What is a screwdriver? In fact, this is the same drill, however, a screwdriver differs from it in that it has a lower speed of rotation of the chuck and, at the same time, more torque.
Another difference. if the speed of rotation on a drill can vary smoothly, then on a screwdriver, as a rule, “fixed” speeds of rotation of the chuck are installed. This is due to the “slip” function of the screwdriver’s chuck: when the screw is tightened, the chuck stops rotating, although the engine is still running. This function allows you to not tear off the slots and not "drive" the screw inward.
Different types of speeds are calculated for specific types of work and materials, as well as the "drilling" mode. Just like a drill, a screwdriver has a reverse function. The design features of a screwdriver allow them to perform a wide range of work: tightening and loosening screws and self-tapping screws, screws and nuts, drilling soft materials.
The use of a screwdriver, for example, in the manufacture of drywall partitions or in the assembly of furniture, increases the speed of work at times. Therefore, a screwdriver is rightfully considered one of the most common tools in the set of any master.
The designs of all screwdrivers are approximately the same. They are quite light and have a “pistol” handle, designed to work with the tool with one hand.
Youtube How to insert a bit into a screwdriver?
The start key is designed to regulate the speed of rotation by pressing force.
An important element of a screwdriver is its power source. If the drills are available in versions with mains power as well as in an autonomous (cordless) version, then screwdrivers, due to the application, are almost exclusively cordless. The battery is the heaviest and most expensive part of a screwdriver.
Household models of screwdrivers are usually equipped with nickel-cadmium (labeled “Ni-Cd”), and more expensive professional ones with lithium-ion (“Li-Ion”) batteries. Their difference lies in the fact that nickel-cadmium have a shorter service life (about 1000 recharges), and also have one unpleasant feature: if the battery is not completely discharged, its capacity decreases during subsequent charging.
But whatever the battery, its capacity is limited by the weight of the instrument. Therefore, even the most expensive models of screwdrivers are able to work continuously for no more than a few hours. Some manufacturers solve this problem by introducing a second spare battery into the screwdriver kit. However, this significantly increases the cost of the tool. The battery is being charged from a normal network. The charging speed again depends on the model and can range from 2-3 to 6 hours, although some models of screwdrivers provide for “fast” charging in 10-15 minutes.
Working with a screwdriver is easy. The nozzle necessary for operation (a “bit”, or a wrench, or a drill) is clamped in the chuck lips, and, with some effort, pressing the screwdriver, pressing the button rotates the chuck. If you need to unscrew the screw or pull out the drill, turn on the "reverse". When working, several rules should be observed:
- Before working with a screwdriver, fully charge it. At the same time, strictly follow the instructions on the charging time. “overexposure” of the battery in the charger reduces its service life.
- When working correctly, select the "screwing" or "drilling" mode. this way you will protect the engine and screwdriver gear from breakdowns.
Remember that the screwdriver is not intended for drilling stone or concrete.
Features and varieties of the tool
The screwdriver can operate on battery or mains. The type of work of the tool can be different, in connection with this, it is customary to distinguish its varieties:
- drill / driver;
- cordless screwdriver;
- ordinary screwdriver.
The operating principles of each of these tools are similar, the difference between them lies in the functions for which they are intended.
The drill / driver also allows you to drill a hole, and the usual one is designed only for working with fasteners. The screwdriver is designed to work with bolts and nuts, and the cordless screwdriver is used to tighten and twist fasteners with Phillips hats. The last device has the smallest power of all.
A screwdriver is indispensable if it is necessary to make a suspended ceiling, mount drywall or sheet insulation. The absence of this device greatly complicates the work, during which it is necessary to twist a lot of screws or other fasteners. And in everyday life, when you need to screw or unscrew 1 screw, doing it with a screwdriver is much more convenient and faster.
Device setup and design features
The design of the tool is quite simple. An engine and a gear mechanism are enclosed in a plastic case, which drives a bit located at the end of the device. The design also provides for the inclusion of a toggle switch, a switch of direction and speed, a diode backlight, and a torque regulator.
