How to make a reducer on a single axle tractor with your own hands
The design of modern power tillers involves only a few basic parts, allowing the power tiller to be as easy to use as possible.
And if there are no questions to such parts as a tiller or plow, then the gearbox on a power tiller is a topic of interest for discussion in the circle of power tiller users.
Owners often have questions about what oil to fill in the gearbox of a motorblock or even how to make a gearbox by yourself. The attention paid to aspects in the use of a motor-block gearbox never ceases for a second.
Types of Gearboxes
The design of any motoblock converter (gearbox) consists of a set of motion-transmitting shafts or gears of different diameters enclosed in a robust housing.
The converters are divided into several types according to the type of transmission:
For chain-type gearboxes, rotation is transmitted using a chain and sprockets, which are mounted on rotary shafts. The principle of a belt drive is similar to a chain drive, but instead of sprockets and chain, pulleys and a belt are used.
Inside the gear reducer housing are shafts with straight or bevel gears mounted on them. Gears transmit the rotation from the motor to the moving parts. Bevel gears are used in angular mechanisms for heavy power tillers.
How to make a homemade single-axle tractor with a gearbox from an ant
The chain reducer with two stages is designed to reduce the speed of rotation and increase the torque transmitted from the output shaft of the power unit of a motor-block to the wheels or cutters.
Drawing of the chain reducer
body from channel 0); 2. cover from st. 2. drive sprocket of the second stage (z = 11, t = 19,05); 5. keyway; 6. bearing 206 (2 pcs.); 7. compensatory bushing; 8. shaft; 9. nut M22x1,5 with a spring washer; 10. oil seal; 11. remote bushing with keyway; 12. eccentric body of bearing (StZ, 2 pcs.); 13- screw M8 with spring washer (30 pcs.);
Kamco Power Tiller Gear Box Fittings
second stage idler sprocket (z = 25, t = 19,05); 15. bearing 3008 (2 pcs.); 16. bearing housing; 17. sealing bush; 18. left shaft; 19. plug of oil drain hole (screw M10); 20. bottom of housing made of steel (screw M8); 21. oil seal; 22. bearing housing; 23. oil seal. s4 sheet); 21. oil filler plug (screw Ml0); 22,23. oil seals (2 pcs. each); 21. oil filler plug (screw Ml0); 22. oil seals (2 pcs. each).); 24. right half-axle; 25. fixing screws M6 (8 pcs.); 26. bolt M8; 27. chain t = 19,05; 28. 1st stage sprocket (z = 57, t = 12,7); 29. spacer sleeve
The first gear stage has two sprockets with 17 and 57 teeth, respectively, spaced at 12.75 mm. Drive sprocket with 17 teeth sits on the power unit output shaft, driven sprocket sits on the outer flange of the second stage primary shaft.
Second stage has a reinforced second stage with an 11-tooth drive sprocket and a 25-tooth driven sprocket with 19.05 mm tooth pitch. Since during the work of power tiller the second stage is close to cultivated ground, it is protected from dust by closed crankcase, which is directly connected by welding to the cross-bars, as well as to the side members the crankcase is connected by welding through the steel spacers.
A strut is welded between the crankcase and crossbar for safety. Crankcase welded from two channels with flanges that are reduced to 35 mm in length. In the lower parts of the walls of channels have a semi-circle shape, instead of sheared flanges welded bottom steel sheet 4 mm, which is bent on the walls of channels in the form of a half cylinder. The top of the crankcase is covered with a cover with a gasket made of oil and grease resistant plastic sheet.
In both walls two co-axial holes d = 100 mm are made for bearing housings. Around each of them is made equally six other threaded holes with threads M8, whose purpose is to fasten the housings to the crankcase. housing of the lower half-axle bearings are conventional, that of the upper shaft bearings are eccentric. Turning them about their axis by at least 15° is used to steplessly adjust the chain tension of the second gear stage.
Second stage shaft mounted in two ball bearings 206. The drive sprocket is locked midway between the inner walls of the housing and is connected to the shaft by a keyway. On the centering boss of the right axle half sits a large idler sprocket, which is fixed with six M8 bolts between the opposite flanges of the axle half. The bottom of the large sprocket and a portion of the chain are permanently submerged in oil.
The moving chain conveys oil to the upper part of the housing when the engine is running, thus providing lubrication of the second stage rubbing parts. Gland seals in the bearing housings prevent oil leakage. The rigid flange connection of the half axles forms a single shaft mounted in two ball bearings 308.
Homemade reducer for power tiller with his own hands, drawing, photo
To make a reducer for a motor-block with his own hands. a difficult task and at the same time interesting. This is one of the important mechanisms, without which the work of garden equipment using a motor block is unthinkable. Its main task is to reduce the speed of the drive shaft and simultaneously increase or decrease the torque on the drive.
It is possible to buy a transmission mechanism for your single-axle tractor in a specialized store, but it is more reasonable to assemble a reducer with your own hands, taking into account all the technical characteristics of the engine. This will be the best option, because when the mechanism is designed for a particular power plant, an individual calculation is made, which will simplify the task of mating it with the engine.
