For sawing building materials from wood, as well as trees, a tool such as a hand saw is used. Despite the fact that electric and even gas saws, jigsaws and circular saws have long been developed, a hand saw in wood remains an indispensable tool in the arsenal of every craftsman. With the active use of this tool, it becomes necessary to sharpen the teeth. How to sharpen a hacksaw on a tree yourself at home, we will consider in the material.
Appointment and device of a saw
Hand hacksaw for wood is used for sawing various wood materials. It is a blade with teeth in the lower part. On the one hand, the tool is equipped with a handle, with the help of which the master holds it during the sawing work. Convenience and comfort of work with a saw depends on the quality of the handle.
The number of manufacturers of hacksaws for wood is quite large, but they all differ not only in names, but also in quality. All of them are intended for sawing wood, chipboard, logs, laminate, as well as tree trunks. Hacksaws are divided into such types as: classical, circular, archery, as well as with a pickaxe and a reward. An important role in choosing a tool is played by the thickness of the blade. After all, a thin web during the sawing of wood can break, and thick enough difficult to work.
Important! Hacksaws for wood should be sharpened periodically. Sharpened files include such blades that did not pass the hardening stage. If the links of the web are hardened, then it is impossible to sharpen them.
Why and when to sharpen
The tool under consideration is subjected to various loads during operation, which leads to blunting of the teeth. If you saw with a saw whose teeth are blunted, the result will be much less effective than sharp. In addition, it is not recommended to use a saw with blunt teeth for the following reasons:
- Decreased tool performance. Not only the master’s strength will be spent, but also his time.
- Decrease in accuracy. It is impossible to smoothly saw wood materials with a hacksaw with blunt teeth, and even more so do it carefully.
- Danger of using the tool. During the work, the file will get stuck, jam, go off the cut line, so such work can be dangerous for the master.
A sharp hacksaw is not only easier to work with, but also much safer. To determine that the time has come for sharpening the hacksaw blade on a tree, you should pay attention to such factors:
- The canvas makes a characteristic dull sound. If the master often uses a hacksaw, then it will not be difficult for him to determine such a sound.
- The tips of the teeth are rounded.
- Sawing when trying to saw wood, refuses to perform its task.
These factors indicate that it is time to sharpen a hacksaw on a tree with your own hands. But before taking on the file, you should determine whether these links are to be sharpened.
Sharpening a hacksaw on a tree begins with a procedure such as tooth biting. Hacksaw teeth are wired for purposes such as ensuring the blade free travel without jamming. The layout is the bending of the teeth in different directions, alternately, by one amount. This leads to the fact that the width of the cut is increased, which means that during the sawing process the process of removing chips is accelerated.
It’s important to know! The wider the wiring of the teeth, the less chance of jamming the blade.
The magnitude of the tooth divorce depends on the thickness of the blade, and is usually 1.5-2 mm. To bend the teeth by the same amount, you will need to use a special device. This device is a metal plate with a special slot. The canvas is clamped in a vice so that the links protrude slightly. After this, the process of bending the teeth is carried out. Sharpened teeth also need to be bent at the same distance.
How to sharpen a hacksaw on a tree
To sharpen a hacksaw on a tree, the canvas should be fixed in a vice in the same way. For sharpening the links of the saw, files or triangular files with a small notch are used. Not many people know how to properly grind a file on wood, so you should pay as much attention to this process as possible.
- Initially, you need to pick up a file. A file with a small notch should be used, which should be held with one hand on the handle, and the other at the tip of the tool.
- The sharpening angle is determined, which usually ranges from 15 to 30 degrees. The angle is usually determined by eye, but if this is difficult to do, then you can use special home-made devices, for example, a wooden block. To do this, the bar is grinded until it has the shape of a rectangular triangle with angles of 30 and 60 degrees.
- The most important thing when working with a file is the pressure on it. To ensure uniform sharpening, you need to perform the same number of file passes on each tooth. With experience, you will learn how to ensure uniform removal of the top layer of metal.
- Using the prepared tool, the grinding angles are controlled. Similarly, the process is carried out on the reverse side of the canvas.
Now you know how to sharpen the teeth of a hacksaw blade on wood. But the process does not end there, since it will be necessary to align the teeth in height. If they have different heights, then the uniformity of sawing will be violated. If there are links that are higher than the others, then their shortening is performed using the same file. The check is carried out using a sheet of paper, to which the sheet should be attached with its teeth down. After that, the sizes are compared, and the shortening procedure is repeated.
