Cutter for power tillers: Varieties, applications and maintenance
A tiller to a power tiller is one of the most common types of additional equipment for tillage. It is a set of special blades fixed on the axle. With their help you can quickly and easily get rid of weeds, to produce cultivation of the soil on the site. In order to find the optimal power tiller for your power tiller, it is necessary to classify them.
Their position can be lateral or hinged. Side-mounted on both sides of a single-axle tractor, working from the drive shafts of the wheels. In fact, with a similar arrangement, these cutters replace the wheels and drive the technique.
The second type is a PTO-mounted power tiller, which is located at the back of the machine and does not participate in the movement. Motoblocs of the brands Celina, Neva MB-1 and MB-2, MTZ have exactly such a milling device.
According to the design of the blades, there are two types of mills. saber-shaped (active, standard) and the so-called goosefoot.
An active power tiller consists of a set of four powerful blades, positioned at an angle of 90° in relation to each other. There may be two or more such kits on one axle. The number of additional cutters and the size of their blades depends directly on the power tiller performance. Blades of this cutter bar in the form of curved strips, bent alternately in different directions. Their design and durability allows to safely process virgin land, as well as areas where stones and roots can be found.
The second type of power tiller is the gooseneck. The product received its name for the unusual shape of the cutting elements, resembling the feet of a goose. They are triangular in shape and rest on the edges of the tines. Number of cutting elements and size of this module also depend on power of power tiller. The more tines with blades. the better the quality of processing.
This cutter is able to process heavy virgin and clay soils, but in areas with increased vegetation and roots, most likely, the product will block.
Cutter types for the Neva power tiller
First of all, before buying a mill, the question arises, but what are they actually? The two types of cutters are now the most popular:
They have their differences in purpose and shape. Let us dwell on the differences between them?
Sabre router bits
This type is considered a standard option for cultivation. Sabre-shaped cutters have successfully passed the test of time, and have proven their effectiveness.
It should be noted that this type of cutter is supplied as standard with the Neva power tiller.
Raw material of sabre milling cutters is high quality steel with high carbon content. This metal is very strong. But to achieve an even better density of metal, it is additionally hardened and treated with electric current at high frequencies. That makes the end product solid and reliable.
Fabricated sabre milling cutters. Because this steel is not susceptible to be welded. That is why all connections are made with bolts.
Here’s how cultivation with a Neva power tiller with sabre-shaped cutters takes place:
The goosefoot tiller for the power tiller
This model has recently been gaining popularity and is used along with “sabre milling cutters”. It is mainly used for the cultivation of harder soils.
A distinctive feature is that this cutter is solid, not collapsible. This gives it extra strength and enables it to work on virgin land and successfully fight a lot of weeds.
In its standard form it has the following dimensions:
With such dimensions, the weight of such a plough is about 16 kg. The machine has a maximum tillage speed of 5 km/h.
One disadvantage is the material used for the tine. It’s ordinary carbon steel, not very dense. And it often breaks or bends under heavy loads. But on the other hand, with such strength, the plow is easy to weld and further repair.
Here’s how cultivation is done with a Neva power tiller with a goose-foot tiller:
disc protector for tillers
A blade guard must be fitted to the end of the tiller for safe operation.
They allow you to accurately regulate the working area and prevent accidental sowing of plants or flowers in the garden or other crops.
These models appeared on the market relatively recently. They can be used to till any type of stubble, and are as effective for hard and rugged terrain.
- solid construction, which ensures high precision performance;
- The equipment fights weeds well;
- Ease of use, parts can be replaced at home.
Unlike sabre router bits, these models are made from carbon steel, which is not as strong.
How to make milling cutters on a single axle tractor with your own hands
A small set of tools and materials will be needed to make the tiller. It includes:
- Welding machine;
- angle grinder;
- Metal pipe with a diameter of no more than 40 cm;
- sheet or pieces of metal (steel is preferred) for the cutting plates.