The principle of operation of the tool is as simple as its design. The nozzle, mounted in the cartridge, is driven by a shaft, which begins to move from the engine through the gearbox. Before starting work with a screwdriver, you need to check whether the battery is charged and whether the nozzle is installed, which is necessary.
To install the necessary nozzle, you need to select it by the size of the cap of the fastener and insert it into the magnetic holder of the cartridge. For this, the cartridge and clutch must be removed from the device. After setting the necessary bits, the chuck is re-attached to the tool body.
Next, you need to set the optimal bit rotation speed. This can be done using a special knob. The necessary mode is set on the used device before it starts operation. You can also switch the direction of the bit.
Before using a screwdriver, you need to adjust the depth of the fastening element. Over time, it may be necessary to replace the magnetic holder in the cartridge. To replace the magnetic holder, the cartridge and clutch, magnetic holder are removed, and another is installed in its place. After that, the chuck with the clutch is installed back into the body of the screwdriver.
Safety precautions when operating a screwdriver
Use the tool only after completing all the necessary settings. To get started, you need to connect the device to the network or connect a battery to it. After that, you can turn on the screwdriver and perform the actions for which it is intended, that is, tighten or unscrew the fasteners. Compliance with the operating rules allows you to extend the life of the tool and get a better result in a shorter time.
It is strictly forbidden to adjust the movement of the bit during the operation of the screwdriver. Care must be taken to ensure that moisture does not get on the instrument or inside its body. It is strongly recommended that you use the device only in sufficient light. In addition, if the tool is a network, then the electric network should work without voltage drops.
It is strictly forbidden to touch the screwdriver and grounded objects. If this happens, the wizard may be shocked. Do not allow the device to overheat due to prolonged continuous operation. If the screwdriver is not given rest, then it can burn out. Instructions for the tool should be studied in detail before starting operation. Do not work with a screwdriver if any malfunctions are identified in it.
It is advisable to wear special protective clothing for the duration of the work.
Thus, despite the simplicity of the design and the principle of operation of the device, not every novice master knows how to use a screwdriver correctly to extend its service life. Compliance with some simple operating rules will ensure the safety of the master, the safety of the device and the excellent quality of the result.
The device and principle of the screwdriver
According to the method of nutrition, screwdrivers are divided into two varieties:
- network connected to 220 V networks;
- rechargeable, using the energy of the accumulated charge.
Recently, tools with a combined feeding method have also appeared. They combine all the advantages of both varieties.
The external and internal devices of the network and battery models are almost the same. In general, a power tool consists of the following structural elements:
- power buttons;
- switch of the direction of rotation of the electric motor (reverse);
- speed controller (number of revolutions);
- power lock buttons;
- torque regulator (torque switch).
The photograph below shows the design of a cordless screwdriver.
A number of models optional equipped with backlight, which is constructively implemented in various ways. Not every product has a speed controller and a power lock button. Networked electric screwdrivers have a power cord, and battery-powered ones have a charge storage instead.
Power Tool Housing most often made of plastic, much less often. from alloys of different metals. For convenience, it usually consists of 2 halves. Inside the case there are such main details:
- electric motor (direct or alternating current);
Electrical connections depends on the model.
An electric screwdriver can be equipped with different types of cartridges. The most widespread keyless three-jaw variant of this part. The cartridge also consists of individual parts, which are presented in the following photo.
It should be borne in mind that if the purpose of the screwdriver is highly specialized, this can make some design changes.
Pprinciple of work both network and cordless screwdrivers are the same. It lies in the fact that electrical energy drives the electric motor. Through the gearbox and shaft, the force and speed are transmitted from the motor to the nozzle fixed in the cartridge. She is already drilling a hole or screwing or unscrewing the fasteners. A feature of the process is that the electric motor for network models operates at an alternating voltage of 220 V, and for battery models. at a constant voltage, the value of which can be in the range from 3.5 V to 36 V.
Changing the nozzle on a screwdriver is not difficult. The tool can be equipped with a keyless chuck or a key. Replace the snap in both cases in a similar way. To pull the drill out of the screwdriver with keyless chuck and insert a new or different type of snap-in proceed as follows:
You can pull out the drill from the screwdriver (or another nozzle) by holding the moving part of the chuck with one hand, and pressing the start button with the other. Only previously should switch the direction of rotation to untwisting.