How to sharpen a saw: practical recommendations
When carrying out work on sharpening a hacksaw, you should adhere to the following recommendations:
- The device is tightly fixed to the work surface in a vise.
- Providing good lighting for the workplace.
- Files are used for sharpening links and files with various notches. The smaller the notch, the better. It all depends on the degree of blunting of the teeth.
- Metal removal is carried out only when the file moves away from itself in one direction.
- After the work is completed, it is necessary to check the quality. To do this, take a look at each link in the world. If the tooth shines, then it is sharpened correctly, as in the photo below.
In conclusion, it is worth noting that many craftsmen do not consider it necessary to sharpen a hacksaw. This is incorrect, since the efficiency of the work depends on the quality of the sharpening.
Features of wood hacksaw
A hacksaw is a saw made in the form of a steel blade, one of the edges of which performs the function of cutting. The cutting element of any hacksaw is a series of teeth cut at the edge of the blade at a certain angle. Large, medium and small teeth are distinguished by size. They have the following parameters: large. cut in the amount of 3-6 pieces per 1 inch with a step of 4-8 mm; small. in increments of 2-2.5 mm; medium. in increments of 3-3.5 mm.
Depending on the purpose of the hacksaw, the shape of the teeth can be different. When sawing wood across the fibers (transverse hacksaw), the cutting elements should be in the form of an isosceles triangle with an apex angle of about 40º for soft woods and 50-60º for hard woods. The teeth in this case are located vertically. For sawing wood in the longitudinal direction, a hacksaw with inclined cutting elements (longitudinal hacksaw) is used. The angle of deviation from the perpendicular is 10-20º. When sawing wood in both directions, you can use a hacksaw of a mixed type with a tilt of the cutting elements of not more than 10º.
To eliminate the effect of jamming of the blade during sawing, a wiring is made on the cutting edge. It is achieved by alternately tilting the teeth in different directions. The width of the wiring (the width of the hacksaw along the outer surface of the split teeth) must exceed the thickness of the steel sheet by 1.5-2 times. All teeth on the side edges are sharpened one-sided. The angle of sharpening is 60-75º. The top is pointed.
The need for sharpening a hacksaw
During operation of the hacksaw, the cutting edge of the blade is subject to wear. Firstly, the pointed tip of the tooth is rounded. Secondly, the lateral cutting edges of the teeth become dull and partially lose their function. Wear can be uniform and manifest on all teeth, but local is also possible, affecting only some of the teeth. In addition, tooth wiring parameters change over time. Some of them can increase the angle of inclination and this slows down the sawing. Often there is a decrease in the width of the wiring, which leads to wedging of the blade during sawing.
The moment when it is necessary to sharpen a hacksaw on a tree is determined in a practical way. First of all, sawing becomes a difficult process, requiring great effort. It is difficult to cut wood perpendicularly. When sawing, the blade is difficult to hold along the line. it begins to walk in different directions. Frequent jamming of the hacksaw blade is felt. An experienced worker can determine the wear of the cutting edge by changing the color of the teeth and the sound that occurs when sawing. All this suggests that it is time to sharpen a hacksaw.
Hacksaw tooth wiring requirements
Hacksaw wiring sets the total width of the cutting part, determining the width of the cut. In turn, the wider the cut, the easier (without excessive friction) the movement of the blade during sawing, but this increases the complexity of sawing, due to the larger amount of wood. Based on practical considerations, it was found that the optimal wiring width should exceed the thickness of the hacksaw blade by 1.5-2 times when sawing hard wood and by 2-3 times for softwood. With a common blade thickness of 1 mm, the tooth layout in one direction should be 0.25-0.5 mm in the first case and 0.5-1 mm in the second.
The wiring quality significantly affects the sawing process. All teeth must be alternately bent in opposite directions by an equal amount. If some of them are bent to a larger angle than others, then they will impede the movement of the canvas and wear out faster. When reducing the width of the wiring, the width of the cut will not allow the blade to move freely, which will also make sawing more difficult.
Important: it is impossible to bend the teeth towards their base, as this can lead to their destruction, the tooth is bent in its middle part.
