Nail fungus is now very easy to obtain. A quarter of the world’s population has some or other signs of nail mycosis.
Self-medication, the use of "folk methods", inattention. all this contributes to the fact that the disease develops actively and goes into neglected form, when the treatment of the fungus is very difficult, and requires a long time.
Sometimes, due to ineffective drugs or the lack of proper treatment, the mild form of the nail fungus becomes neglected, which is more difficult to cure.
The main reasons for the development of neglected fungus:
- Inefficiency of the applied local medicines. Very often, varnishes and weakly acting creams fail in the treatment of fungus in the thumb;
- Discomfort, inflammation, pain, and other symptoms are caused by yeast-like fungi. Other species and types of fungus do not make themselves felt for a very long time. A change in the color and structure of the nail begin to indicate the advanced form of the disease. The nails begin to break, become brittle, and the plate thickens.
Depending on the nature of the changes occurring with the affected nail, i.e. Based on symptoms, there are:
- Hypertrophic. it is diagnosed if the nail changes its color, loses its natural shine, thickens and changes its usual shape, in some cases collapsing along the edges.
- Onycholytic (atrophic). manifests itself in the form of atrophy and rejection of the affected segment of the nail from the nail bed.
- Normotrophic, which is accompanied by a change in the color of the nail, the appearance of spots and stripes on the plate, but maintaining its normal shine and thickness.
How to determine the running stage?
Specialists distinguish several stages of the development of fungal infection of the nails. Let’s consider them in more detail:
- The initial stage is characterized by the absence of visible signs of damage. Diagnosis of the disease is possible only in laboratory conditions. Unfortunately, most patients do not pay due attention to the early diagnosis of onychomycosis. Namely, in the early stages of the fungus, it can be successfully cured and not started.
- The next stage already has obvious symptoms. While a fungal infection develops, the patient notes a thickening of the nail, its yellowing, and a change in structure. A person can also notice the ingrowth of the nail into the surrounding tissue. Fungal infection can spread to all parts of the nail. It has increased keratinization.
- The last stage is classified as neglected. In this case, damage to the entire nail plate is observed. It crumbles, collapses, and often completely exfoliates.
Onychomycosis of nails at a late stage should be treated not only locally, but also systemically. For this, antifungal tablets are prescribed that have an effect on the whole body. They are quite toxic and have contraindications, and therefore it is not worth taking them yourself. Also, those who have liver problems should be discarded.
Running forms of onychomycosis provoke a number of serious complications:
- allergic reactions;
- involvement in the inflammatory process of nerve endings and roots, which causes intense pain;
- the spread of fungi into the bloodstream, and subsequently into the internal organs;
- the appearance of dermatitis and eczema;
- exacerbation of chronic pathologies;
- bronchial asthma;
- decreased efficiency of the immune system;
- susceptibility to viral and infectious diseases;
- asthmatic chronic bronchitis.
As you can see, a nail fungus in a severe stage affects the functioning of absolutely all organs and systems. This is due to the fact that pathogenic microorganisms secrete toxins that impede the normal functioning of the body.
How to treat an advanced form of nail fungus?
Starting treatment of a nail fungus in an advanced stage, one should remember about the long-term elimination of the disease. Usually, therapy lasts for 6 months, and sometimes longer. So that onycomycosis does not return, it is necessary to strictly observe preventive measures after recovery.
- Monotherapy consists in the use of a single drug of general or local action, which is impractical for damage to more than 50% of the nail plate, as well as for multiple fungal lesions.
- Combined treatment includes procedures for the mechanical removal of affected areas of the nail, the use of antifungal drugs of external and general action, as well as polishing of the affected areas with the subsequent application of antifungal drugs.
Video: How to Nail a Fungus
The therapy of the advanced form consists of an individual complex treatment, which includes antifungal drugs in the form of tablets or capsules, as well as creams, ointments, solutions, sprays, vitamins. If the doctor considers it necessary, then he can prescribe hardware treatment of affected nails, ozone therapy or laser treatment.
For the treatment of nail fungus, it is necessary to use special creams, drops, ointments and gels. Before applying them 2 times a day, you need to grind the affected nail with a file.
Here is a list of inexpensive but effective drugs:
- Clotrimazole. The drug prevents the synthesis of nucleic acid acids, which leads to the destruction of the membrane of fungal cells and their death. Price 70 rub.
