of the board surface can be properly processed.
Even with a wide belt width, it is still sanding in the center. The belt parts behind and in front are not used for this. They are in a slightly elevated position, and their main function is to feed the moving rollers.
Another obvious disadvantage of band saw equipment. a solid weight, it is quite difficult to perform any actions with such machines on the weight, processing vertical products.
There is a disadvantage of belt sander for wood and such a high noise. work without earplugs or headphones is not too comfortable. And one more important point: if during the work to leave the machine in one place for a long time, there will be a fairly noticeable dent.
Even sanding large wooden products with a surface grinder is pretty fast. The key organ of the device. a flat, fairly large plate (soleplate), to which the desired abrasive is attached. This design is famous for the almost complete absence of dead zones (i.e. areas that cannot be reached by the machine and can not be tolerably processed). any corners are relatively easy to grind.
The demand for flat grinders among wood craftsmen is due to their moderate price and availability of equipment. When choosing such a machine, you should pay attention to such parameters as motor power (usually we are talking about values in the range from 150 to 300 watts), weight, amplitude and frequency of the sole stroke.
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Sanding wood by hand, of course, requires a lot of labor and physical effort. But this method of sanding is a priori less aggressive and allows full control of the process. Even in hard-to-reach places. in corners and complex curves. you can get a decent quality sanding if you choose the manual method.
There is no alternative to sanding coatings between layers. only manual sanding can eliminate the risk of damaging the finish that has already been sanded. Manual processing (if compared with grinders) allows you to get the most even and smooth surface, although it takes much more time.
A belt-type sanding machine
As noted earlier, a high performance is characterized by a belt-type sander. In this case, the wood is sanded with high speed, but the equipment used is expensive. Among the features of the application of the sanding machine, note the following points:
- The surface to be treated is impacted by a circular sanding belt. The grit size can be very different.
- The design carries out removal of wood along the fibers.
When using a belt machine, it should be taken into account that the design can not handle corners, as the belt has low flexibility. Often the tool is used for sanding floors, walls and furniture.
If you can not rent or buy equipment than grind parquet in this case? This can be done using manual scraping. It is a small tool with a metal plate, one edge is curved and sharp. This side is convenient to remove the varnish, and the other side is set into a holder made of wood, so to say a convenient handle. Working with such a tool is long and hard. But, it can be used even in places that are hard to reach.
Work: manual sanding
Instead of a manual cycler, it is possible to apply sandpaper. For this purpose, it is attached to the sole of the shoe. Parquet is rubbed with the feet. This method is also not easy. That is why the machine method of processing is becoming popular.
With what and how you can sand
Tools for quality sanding can be very different. But they all have the same goal. to eliminate wood defects without leaving traces of their work. They handle it equally well:
- belt sander;
- surface grinding;
- Eccentric, or orbital;
- “angle grinder” (angle grinders).
Hand sanding also deserves a separate mention. It is often just as effective as wood sanding tools.
In most cases, the sanding of any wooden patron can be carried out with a belt machine. This device can be called truly universal, because it allows you to choose with what grit sanding wood.
The name of the device comes from the fact that the sandpaper in it has a ribbon shape. Rotating rollers provide continuous movement, and therefore. and friction.
- high speed of work;
- the possibility of using sandpaper of different grit sizes;
- ease of working with flat wood (planks, timber).
The main disadvantage lies in the fact that the belt sander is not suitable for fine work. The final stage of sanding will have to “entrust” the equipment or another type. In addition, belt devices have a large weight, and it can be difficult to manage them.
How to sand wood with a belt sander:
Features of working with the belt device:
- you can use a variety of types of sandpaper;
- The device should be turned off from time to time for a few minutes to avoid overheating;
- should not be left in one place, otherwise a noticeable depression is formed in the wood.
In general, however, it is quite easy to work with the belt model. Anyone can handle it, even without experience. But this applies to, for example, boards that are lying on the workbench.
But the walls of a house made of timber, not round bar, sanding will not be convenient. The weight won’t keep the machine level. And in general, it is more suitable for rough sanding, not for nothing it dubbed “tank.”
Flat grinder or vibrating grinder
Another popular option for sanding any wood is a flat sanding machine. When a person chooses what to sand wood at home. often preference is given to this device.