Before sharpening the cutting element, it is necessary to check and correct the wiring of the teeth. The quality of the wiring is checked visually and by measuring the width of the wiring.
Hacksaw teeth are bred using a special tool. wiring. Elementary wiring is a small metal plate with a handle. A slit is made in the plate, with a width slightly larger than the thickness of the hacksaw blade. To improve the quality of breeding, you should use a wiring with an emphasis, which, using the wing nut and screw, is set at the right distance and, thus, controls the amount of bending.
The tooth breeding itself is performed in the following sequence. The saw is clamped in a vise so that only the teeth are above the jaw lips. They are alternately captured in the slot of the wiring and bend in the middle part at a given angle in the right direction. When using wiring with focus, the teeth are first bent to one side. Then the emphasis is rearranged, and another group bends in the opposite direction. Bending a tooth is a smooth movement.
The quality of the tooth alignment is checked visually and by measuring with a caliper. A simple test is recommended to check for excessive bending of individual elements. After wiring, the saw extends between the jaws of the vice, spread apart by a width equal to the width of the wiring. Excessive bending of the tooth will not allow to move the blade.
Link Height Alignment
If the teeth of a hacksaw have different heights, then when sawing they perceive the load unevenly. This increases the wear of higher elements and reduces the functional ability of the hacksaw, as lowered teeth practically do not participate in the sawing process.
It is advisable to check and straighten the height of the cutting elements before sharpening the hacksaw. The easiest way to check is as follows. The saw is firmly pressed against a sheet of paper laid on a flat, smooth surface. The profile is printed on paper, and a visible arrangement is shown by which the size of the teeth can be compared. If teeth with an increased height are identified in comparison with others, then the saw is clamped in a vice, and with the help of a flat file they are shortened.
General sharpening requirements
The hacksaw is sharpened using a device that allows you to securely fix the saw at an angle of 45 and 90º to the table surface. The device itself must be well fixed to the desktop. A workplace requires good lighting.
We can recommend the following design of a homemade device. On a wooden base with a size of 20×55 cm and a thickness of at least 20 mm, two rectangular triangles (with an angle of 45º) of a metal strip (for example, 20×3 mm in size) are fixed.
Files of various shapes and with different notches are used as sharpeners. Files should have a clear relief notch. When sharpening, file movements should be smooth. Metal removal is performed when moving the file only from yourself.
Sharpening the teeth of a hacksaw on wood
When sharpening the teeth, the hacksaw blade on the tree is fixed between the plates of the device so that the teeth protrude above the plate to a height of 15-20 mm. Sharpening rules for different types of saws are different.
When sharpening the transverse hacksaw, the blade is set at an angle of 45º. Sharpening is done with a file of a trihedral type with an angle at the top of 60º. The file is sent to the tooth at an angle of 60-75º. First, the left edges of the distant teeth (odd) are sharpened with a few file movements. Then the hacksaw is turned over and the left sides of the even cutting elements are sharpened. When sharpening, sharp side edges and a sharp peak should be obtained.
When sharpening a longitudinal hacksaw for wood or a hacksaw of a mixed type, the blade is installed vertically. In this case, it is recommended to use a file of a rhombic type with a small notch or file. The file goes parallel to the table. The sharpening process is similar to the sharpening of a cross saw.
Burrs appear on the edges of the teeth that are opposite to the sharpened ones, which must be removed with a file with a velvet notch or an emery bar. The quality of sharpening is checked by touch and by color. Well sharpened edges do not shine when light enters.
To sharpen a hacksaw for wood, special attention should be paid to the preparation of files. The following file types will be required:
- rhombic and flat with an average notch;
- triangular with a velvet notch;
- files with small and large notches.
In addition, it is necessary to prepare:
- emery bar;
A hacksaw for wood can serve for a long time and effectively if the question of how to grind is timely solved. The process of sharpening saws is not complicated, but requires accuracy and care.
What is the tool for?
There are several types, as well as forms of hacksaw. over, the tool is designed both for working with metal and for working with wood.
Video: How to Sharpen a Hacksaw on a Wood Angle Grinder
To work with metal surfaces, the tool is divided into:
The former are now used extremely rarely, and the latter are present in almost every home. One-handed saw has a strong metal blade having a series of teeth. The canvas has high rigidity, it has good elasticity and strength. The tool consists of two parts: a metal blade and a convenient, most often wooden (or plastic) handle. It is necessary to hold on to such a handle during operation with one hand, and to move the saw on the surface forward and backward. Moving, the teeth of the canvas enter the surface deeper, deepening at a time by a couple of millimeters.