When the drill / driver is equipped with a chuck Full construction, then, to change the snap do this:
- inserting the key into the recess for him, untwist the cartridge;
- install the nozzle;
- clamp it by rotating the key clockwise.
There are models in which you can remove the cartridge of the same type, for example, quick-detachable, and replace it with a turnkey analog. Choosing any option, it is necessary to focus not only on convenience at work, but also the pros and cons of each of them should be taken into account. So, a turnkey chuck reliably clamps the equipment, which is important when drilling, and a quick-clamping allows you to quickly replace, even with one hand (the other holds on to the handle, pressing the start button as necessary).
Scope of the screwdriver
Correctly using a screwdriver. this means performing with it only those operations that are indicated in operational instructions manufacturer of this product. The main (as intended) for this tool is the following types of work:
- screwing or unscrewing fasteners of various types, including tightening and unscrewing bolts with nuts;
- drilling holes in materials of different hardness.
The use of a screwdriver for its intended purpose is the most common way to use this device, both at home and in construction, furniture manufacturing, electrical installation, in the assembly and repair of cars. The scope of the product is not limited to these areas: a drill / driver is useful wherever it is necessary to work with fasteners (assemble disassemble various structures, equipment, machines) and drill holes of relatively small sizes.
The scope of the possible application of a particular model is determined by what category it belongs to: household or professional. The tool, designed for home use, is relatively cheap, has little power and torque. Household models have low performance, as well as limited functionality.
Video: How to Insert a Small Drill into a Hammer
Screwdriver from occupational category It has advanced functionality and high technical performance. Such a tool is intended for continuous, effective use for its intended purpose. He also has much wider opportunities for unconventional exploitation.
Unconventional use cases
In addition to direct use, an electric screwdriver is used to perform various non-traditional operations. These include the following types of work:
- polishing a car and its headlights;
- stirring small volumes of various building mixtures and paints;
- drilling holes in ice (for this the tool is equipped with a special nozzle. a drill);
- knitting reinforcement;
- thread cutting;
- mowing the grass cover (for this purpose, the device is converted into a trimmer or lawn mower, or simply a nozzle with blades is inserted into the cartridge);
- chopping soft grass or thin branches (for this, a garden shredder is created on the basis of a drill / driver);
- grinding surfaces;
- cutting materials;
- twisting of wires.
This is an incomplete list of non-traditional work performed using cordless or network models of electric screwdrivers. Inventive thought does not stand still. Almost every specialist has options for work atypical for this power tool.
Using a screwdriver, you can return the car to its original color and shine. To polish the car, apply such varieties of nozzles:
- leather or fabric circles, with their help perform the initial cleaning of surfaces;
- felt. they are used for initial processing and finishing polishing (nozzles made of sheepskin are suitable);
- foam rubber.
Together with snap is also used polishing pastes and polishes. They are of the following types:
Using similar tools, headlights are polished.
The quality of the result is determined by the correct combination of nozzles with polishing agents, as well as accuracy and skill of the work.
Knitting reinforcing bars using steel wire is very common in the construction industry when erecting reinforced concrete (monolithic) structures, for example, foundations, houses. Even if you have to do a small amount of work, then working with a manual hook or pliers is not quite productive. A cordless or cordless electric screwdriver equipped with a hook-shaped nozzle will help to knit fittings much faster. At the same time, the power indicator of the tool is not particularly important.
Twisting the cut ends of wires, for example, in junction boxes. this is also quite a routine. You can speed up the process using a screwdriver with a special nozzle. How the twisting is done is shown in the video below:
Features of drilling with a screwdriver for concrete, metal, brick
Using electric screwdrivers, drill wood, metal, concrete and other materials. At the same time, the functionality of the model used depends on its technical indicators: power, magnitude, torque, the presence of shock mode, speed. The instruction manual contains precise instructions on whether this or that material can be drilled with a screwdriver. It also provides the maximum diameter of the holes created, and in some cases, the restrictions on the depth.