The flat work surface is quite large, and sanding is very fast. In addition, you can note the high quality. “The sole” is almost devoid of poorly handled areas, so the machine can easily cope with the corners and hard-to-reach areas.
The small price is also an advantage, which allows you to use such a device for grinding with your own hands. The only disadvantage can be called a low power, very rarely exceeding 300 watts.
How to grind:
Wood sanding flat grinder consists of 2 steps:
Despite the simplicity of the process, when working with a flat grinder, you need to observe a couple of rules. Leave it in one place is not recommended, because it will make the surface indented. And for effective processing of corners it is necessary to use fine-grained abrasives.
Also note that some models are made with unsuccessful mounting plates. And when sanding the corners or joints of a profiled beam house, these edges can damage the walls. After all, the machine vibrates a lot and will have to re-grind these scratches.
Not a bad tool for sanding wood is an ordinary drill. Instead of a drill, a sanding pad is put on it.
The main advantage of this method is its affordability. you do not need to buy a whole tool, but only attachments. After all, every home has a drill. The disadvantage is the strong noise produced by the device.
How to grind with a drill:
Work with a drill is elementary. you just need to turn it off from time to time for a minute or two to avoid overheating. But not to get confused in the nozzles is quite difficult:
- Saucer sanders are suitable for fine sanding;
- The drum ones are suitable mainly for processing the ends and cuts;
- Cup drills can be used for any purpose, depending on the design and material;
- Disc and fan drills are only for polishing.
This tool has a disadvantage, it is difficult to keep it level. As a result, the nozzle begins to move and scratch the wood.
Angle grinder or “angle grinder”
This tool enables you to significantly increase the speed of your work. Especially if you don’t want a perfect surface. Although it is possible to achieve quality with an angle grinder. To do this, it should have adjustable speeds and you need to choose the grit of the circles competently.
You can pick up any plates for it. Thin ones are good for hard-to-reach places in a log house. Soft ones can leave marks and do not last as long.
To grind a wooden house, it is better to go through the angle grinder first. If the wood is severely aged, start with 40 or 60 grit brush heads. Then go to 80-120. For better results or before oiling, go through the eccentric sander in the end. It is the one that will remove all the scratches from the angle grinder.
Eccentric grinders, also called orbital grinders. Their undeniable advantage. in the possibility of conducting the final sanding. It is not necessary to “finish” the wood by hand.
“The “sole” of such a device is round. Buy grinding wheels is not difficult, because they have absolutely any grit. But herein lies a disadvantage. the rounded shape of the work surface does not allow effective processing of angles.
But this applies only to houses made of round timber. For houses from a bar is suitable enough, it can grind even the joints.
In addition, it is lightweight, which allows you to work with one hand. And the adjustment of speed and choice of grit nozzles, allow you to sand almost perfectly.
How to grind properly:
The working principle of the orbital machine is as follows:
- The working surface rotates around its axis;
- The built-in eccentric slowly moves the orbital to a distance of 2 to 6 mm, so that a person does not have to do it manually.
When working with such a machine, it is necessary to observe the general order of grit. Starting at 40 or 60, move smoothly up to 150 or 180.
To the highest quality devices can be attributed such models from the rating of vibrating grinders:
- The Makita BO3711 is a budget-priced 190-watt model suitable for sanding small wooden structures.
- DeWALT DWE6411 is a 200 watt device, the belt rotates at 14000 rpm.
- Bosch GSS 23 AE. industrial model, which allows you to perform quality woodworking.
Additional information! One of the main advantages of vibration devices is their low noise level.
Why do you need surface smoothing
Sanding a beam, board or wooden object is carried out ultimately to improve the appearance of the object. In addition, the aim is to protect people from injury during the operation of structures or products. In addition, the event allows you to solve other problems:
- Removal of fungal and mold growth, blue stain;
- clearing the surface of dirt and old decorative finishes;
- removal of burrs, which quickly become dark under the influence of the sun
- ensuring good adhesion of the surface layer with decorative paints.