A wood hacksaw is used for sawing different surfaces:
- wood of different shapes;
- for pruning branches;
- when performing repair work;
- when working in a carpentry workshop;
- when working with chipboard.
In addition, a hacksaw for wood such as piranha can be useful for work when laying a laminate.
The tool is of several types:
- With large teeth.
- With medium prongs.
- With small teeth.
The size of the cloves is measured based on the number of incisors that fall on one inch. The more teeth per inch, the better the work will be.
When choosing a hacksaw, one must take into account that the number of teeth on the file blade has its own marking and is indicated in the form of three letters “TPI”. You also need to know that if you need to cope with work faster or rough cutting is ahead, then you can use a hacksaw with a long blade that has a large tooth. But for a quality cut, when you need to do the work carefully, you need to use a hacksaw with small teeth.
The saw, which has large teeth, and the interdental pitch is about four to eight millimeters, is used for sawing thick bars and small logs. And hacksaws having a tooth distance of three to three and a half millimeters can handle cutting medium-sized boards.
To work with small wood products, you need to use a small hacksaw, which has a cutter gap of two to two and a half millimeters.
If you are holding a hacksaw with straight teeth, then the tool can be used to cut wood crosswise. If it is necessary to saw a wooden block along, then it is advisable to use a hacksaw that has teeth that are slightly inclined forward.
In this photo you can see how the teeth are located on a hacksaw on a tree transverse and for longitudinal cutting.
By the type of teeth and the density of the metal blade, files have different names:
- bahco wood hacksaw;
- hacksaw for wood Irwin;
- hacksaw wood bison;
- wood hacksaw Stanley;
- Gros wood hacksaw;
- wood hacksaw Sweden.
Therefore, in the arsenal of tools, you need to have several hacksaws designed for different types of work, both wood and metal.
Why you need to sharpen a tool
Any tool, starting from an ordinary kitchen knife, will work well, provided that it is sharp. Also with a hacksaw, so over time it becomes necessary to sharpen a hacksaw on a tree.
The main cutting element of the saw is the teeth, which during operation become not so sharp. In addition, under intense loads, the teeth grind, rounding to the side and front of the edge, which prevents the saw from running smoothly on the surface. If during work it became harder for you to cut a tree, you began to press harder on the tool handle, the saw began to "go" to the side, this suggests that it was necessary to sharpen it.
How to sharpen a hacksaw on a tree
To restore the former sharpness of the teeth, it is necessary to sharpen them. During and after sharpening, the teeth must have an initial height and pitch.
It is necessary to take into account the moment that not every hacksaw is to be sharpened. For example, a tool with small teeth is undesirable to grind. In addition, the “red-hot” teeth are not sharpened. To find out what kind of teeth your hacksaw has, you need to carefully look at their color. If they have a dark color, closer to black, with a blue tint, then the metal is red-hot.
If there is a need to restore the sharpness of red-hot teeth, you can use a file with a small notch.
Before you start sharpening a hacksaw, you need to perform a tooth alignment. In order for the saw to move freely on the surface, also in order to avoid clamping the tool, the teeth are bred smoothly as they deepen.
So that subsequently there are no questions how to sharpen a hacksaw on a tree, the wiring of the teeth is bent in different directions at a certain distance. As a result of these actions, the cut width increases and has a greater width than the thickness of the teeth. Gaps are formed on the sides.
After wiring, the hacksaw will move freely “back and forth” and not touch the blade to the surface of the cut, which will ensure free removal of the tree with each layer.
When performing wiring, it must be borne in mind that the greater the width of the tooth bore, the cut itself will be wider. This avoids jamming the hacksaw.
But this does not mean at all that with a strong wiring of the teeth (with a large width) there will be a wide cut, on the contrary, the teeth begin to tear the tree and it will be more difficult to move along the surface.
The width of the wiring of the teeth should be about one and a half to two times greater than the thickness of the blade. Therefore, when cutting a raw tree, the teeth must be sideways removed by half a millimeter-millimeter, and dry wood. less than half a millimeter.