Brick or concrete wall Only a sufficiently powerful drill / driver can drill. In most cases, such devices can operate in shock mode. But to drill a concrete wall with a screwdriver, even an impact type, is quite problematic. This tool is only suitable for one-time operations. This time-consuming job is best done with a hammer drill.
In softwood even battery products from the household category are capable of creating holes with a cross section of up to 20 mm. Using budget models from the rating of the best electric screwdrivers of 2017, various metals are drilled, including steel. In this case, the holes in diameter can reach 10 mm.
Drills of a certain type are used for drilling each material. Nozzles differ not only in the material from which they are made, but also in design and sharpening.
When working with a tool, a rotating drill should enter the surface of the material perpendicular to it. this allows you to evenly distribute the load on the tooling, to create more accurate holes.
When drilling metal it is recommended that you first make a small indentation in the center of the future hole using a core. This will prevent the drill from sliding over a smooth metal surface. If you need to make a hole of a sufficiently large diameter, then you must first drill a smaller one. Also, when working with metal, it is recommended to lubricate the nozzle regularly with a special compound.
Using a drill screwdriver, it should be borne in mind that it is impossible to exert strong pressure on it, because it not only does not accelerate the work, but also can damage the drill, as well as the power tool itself. The effort must be kept constant at the same level. To avoid jamming or breaking the nozzle, you need to get it out of the drilled hole only during rotation. If the drill is still stuck, then you can get it by performing a reverse.
Drilling small parts It recommended to perform pre-fixing them grip. If you have to make a through hole in a thin sheet of metal or in a thick wooden blank, then under them you need to adjust even pieces of plywood or boards.
Recommendations for the proper care of the tool
Both battery and network models require periodic maintenance and ongoing care. Together with the proper storage and lack of operational overload, these factors can extend the life of the screwdriver.
Quality care is as follows:
- Water must not fall on the instrument. Therefore, the product should be stored in a designated, dry place.
- It is forbidden to throw an electric screwdriver.
- Do not overload the power tool: you can navigate while partially heating the case. Use only sharp drills.
- Must be done periodically cartridge lubrication: the frequency of the event is indicated in the operating instructions.
- If dirt, dust, chips or other contaminants get in, they should be removed with a dry cloth (especially carefully fuels and lubricants). You also need to wipe your device at the end of the day. Equipment should also always be in a clean condition.
- Batteries be stored so that there is no short circuit between their terminals. Do not allow deformation of drives, and also leave them under the direct influence of sunlight.
- Lithium-ion batteries are recommended to be stored half-charged from the maximum capacity, nickel-metal hydride batteries are fully charged, and nickel-cadmium batteries are partially discharged (but slightly).
- After storage (or new), nickel-cadmium storage devices should be subjected to 3 cycles of full charge / discharge before use so that they retain their capacity, and nickel-metal hydride. 4-5.
- Manufacturers recommend storing and operating electrical screwdrivers at temperatures from.5 to 30 degrees.
- Charger After charging the batteries, disconnect them from the battery models to prevent overheating.
- Before and after work, it is recommended to check the integrity of the product in use, especially its moving parts.
- When drilling is recommended periodically cool nozzle different ways.
Compliance with the given care recommendations does not take much time, but it contributes to a significant extension of the period of use of the product.
Before you start using a new screwdriver, it is recommended that you first familiarize yourself with the operating instructions for it from the manufacturer. It already indicates the design features of the model, its technical characteristics, a suitable field of application, frequency of service, recommendations for transportation and storage. The safety rules that must be followed are also mandatory.
If the smell of melting plastic or insulation, smoke, uncharacteristic noise, excessive vibration appears during the work with the tool, then you should immediately stop using it.
When the product is under warranty service, it is best to take it to a after-sales service. Otherwise, you can try to repair it yourself.
Varieties of the tool: characteristic features
The screwdriver can be classified into the following varieties:
- Cordless screwdriver
- Standard screwdriver
The working principle of the tools is similar to each other, but still there are differences in functionality.
A drill / driver is able not only to tighten the screw, but also to drill a hole. The wrench specializes in bolts and nuts. The third representative is a cordless screwdriver, designed exclusively for twisting / unscrewing fasteners with a Phillips head. The latter species is characterized by low power, in contrast to the above.