- Mycosan. The drug effectively destroys the membranes of the fungus, eliminates the enzymes it produces that damage the nail, and creates a protective film on the plate against other onychomycosis pathogens. The package includes: ointment for nails (available in a 5 ml tube); applicator brush; disposable files. 10 pcs. In this regard, the price is high, from 850 to 1,000 rubles.
- Exoderyl. Available in the form of a spray and ointment, it has an antibacterial, anti-inflammatory effect. Price 500 rub.
- Lamisil. This medical product is used 1-2 times a day as prescribed by a doctor. Price 550 rub.
Before using some varnishes and ointments, it is necessary to remove the damaged nail plate, as well as areas of a healthy nail around the affected area, after which the composition is applied and left until completely absorbed (in the case of cream or ointment) or dried (in the case of varnish).
In parallel with the use of external agents, the administration of systemic antifungal drugs is prescribed:
- Fluconazole Depending on the doctor’s testimony, clinical situation and the chosen treatment regimen, the initial daily dose of the drug is prescribed from 50 to 400 mg. The price is 50 rubles.
- Metronidazole. An effective drug to combat protozoa, which is characterized by antibacterial activity. Price 20 rub.
- Itraconazole. This is the drug with the widest fungicidal profile: it destroys dermatophytes, yeast and mold. The cure of even advanced forms of the disease is up to 90% of cases. Once in the nail, the drug remains there, without returning to the blood. Price 400 rub.
- Terbinafine. When undergoing treatment with this drug, active substances that provide a fungicidal effect accumulate in the skin, nails, hair. The average duration of treatment for onychomycosis is 6-12 months. Price 350 rub.
Treatment of the nail fungus in a neglected form by complete removal of the plate is sometimes the only way, but even without an integrated approach, it may not give the desired effect.
Several plate removal methods are possible:
- Home methods. The plate is steamed and removed with the help of pedicure tools.
Hardware pedicure. It is carried out in a specialized salon using various devices.
- Surgical removal. At the same time, the nail bed remains open and the person loses his ability to work for several weeks.
If less than half of the nail is affected by the fungus, then part of the plate can be removed; if more than 50%, complete removal cannot be dispensed with.
However, this method has contraindications:
- infectious and chronic diseases;
- skin diseases;
- period of pregnancy, lactation;
It is the laser that allows you to treat the affected area so thoroughly that sometimes only three to four procedures with an interval of one month are enough. The speed of such treatment is due to the fact that under the influence of a laser, bacteria. pathogens and spores of the fungus die instantly. The average cost of one procedure 1000. 1500 rubles.
Hydrogen peroxide treatment
As an additional treatment for the disease, an indispensable method is the treatment of advanced forms of nail fungus with hydrogen peroxide, which has the necessary antibacterial properties and helps to accelerate the healing process.
Before you begin to treat the fungus, it is very important to properly prepare the legs for the upcoming procedure:
- First of all, open the feet in hot water: the duration does not matter. it is important to soften the skin and remove all fungal formations from it and from the nail plate as much as possible without creating injuries. Nails cannot be sawed, but for cutting it is better to use a disposable blade: it is not safe to apply it again, especially in a healthy area.
- After you have steamed your feet, take a cotton pad or bandage folded in several layers, cut to the shape of the affected nail and moisten well with hydrogen peroxide. Apply a moistened disc to the nail and hold for 40-60 minutes. In order to fix the cotton pad on the nail and prevent the evaporation of hydrogen peroxide, you can use cling film, scotch tape or a fingertip. If possible, pour a few drops of peroxide directly into the nail plate. This procedure should be done at least 5-6 times a week until the affected nail plate is completely removed until a new nail grows.
- To achieve maximum effect, the course must be extended by 10-14 days, the procedure is carried out daily. Hydrogen peroxide is recommended to be used in a concentration of 3-5%.
Due to the fact that the drug is somewhat aggressive, a burning sensation, constriction and even pain is possible. When these symptoms appear, the compress should be removed, and the treated area should be washed with clean water, and then choose a different treatment method.
Alternative treatment of nail fungus in a neglected form justifies itself in pregnant women, when the appointment of drugs that can be absorbed into the blood is contraindicated. It should be noted that in these cases, folk remedies alone are ineffective, and you should not hope for getting rid of the fungus.