The size of the blades are chosen individually depending on the conditions of tillage. Manufacturers of agricultural machinery recommend making tillers, the diameter of which does not exceed 50 cm. In this case, the risk of breaking the homemade structure during work will be lower. Blanks are sharpened, and then welded to a metal tube. The step-by-step scheme for making a saber cutter is as follows:
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- From a steel sheet cut blanks of cutting plates. To do this, the finished drawing is printed out on sheets of paper, cut out and glued to the metal sheet. The first part is cut to the contour, and then used as a template for the remaining blades.
- The resulting flat parts are sharpened: the first half on the left side and the second half on the right. Ensure that all cutting elements are in alignment.
- Workpieces are bent according to the drawing. To do this, use an auxiliary device consisting of a pipe, a parallel stop and an angle stop.
- Make a conductor, and then weld into a solid structure, additionally attaching studs and fixing the workpiece with a clamping plate.
- The flanges are welded to the shaft to create right and left-hand blocks. They are fitted at a distance of 10 cm and an angle of 45° to one another.
- The last step is to assemble the right and left-hand knives with nuts and bolts.
When producing and operating the power tillers, always follow the safety rules and regulations specified in the manual. Before starting work place the blades above the ground. In the process of work the blades should sink into the ground slowly and smoothly.
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Tines are an important part of any power tiller. You can buy them in specialized stores or make them yourself. In all cases, the construction is assembled by the operator himself. If there are no mistakes in the assembly, installation and operation of such components, they will make the cultivation of the soil easier and faster.
Sabre shaped tiller and its assembly
Before assembling the tillers on a single axle tractor, you need to understand well the concept of a power tiller. It is a welded frame made of pipe with a diameter of at least 23 mm with a fuel tank and engine mounted on it. They are fixed to the frame with brackets. The engine is otherwise known as the power pack. It is equipped with a gearbox and a clutch. Each brand of cultivator has its own power unit with different capacity.
The most common power unit is a sabre-shaped cutter head. This scheme is the most popular nowadays, that’s why it is also called the standard one. The effectiveness of sabre-shaped cutters has been proven over many years of use on a variety of soils. Installation of such cutters on a single-axle tractor allows you to perform a lot of work. The durability of blades made of carbon steel is very high. Cutter structure is demountable. Each knife is thermally hardened by high-frequency currents during the manufacturing process.
How are the power tillers and hoe blades assembled?? Every cutter consists of 2 units. Each one contains 12 blades. The unit consists of 3 subassemblies. Each unit is 4 legs arranged at right angles (picture ). The blades are at a 30° angle to each other. Each blade is made of 5 mm thick steel. They are fixed on a stand that is made from 63×40 mm angle bar. The other end of the column is welded to the flange to connect 4 blades together. All cutter parts are connected to each other by bolts with washers and flanges. This design makes the unit very durable. It is able to withstand quite high loads. If you plan to use the cultivator constantly, it is better to install a factory-made cutter.
When installing the tiller on a single axle tractor, some masters have difficulties. That’s why it is recommended that two people do this job. Assembly is usually done on specially made wooden trestles about 50 cm high. They help you get the job done quicker. The single-axle tractor is carefully supported on the coulter bar and tilted at an angle of around 45°. The handlebar is fitted with trestle pins. In this position the wheels are taken off the tractor and the tillers are installed (picture ). On the outer ends on the right and left you need to install the plates on the tillers for the power tiller. They improve the performance of the unit and make it run more steadily and smoothly.
Why do tillers dig into the ground?
Beginning farmers often encounter problems caused by improper operation of the cultivator. It is not uncommon for a power tiller to be buried in the ground, and it does not lend itself to any manipulation by the operator. To solve this problem, you should first deal with the causes of its occurrence.
If the cultivator is buried during plowing, it is caused by several reasons.
- This is often due to the configuration of the equipment. Most often mini-cultivators are equipped with four cutters. Provided the manufacturer uses quality metal for their manufacture, they will have a lot of weight. Because of this, the working elements will pull the cultivator into the soil;
- Sharp cutter blades. if the cutting elements are sharpened, the cultivator will not move forward, but instead will dig into the ground;
- Strong load on the engine. in such a case, the motor will create strong vibrations, which will upset the balance. Because of this, cultivator will deepen into the ground in place, instead of moving around the garden;
- the second common cause is untimely switching of the cultivator to the second speed. This should not be done when plowing loose soil and in conditions of high humidity;
- The machine is often driven into the ground because the insertion tool is not fitted correctly. If the angle for attaching them to the hitch is greater than required by the application manual, it will also cause the machine to dig in.