What does a screwdriver consist of? Device setup.
In the plastic case there is an engine and a gear mechanism that drives a bit, which is installed at the end of a screwdriver. The device is provided for by the presence of a start toggle switch, a direction and speed switch, diode illumination and a tightening time regulator.
The principle of the tool is very simple. The nozzle, previously fixed in the cartridge, moves with the help of a shaft, which starts moving from the motor through a gearbox. Before using a screwdriver, you should find out if the battery is charged, and whether the correct nozzle is installed.
Immediately before doing the work, you need to look at such a nozzle so that it matches the head of a self-tapping screw or screw.
To install the desired nozzle, you should select it by the size of the cap of the fastener element and fix it in the magnetic holder of the cartridge. First, the cartridge with the coupling must be removed from the device, and after fixing the bits, the cartridge must again be secured to the body of the screwdriver.
Then you need to assign a suitable bit speed. Adjustment is carried out through a special knob. The required mode is set in the off state of the tool.
Before using a power tool, it is necessary to adjust the screwing depth of the fastener. After some time, you may need to replace the magnetic holder. To change it, the cartridge, magnetic mount and coupling are removed. Further chuck sleeve secured back to block screwdriver housing.
How to change / insert / pull out the nozzle (bit), drill (Video)
After you select the right nozzle (bit) for the drill, taking into account the size of the screw head and the configuration of the recesses (straight, cross), it must be installed in the center between the open cams, and secured in the cartridge by turning the sleeve clockwise. If the key type cartridge is selected, then the key is installed in the recess on the cartridge, and then it is turned clockwise until the nozzle is fixed. The end of the nozzle is placed in the groove of the screw. Before the device is started, check the accuracy of the installation of the direction of rotation, the direction should coincide with the screw tightening.
Increasing the pressure on the start button controls the optimal rotation speed. When the screw is completely immersed, the force limiting mechanics are activated, and then the drill stops.
How to work with a screwdriver (Video)
After completing all the settings, you can take up the use of a power tool. Having studied the operating instructions of the screwdriver, it is possible to prevent possible malfunctions in the process of handling the device, thereby increasing the tool life.
It is not allowed to adjust the frequency and direction of rotation of the nozzle in the on state of the device. Do not touch the grounded objects with a power tool, otherwise a person may be shocked. Do not use the appliance for a long time, as it may burn out.
The room in which it is best to use a screwdriver should be well lit, and the power supply network should be constant, without jumps, this will avoid equipment malfunctions. Work should take place in specialized clothing and only with serviceable tools.
Can I use a drill as a screwdriver
A screwdriver can also be used as a drill. The mechanism of the cartridge makes it possible to firmly fix the drill with a cylindrical tail. To get started, you need to install a drill in the chuck.
Be careful, as the design is not intended for making holes, especially for hardwood, metal or concrete, because there is a high probability of damage to the planetary gearbox.
Screwdriver Service (Video)
There is nothing remarkable in the maintenance, since today modern models have increased strength and can withstand even falls from a small height. The cartridge should be regularly lubricated and cleaned. Avoid getting moisture, dirt, sand in the middle of the tool. Watch the overload of the screwdriver, if you feel that the screwdriver starts to work with effort, lower the speed of revolutions.
Correct installation of the drill in the drill chuck
Before you figure out how to properly install the drill in the punch, it is advisable to figure out how to insert the drill into the drill. An element of its design, in which the drill shank is fixed, is a chuck. On most models of modern drills, cam-type cartridges are installed, consisting of:
- cylindrical body;
- rings or sleeves that rotate around the outer surface of the housing;
- cams installed in the inside of the housing.
When the sleeve rotates clockwise, the cams simultaneously approach each other, thereby reliably clamping the shank of the drill being installed. Accordingly, the question of how to remove the drill from the drill is not difficult to solve: it is enough to start turning the sleeve counterclockwise. In this case, the cams will begin to diverge, which will make it easy to remove the drill from the drill. It should be borne in mind that before installing the drill, the cams should be opened with a margin, in which case the tool can be easily inserted.