Many people believe that wood, as an excellent absorbent substrate, can be painted and impregnated with protectants in any condition. However, if you process unsmoothed blanks, the coating is unevenly distributed. As a result, stains, peeling, all the defects will soon appear on the surface. That is, stripping wood before painting is a must in order to get a durable and visually appealing result.
A few peculiarities
The wood is fibrous in structure. over, the fibers are arranged in a certain order. along the trunk with smooth curves in the area of knots. So, if you perform grinding in the longitudinal direction, the abrasive traces will be virtually imperceptible. On the contrary. the transverse movements will not cut, but tear fine threads, so the fine damage will be more pronounced.
In addition to observing the direction there is one more remark about how to sand wood. It is better to work with dry workpieces than with damp ones. This is justified by the efficiency, simplicity and reliability of the fiber structure. In the second case there is a peeling of threads, which complicates the task, forcing to remove a greater thickness of the surface layer.
Considering the order of how to properly polish wood you need to observe the grit of the abrasive device. At first a coarse material is used, and then the grit size is successively reduced. For example, you can start work with sandpaper with 40-80 grit per sq.inch, then take with 120 and 180 units. If you need to decide what to polish wood with, it is worth considering samples with numbers over 250.
With what and how you can sand
If you need to process wood you need to choose the best tool. The following peculiarities should be taken into account:
- Variety of the product. This can be load-bearing structures made of timber, windows and doors, furniture parts, decorative elements. Each of the products has an optimal option that allows you to achieve maximum quality with a minimum of time and effort.
- Quality sanding. This is a fairly important factor. In some cases, it is enough to smooth out large roughnesses, in others. to bring the surface to perfection. Therefore, before starting work, it is important to prepare brushes and disks, which have different grits.
- Scope of work. With small structures can be handled manually, for large. requires an electric tool.
The following devices are used for sanding wood:
Rules of wood sanding
How to grind wood properly with an angle grinder or other tools? This question many people are interested in.
Sanding the planed log from the outside
To polish a log cabin made of planed logs, it is worth using angle grinders. The use of medium-priced devices is recommended in this case.
Sanding of rounded logs
Such a log house already has an even surface. Because the use of angle grinder with a lack of experience will lead to the appearance of grooves and pits. In this situation the eccentric grinders are better suited. They are less productive, but if too much pressure is applied, the disc will block.
Grinding a log cabin in grooves and corners
Regardless of the logs used, the grooves need to be sanded with an angle grinder. In this case, it is recommended to use a smaller nozzle than the disk. If they are at the same speed, the tool can jam.
Important! The most problematic areas are considered corners of the log house. They are best finished with chisels.
Finishing the ends of logs
For these areas it is worth using an angle grinder, which has an abrasive wheel with grit 40. The speed adjustment allows you to choose the optimal speed mode. Fine grit sanding is not required.
Processing of the log house inside
This procedure is no different from the external one. If the walls are not planned to cover, you need to make an additional pass of finishing. For this, an abrasive disk of 120.
How to sand a log wall
In this case, the same tools as in the processing of logs will be suitable. In this case, you need to assess how much of the wood to be removed. If the sauna is built of glued or profiled beam, you do not need to sand anything. In this situation, it is sufficient to use an angle grinder. If little experience, it is better to take an eccentric machine.
Important! Conventional log walls must be well leveled. In this case it is required to use an angle grinder.
When it is better to grind
Grind a log cabin is required after the main shrinkage. During this period, the log dries out, which facilitates working with it. With damp wood remove even a thin layer is difficult. If the log is made of dried timber, it can be processed immediately.
Working procedure and organization
Since a little time should pass between sanding and processing, the procedures should be carried out along the crown. Start the work is allowed from the top or bottom. Sand one wall and then proceed to the second wall. Coat the structure with primer or impregnation after finishing the treatment of one wall. In this case it is first necessary to clean the surface from dust.
Sometimes there are dark stains on the surface of the wood. They appear due to fungal activity. Such defects do not affect the integrity of the material, but seriously impair the appearance of the building.
If you plan to paint the structure with light or transparent stains, you need to fight the shades. For this purpose, it is recommended to use special substances for bleaching wood. On top it is worth to apply flame retardant, primer coat and finishing substances.
Wood sanding has a number of features. For the procedure to be successful, it is important to choose the right tool and strictly follow the rules of its application.