Very often the machinery gets buried in the ground due to overzealous pushing on the part of the operator. The owner should remember that he should only give the machine a gentle push in the right direction. If too much effort is applied, it will upset the balance of the cultivator, and it will be buried in the soil all the time.
One of the most common problems is when it is not possible to start the machine, and quite often does not start the Zubr single axle tractor, diesel or gasoline, for an unclear reason from the first time.
Three different problems with the engine are worth singling out:
There may be several reasons for the appearance of the first of the problems:
- candle malfunction;
- Problems with the magneto;
- Lack of fuel supply;
- contamination of the filter;
- contamination of the fuel tank outlet.
In addition, the motor may simply not be attached evenly enough.
Each problem is fixed in its own way. Problems with spark plugs or magnetos, for example, can only be solved by replacing these parts. At the same time, contamination of the tank or filter is solved by cleaning them. Cleaning is also necessary for the fuel system, if gasoline or diesel does not flow into the carburetor.
There are usually only three reasons for the second problem on a Zubr power tiller:
Trouble with the magneto and spark plugs, as in the previous case, are solved very simply. their replacement. Although in some cases it is enough to clean the plugs. As for insufficient warming up, this problem can be solved by increasing.
Lack of power occurs due to quite a number of reasons. Some of them are quite simple, but some can be dangerous. Actions that can help:
- carburetor cleaning;
- Checking the integrity of the oil seal;
- Air filter cleaning;
- Muffler exhaust fouling cleaning;
- fuel hose blowing.
As you can understand from this list, the main reason that leads to such a problem as insufficient power is contamination of certain parts.
Types of cutters for a power tiller
Cutters have pretty obvious differences. the blade is regarded as the main component of the tiller. The main difference lies in the different designs, that is, in the way in which the arrangement of the blades is provided, the number of these blades and other characteristics. On what kind of material the cutter is made of, directly depends on how well the soil will be processed.
Italian forged blades, which are self-sharpening, are considered the best. Sheets that are pre-stamped are also often used. But in this case, the edges of the cutter will be less pronounced. These blades are mainly used on low-end devices.
The main types of power tillers are considered:
The basic elements of power tillers are considered to be sabre cutters. They are included in the basic sets of equipment. These blades are considered the highest quality. Their sturdiness makes them better suited for cultivating soil. Perfect for heavy tillers.
The carbide steel is the basic material for sabre milling cutters. And to increase resistance, they are often exposed to high temperatures and subjected to electric currents. If it cannot be welded, it means it is a quality product.
Sabre-type cutters for power tillers are a relatively new product. They have not yet established themselves on the market. Their main purpose is to remove weeds and work on virgin land. The disadvantage is considered to be that they are less durable than the saber-shaped. So they often have to be repaired. Due to the fact that they are weldable, the fact that they are made of standard steel is determined.
Instructions for making a tiller
Self-assembly allows you to adjust the width of the plot to the peculiarities of the land. To make a simple cutter on a single-axle tractor, you will need:
- metal tube of small dimensions with a diameter of no more than 42 mm;
- Parts that can be used for digging up soil;
- welding machine;
- angle grinder.
Used car springs or remnants of any other suitable equipment can be used as ploughing parts. The blades of the future cutter should be adjusted in size and curved in the same direction. Then use a welding machine to attach them to the pipe on different sides. If desired, the blades can be sharpened in the direction of their intended movement. The finished construction should be attached to a single-axle tractor to the hitch. The structure is ready to use. If the machine is found to be malfunctioning, it can be removed and adjusted.
Self-assembly of the cutter on a single axle tractor requires some effort and time, but the result of the work will not make you wait. Only by yourself you can make a cutter that will best meet your requirements and meet the peculiarities of the land and soil.