The convenience of using cam type chucks lies not only in the efficiency and high reliability of the tool installation, but also in the fact that drills of almost any diameter can be inserted into them. When using such cartridges, difficulties with how to change a drill in a drill, as a rule, do not arise. A correctly inserted tool holds these chucks securely and allows you to drill an exact hole.
Cam chucks are used in both industrial and household drilling tools. Clamping devices for household drills are available for two ranges of drill diameters: from 0.8 to 10 and from 1.5 to 13 mm.
The design of cam chucks can include two different methods of clamping a tool: key and quick-clamping.
In the first case, the sleeve is actuated using a special key, on the conical working part of which there are teeth. The key, in order to actuate the clamping mechanism, must be inserted into the holes on the side of the cartridge case and rotated. There may even be three such holes in individual models. Accordingly, in order to loosen or pinch the cams, the key must be inserted into each of them and begin to rotate counterclockwise or along it.
After loosening the cams with the key, it is necessary to turn the cartridge itself counterclockwise, which will increase the distance between the cams to the desired value. The inserted tool is fixed in the reverse order: first the chuck itself is clamped (when it is rotated clockwise), and then the sockets are clamped using the key.
It is much simpler and faster to pull out and install drills when using a quick-clamping chuck. In it, the sleeve is actuated by rotating it manually. To limit the force of the cams, they are often equipped with locking elements.
Before inserting the drill, first make sure that the drill is in working condition and de-energize it. Only then can you start installing the drill.
Installation of a working tool on a rotary hammer
As mentioned above, the hammer must be checked for operability before installing the drill. To perform such a check, the operating mode of the punch is set to drill without a fight. If, after pressing the start button of the device, you hear and feel that its engine is running smoothly and without jolts, it means that the hammer can be used for its intended purpose, after inserting a drill or a drill into it.
Before inserting the drill into the perforator, it is necessary to treat the shank of the working tool with a special lubricant that will protect it from corrosion. The procedure for installing the drill in the punch is as follows.
- The rotary hammer is mounted on the back of the floor or other hard surface.
- The movable part of the clamping device is pulled back.
- The tool is inserted into the punch until it stops. In this case, the drill or drill, which must be inserted into the perforator, must be held vertically. If you neglect this requirement, you may encounter the fact that the tool will fly out or even break, and this can also lead to failure of the puncher itself.
Given the fact that clamping chucks on modern rotary hammers are distinguished by a rather simple principle of operation, questions as to how to get a drill out of a rotary hammer, as a rule, do not arise.
After removing the used tool from the punch to replace it with another, it is advisable to immediately clean its shank from grease and building dust. At the same time, the shank of the drill that you are going to insert must also be cleaned and pre-lubricated. Replaced in this way the tool will not harm the clamping mechanism of the punch and will last much longer.
Using a punch, you can not only get a drilled structural element, but also perform processing using a special chisel. You can also install as a working body of such a device mixer.
Home masters often also have questions about how to insert a drill into a screwdriver or how to change a chuck on a hammer drill. To solve the first question is quite simple, since the design of the screwdriver uses cartridges of the same design as on drills and perforators. But the question of how to properly replace the cartridge on a punch, should be approached with skill: it is not easy to carry out such a procedure without certain knowledge and skills.
Some tips for using a drilling tool
In order not to face the fact that a flying tool or concrete chips will harm your health, drilling work must be carried out in compliance with all safety measures. Safety glasses, gloves, earplugs or ear muffs should be used as a means of ensuring this safety. Naturally, all work must be carried out in special clothing, in which there should be no hanging elements that can be wound on the drill.
In order to avoid overheating of the electric tool used for drilling, it is necessary to give it a rest on a regular basis. It is very important to insert the drill correctly (this must be done until the tool stops).
If the drill stuck in the wall during drilling, it should be removed without removing the tool from its surface. To do this, you need to remove the drill from the punch and insert another, with which you need to begin to destroy the wall around the drill stuck in it.
If the drill cannot be removed from the drill or punch, it must be clamped in a vice, and then with a hammer, using a wooden gasket, tap on the cams of the clamping mechanism. Oil can help in this matter, a few drops of which are poured into a key type cartridge.