To bend the teeth, apply special tools and devices. wiring. The wiring is a small metal or wooden plate in which there is a small gap having a greater width than the thickness of the hacksaw.
Often the wiring has an adjusting screw, with the help of which an even pitch pitch of the teeth is obtained.
How wiring is done:
- The saw is clamped in a vice so that only one cloves looks out.
- The vice is fixed on a comfortable flat surface (for example, on a table).
- The adjustable device bends the teeth in the opposite direction.
- Do not bend the teeth completely, as they can break.
- After completing the wiring, you need to see that the teeth are located at the same distance and do not protrude outward.
- Look at the light line of the teeth, if you saw that one or more "behind", return them to the main row. If this is not done, then the teeth can become blunt faster and also slow down the work process.
About sharpening rules
A hacksaw for wood has a low price, so true connoisseurs of quality tools prefer to purchase professional hacksaw for wood, which can be sharpened during operation. So, tool sharpening is a real art, therefore, there are rules in this matter:
- fix the hacksaw securely. The canvas is fixed in a vice or other wooden device, which is installed on a lighted place and a stable surface. On the knees, as well as on a stool or on a brick, it is impossible to sharpen qualitatively;
- use of good quality tools. In this case, you should not save money and purchase cheap tools. In addition, you should not ask your neighbors or friends for a file. It is better to have your own, proven tool.
- for the tool to last longer, it is necessary to clean it with a metal brush and rub it with charcoal (wood) so that it does not clog and dull;
- right push. The hacksaw handle is held in the right hand, and the end is supported by the left, directing the file to the teeth. The pressure on the teeth should be uniform and directed in a certain direction. When returning the file, do not touch the teeth;
- try to remove metal from the edge of the teeth so that it is removed evenly. Consider the number of movements should be the same and performed with the same pressure force;
- Deburring the teeth can be done with a file with a velvet notch. From the side faces of the hacksaw, the notches are removed with a donkey.
After completion of work, it is necessary to check the quality of sharpening and the sharpness of the teeth. If the edge is well sharpened, but it does not shine, and if it has already become dull, then shine appears on the metal. In the same way, the blunting of one or more teeth can be determined.
You can watch the sharpening of a hacksaw on a tree in this video:
The main element of the tool is the canvas.
In this case, the quality, ease of use and durability of the tool are affected by:
- steel grade;
- the correct process for hardening;
- precise sharpening.
When choosing a hacksaw for wood, pay attention to its main characteristics:
- small boards, branches and whetstones. 280-300 mm;
- for a summer cottage or construction. it is better to fabric on 450. 500 mm.
When choosing, use the rule. the length of the hacksaw blade on the tree should be 2 times the size of the largest workpiece. Otherwise, working with her will be very inconvenient.
Proper length selection:
- will not allow the cut to clog with sawdust;
- makes it possible to work longer without fatigue, due to more sweeping movements.
2. For teeth use. 55-60 HRC.
3. The canvas is flexible, the wear of the teeth is minimal.
4. A distinctive feature. the color of the teeth is darker than that of the blade.
5. Red-hot tooth. not sharpened, not red-hot. you can grind it.
- a small tooth gives a cut cleaner and more accurately, but at the same time a slow speed;
- with a large one. the cut is coarser, but the speed is higher, fatigue occurs much later.
2. It is designated. “TPI” (number of teeth per 1 ″). The higher the TPI, the cleaner the cut.
3. For fiberboard and particleboard, it is better when it is above 7, then the edges on the material will not be “torn”. For trimming trees and work on a summer cottage 3-4 TPI are recommended, between the teeth the distance is 4-8 mm.
4. The classic shape of the tooth is a triangle, it can be sharpened.
5. A trapezoidal red-hot tooth used in new hacksaws, no. Will have to purchase a new canvas or tool.
2. It can be classical or cross over. In the latter case, the canvas can be changed.
What to look for when choosing a tool
There are two types. carpentry and carpentry, the latter cut more precisely, cleaner and it is usually used for dry wood.
In this case, the speed is not the main component when choosing.
Tip: do not try to bend the hacksaw blade with all your strength, just do it lightly, otherwise there is a risk of breaking it.
- Number of teeth or TPI. They are intended not only for cutting wood, but also for the removal of sawdust. Therefore, the smaller they are per inch of length, the faster it will be possible to carry out work, and the less the workpiece will become clogged with sawdust.