When starting to make a reducer, you need to clarify what type of mechanism is preferable for your power tiller. This depends not only on the power of the motor, but also on the layout of the motor, as well as the level of complexity of the tasks at hand.
The design of any motoblock converter (gearbox) consists of a set of motion transmitting shafts or gears of different diameters enclosed in a robust housing.
Converters are divided into several types according to the type of transmission:
For chain-type gearboxes, the transmission of rotation is provided by using a chain and differently-sized sprockets, which are installed on the rotary shafts. A belt-driven mechanism works similarly to a chain-driven mechanism, but instead of sprockets and chain, pulleys and a belt are used.
Inside the gearbox housing, shafts with straight or bevel gears are located. Gears transfer rotation from the engine to the moving parts. Bevel gears are used in angular mechanisms for heavy power tillers.
Types of mechanisms
According to the method of operation and action, all reducing gears for power tillers are divided into several types:
An angular gearbox using bevel gears (bevel gear) is used to redirect rotational energy from the vertical drive to the horizontal plane.
Reducing gears, or walking-beam reducers for power tillers, reduce the number of revolutions and increase the power of the driving mechanism.
They are considered the most reliable for air-cooled diesel or gasoline power tillers.
This allows them to be used for particularly heavy work. for example, for plowing heavy soil or harvesting potatoes with a potato digger.
In a special article, you can find the drawings of a potato digger for a power tiller.
How to make a homemade gearbox for a tiller
For the self-assembly of the converting device on a single-axle tractor, it is necessary to stock up on the following tools:
- caliper and metal ruler;
- A set of screwdrivers of different sizes, including an oblique one;
- pliers and wire cutters;
- metal saw;
- An electric drill with a set of metal drill bits;
- hammers. large and small;
- rubber pads.
If you decide to assemble a gearbox for your power tiller yourself, be sure to conduct a rough calculation. This will help determine, at a minimum, the gear ratio and type of converting device you need.
You can also estimate the dimensions of your future gearbox with the help of preliminary calculations.
In order to make a proper calculation, determine the parameters of your engine. For the calculations, you need to clarify a few data:
Power tiller gear box repair/arm shaft uninstall,repair and install very easy.
- Number of engine crankshaft revolutions. However, this value is not constant: if you “step on the gas”, it will increase significantly. So the calculation is based on idle speed plus 10 percent.
- Calculated rpm for the suspension axle. This is calculated using the wheel diameter to determine the distance travelled per revolution. You can use this to calculate how fast a suspension axle should rotate to get the most comfortable walking speed for your power tiller. This averages between 3 and 5 km/h.
Let’s take a simple example: the engine idle power, taking into account an increase of 10% is 600 rpm, and to provide a speed of 3 km / hr requires a speed of 200 rpm.
Consequently, the calculated gear ratio is 3:1.
In other words, to reduce the speed of rotation of the axis by three times, to provide a speed of 3 km per hour, three times the torque.
Step-by-step instructions for assembling a chain reducer
With some skill, you can make a gearbox of any type with your own hands, but the easiest way to assemble a small-sized mechanism with a chain gear. Materials for it are easier to find, they are reliable in operation.
To make a homemade chain mechanism, stock up on the following parts and materials:
- sprockets with the required number of teeth;
- driven shaft;
- cylindrical and eccentric bearings;
- protective cover;
- fasteners to connect the housing parts;
- chains with required number of links.
When assembling a gearbox of any design, bearings must not be replaced by sleeves. The misalignment between the driving and driven parts is inadmissible.
You can use an old gearbox housing of the right size as a protective cover by drilling holes in it.
- To make a homemade gearbox for a motor block, first mount the drive sprocket on the motor’s output shaft. A key or flange can be used to secure it. Depending on the design of the output shaft, even spot welding may be used.
- The drive shaft should be machined. The sprocket is mounted on it in the same way as on the drive shaft.
- A more secure method is to make the shaft from two half axles, with flanges machined on the ends. Drive sprocket is fastened between them by bolting the whole structure together. This version will fix the second stage sprocket more accurately and securely.
- To protect the gear mechanism from dirt and mechanical damage, it is placed in a protective housing, which also serves as a reservoir containing liquid lubricant for moving parts.
- Drill a socket in the protective housing (crankcase) for bearings. The drive shaft is mounted on cylindrical bearings and the drive shaft on eccentrics. By varying the position of the eccentric bearing in the housing within a radius of 15° due to its design the position of the drive shaft is also altered and thus the chain tension is adjusted.
Making the reducer of a motor-block
The simplest design of a two-shaft reverse gearbox for a homemade motor-block consists of two shafts on one of which (this is the ve Open photo: “Construction of a reducer for a motor-block in large size.
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Making a homemade gearbox for the tiller
To make a homemade gearbox for a motor-block were taken parts from the engine B-150 M: crankcase, gears, chain sprockets, as well as an additional shaft of the control. The crankcase must be sawed into two halves and remove the kickstarter, gearshift mechanism and crank chamber from it. Plug to be installed and welded in place of the kickstarter outlet with argon welding.