If the number of teeth is up to 7. productivity is high, efforts are spent minimal, but accuracy of cutting suffers. We recommend that you find a middle ground for your work, given that the workpiece has a minimum thickness of more than a step of 3 teeth.
Tip: do not rush to buy the first tool that comes across, remember, the quality of the cut, the speed of work and the amount of effort spent at the same time will depend on it.
The instruction requires sharpening using a special device so that the tool can be firmly fixed at a right angle or at an angle of 45º to the surface of the working table. Also, the structure itself must be securely attached to it.
Tip: Be sure to take good care of the workplace.
We offer this version of the device:
- Take a board measuring 20x200x550 mm.
- Make 3 triangles with angles of 90 ° and 45 ° from a metal strip 3 mm thick and 20 mm wide.
- Attach them to a previously prepared wooden base.
- Set the triangles to a wooden plate with a cross section of 15×150 mm and a length of 400 mm.
- Make another base plate of wood.
- Connect the two plates together from below through the hinges.
- Prepare wing bolts of the appropriate length to secure the hacksaw blade between the plates.
Sharpen files with a clear relief notch on the work surface. The process should be carried out in smooth movements and only on my own.
Fix the canvas between the wooden plates, while pulling the teeth 15-20 mm above them. Note that each type of saw has its own rules when sharpening:
- for transverse canvases. an installation angle of 45º, a trihedral isosceles type of file is used. Sharpening is carried out at an angle of about 70 °, starting from the left sides, then turn the blade over and do the same with the rest;
- for longitudinal or mixed type, set the blade vertically. Use a diamond file with a fine notch or a file. The movements should be parallel to the table, and the process itself is similar to the previous one.
Tip: you can remove the burrs on the back of the teeth with an emery bar or a file with a velvet notch. Please note that a sharpened edge does not shine in the light.
It can be difficult to do without a hand saw on a tree in everyday life, especially if it concerns your own home or summer cottage. There are two options for such a tool. sharpened and not sharpened, the latter is best used for infrequent work. A hacksaw on a tree of one type differs from another in red-hot teeth.
The correct sharpening of the canvas can be done independently if there is a special device described in the article. The video in this article will provide an opportunity to find additional information on the above topic.
How to determine the moment when it’s time to sharpen a hacksaw
An experienced carpenter is able to determine that it is time to grind the saw, according to the following signs:
- the sound of cutting a tree changes;
- the teeth change color.
Less experienced are also available a number of signs:
- increased material resistance;
- it is difficult to maintain the perpendicularity of the cut;
- the blade does not hold well on the cutting line, the fishing line deviates or bends;
- the blade is jammed in the wood.
Before sharpening the saw, it is necessary to part the teeth, that is, to ensure that they are deflected from the plane of the blade by a certain angle. Correctly divorced teeth guarantee a cut width sufficient so that the blade does not get stuck in the material. With excessively diluted teeth, the cut width will be too large, this will increase the loss of material, pulling force, and also reduce accuracy.
If you sharpen a saw on a tree correctly, it restores its working qualities.
During sharpening, the following geometrical characteristics of the teeth are restored:
- profile angle;
- bevel angle of cutting edges.
Important: blades with hardened teeth cannot be sharpened. They are easy to distinguish. they are black with a blue tint. Conventional blades can (and must) be ground in a timely manner.
Hacksaw wiring requirements
The width of the dilution of the tips of the teeth corresponds to the width of the cut. It was established experimentally that the best wiring width exceeds the blade thickness by one and a half to two times for hard varieties of wood and two to three for softer ones. Given the most popular saw thickness for wood, one millimeter, we get a divorce value of up to half a millimeter for hard varieties and up to a millimeter for soft ones.
When wiring, it is also very important that all the teeth bend at equal angles. The teeth divorced wider than the rest will increase the pulling resistance and wear out quickly. The teeth already divorced by the rest will not participate in the sawing process, and their tops will slow down the broach and reduce its uniformity, making work difficult.
Attention: the bending of the teeth is carried out starting from the middle part. An attempt to bend the tooth at the base leads to a decrease in the strength of the blade and to its destruction.
The teeth deviate from the plane of the blade in a checkerboard pattern, for example, all even to the left, all odd to the right.