In the left half of the sump install the bearing axle of the right wheel of the power tiller. A spare casing from the same engine is used as a axle box.
As the left cover is also used part of the crankcase of engine B-150 M, which is supplemented with one part. duralumin bushing. The bushing is pressed into the crank chamber and has a hole corresponding to the diameter of the engine output shaft shank.
Chassis of the power unit
- 1. right wheel;
- 2. left wheel;
- 3. pinion of the first gear
- 4. drive shaft;
- 5. reducer;
- 6. drive pinion;
- 7. hub;
- 8. locking screw;
- 9. housing of driving shaft;
- 10. axle box flange;
- 11. nut and bolt M8;
- 12. spline bushing;
- 13. shaft;
- 14. nuts M14;
- 15. washer;
- 16. oil seal;
- 17,18. bearings;
- 19. motor.
The leading shaft of the power tiller
- 1,2. cantilever parts of the shaft (from the secondary shafts of gears B-150 M);
- 3. gear wheel (from the pinion of the first gear of V-150M);
- 4. front part of the shaft (bar d22 mm);
- 5. shoulder to be cut off.
Engine and gearbox are secured to each other with M10 bolts.
How to make a mini-tractor for a household
You can weld together the frame of your power tiller using suitable profiles if you have them handy. A channel can be used for the frame longitudinal members. and for transverse ones. from below, half-axle bearing housings must be bolted to the frame horizontal longitudinal members and to the brackets.
assembling these elements on their brackets must be carried out with special care: the alignment of the wheels and perpendicularity of the half-axes in relation to the longitudinal axis of the frame must be observed. This is important for the subsequent marking of holes for mounting housings with bearings and further putting them on a solid axle, which subsequently must be sawed into two half-axles.
If the housings are properly installed, the mandrel in the half-axle bearings will rotate freely.
After that, 25 x 25 mm corners should be welded to the frame in its rear part. Then the transmission cover is bolted to it, made of 5-6 mm thick steel sheet. This element is necessary as a base to mount the intermediate shaft, differential and control gear. The rear side of the cowling must have a removable cover, and the front side must have a bracket for fixing the fuel tank.
The front part of the frame from the inside is equipped with welded-on corners, which will serve as a bracket for the engine with a forced cooling fan.
The axle (or half axle) must be made of quality steel. Dimensions of this element can be adjusted depending on available bearings and wheel hub sizes. Next, two coupling halves must be mounted on the halves from the inside.
The right half coupling should move freely on the square, and with the lever mounted on the control rod should be engaged with the left half coupling. This ensures the rigid connection of the half-axles, i.e. е. wheel lock.
The traverse should rotate 180° or the required intermediate angle, so that additional convenience is possible when controlling the tiller while working.
Watch the video “Homemade mini-tractor” to clearly see how this agricultural machine is constructed:
Power tillers with gearboxes and reduction gears for power tillers
Reduction gearbox for Moto-Block, or in common parlance a gear-reducer, is installed on modern air-cooled diesel and gasoline Moto-Blocks. The reduction gear enables the user to use the single-axle tractor for plowing and potato-digging in especially difficult terrain. A reduction gearbox helps with slipping wheels when own power is insufficient.
Power tillers with reduction gears
To understand what a gear reducer is, consider the structure of the transmission. It transmits torque from the engine to the wheels, and changes the tractor’s speed and direction of travel. The transmission consists of a gearbox, differential, gearbox and clutch. Transmission assemblies can be gear, chain, belt, or a combination of both. Gear transmissions consist of conical and spur gears (gearboxes). It is used on some models of machines and heavy power tillers. In the figure you can see a gear transmission of motor-block “Ugra” NMB-1, which uses a gear reducer.
Making or selecting prefabricated designs
With access to a wide range of components: junkyard equipment or ownerless property of a repair shop, it is possible to build a gearbox with a precise selection of the gear ratio.
However, this complex piece of construction requires considerable machining. You can pick up a suitable size housing, drill holes for the shafts on the bearings, and assemble a design no worse than the factory one.
However, experience shows that selecting off-the-shelf designs with minor modifications is much more effective. As an example, let’s consider a homemade single-axle tractor based on the motor from an Izh motorcycle.
Own gearbox is used, with the possibility of shifting speeds. The original gear ratio is not enough, although a small sprocket on the output shaft of the gearbox complete with a large sprocket from the drive wheel already provides a good reduction in rpm.
Another small sprocket is mounted on the shaft, which transmits torque to the wheels with a second chain. In turn, a large-diameter sprocket is mounted on the drive axle.
The result is a design with two-stage speed reduction and solid torque. Using a motorcycle gearbox, you can select the desired speed without using the throttle grip. The engine almost always runs at idle speed, which prolongs its life.
No less popular is the use of a ready-made reducer from the scooter “Muravey”.
It is not necessary to use the entire wheel platform, just mount your rollers on the axle. Using a gearbox from the selected power plant. you get the best ratio of power to speed.