Only very experienced carpenters are able to breed saws in wood “by eye”. This skill comes after several hundred divorced saws. Less experienced craftsmen should use a special tool. wiring.
The simplest version of the tool is a flat plate made of durable metal with a slot, into which the blade comes in a preload, with a minimum clearance.
The saw blade should be clamped in a bench vise. The teeth should protrude slightly from behind the sponges. The teeth are clamped one after the other in the groove of the tool plate and bent in the middle part. The wiring angle must be constantly monitored. First, all the even teeth are bent in one direction, then all the odd ones in the other. At the end of the wiring, you can spread the jaws to the width of the wiring and stretch the canvas between them. If any of the teeth are bent more than necessary, they will touch the vise. They need to be fixed.
Cloths with red-hot teeth are not subject to routing.
At different heights of cutting teeth, woodworking efficiency is greatly reduced. Higher ones take up a greater load and are subject to accelerated wear, while lower ones do not participate in cutting. The broach becomes uneven, twitching. Both the accuracy of cut and the quality of the cut surface are reduced.
Alignment of the height of the teeth should be carried out before sharpening the blade. Check the height as follows: the canvas is pressed against a sheet of paper lying on the table. The profile is printed on the sheet, and the print height can be used to determine the height of a tooth. For alignment of teeth of different heights, the blade must be clamped in a bench vise. Prongs above other teeth are subject to file grinding.
General sharpening requirements
On the basis of wood with a size of 2 × 5 cm from a bar with a thickness of 2 cm, two rectangular isosceles triangles and a steel plate of 20 × 3 mm are fixed. A support plate made of plywood or OSB with a thickness of one and a half centimeters with dimensions of 15 × 40 cm is mounted on triangles and the same clamp plate is fixed to it from below on hinges. The plates are tightened with screws or studs with nuts. wing. If installation is required at an angle of 45 °, the plates are fixed to the hypotenuses of the supporting triangles, and if 90 °. then to the legs.
To sharpen the saw, you will also need several files that differ in cross-section and pitch of the notch. All of them should be in good condition, without cut or clogged with dust lines of a notch. To sharpen a saw on a tree, the file must be moved smoothly, with constant pressure and at a constant angle. The file’s working movement is “on its own”. On itself, it should be easily stretched, practically not touching the surface of the metal.
How to sharpen a hacksaw on a tree with a file
For sharpening, the blade of a hand saw needs to be clamped between the tool plates so that the teeth rise above them by one and a half to two centimeters. For various types of paintings, sharpening a hacksaw on a tree is done in its own way.
To sharpen the transverse hacksaw correctly, the blade should be set at 45 °. The file should be selected with a triangular cross-sectional profile.
To ensure proper sharpening quality, the following sequence of actions must be observed:
- sharpen the left edges of the even (farthest from the master) teeth;
- turn the canvas over;
- sharpen the left edges of the even teeth;
- to form sharp cutting edges and pointed tooth tops
To sharpen a longitudinal or universal hacksaw, it should be fixed at an angle of 90 °. Here you need a file with a diamond-shaped cross section. The file moves in the plane of the desktop. The sequence of sharpening the teeth is the same as for transverse hacksaws.
During operation, burrs usually appear on non-sharpened edges, larger or smaller depending on the thickness of the hacksaw blade. They should be smoothed out with a “velvet” file or with an abrasive bar of minimal grain size. The quality of sharpening can be checked in two ways:
- To the touch. Sharpness should be felt, no burrs should be felt.
- By color. On correctly sharpened edges, x glare does not occur under lighting.
Quality is also verified by trial cut. The hacksaw should not be diverted to the side, the surface of the cut should be smooth, without macerated wood fibers.
In order to quickly and efficiently sharpen a hacksaw on a tree, you should prepare a set of equipment for setting teeth and sharpening. Required:
- bench vise;
- measuring tool: protractor and vernier caliper;
- bench hammer;
- equipment that allows you to fix the canvas at angles of 90 ° and 45 °.
You will also need files:
- section in the form of a triangle;
- section in the form of a rhombus;
- Needle files.
A notch is needed whole and not clogged with metal dust.
If the hacksaw is sharpened on time and correctly, it will be easy and convenient to work with it. This tool will last much longer, delighting its owner with an even and precise cut and high quality saw cut wood.