3 ways: How to properly sharpen an ax at home and not make a mistake?
The article tells what the correct sharpening of an ax is. How to sharpen with your own hands. Sharpen at home and choose the right sharpening angle for wood, chopping meat, bones. Sharpen an angle grinder, on a sharpener, on a grinder, emery, a bar.
The width of the chamfer is determined by the sharpening angle of the ax. This means that as the angle increases, so does the chamfer. Usually, when working, no one measures the angle as such, but is guided by the size of the chamfer. It is simpler and no less accurate shows the angle. Often, when sharpening, a double chamfer is made, the so-called. "Double descent", when the blade first forms a wide descent to the cutting edge, and at the very end is another, working chamfer with a steeper angle. This saves time during subsequent sharpening and simplifies the process of processing the blade itself, that is, it becomes easier to sharpen the ax.
What determines the way the ax is sharpened?
“I sharpened my ax with firebrands, the yard is full” – it is this statement that speaks best of the importance of properly sharpening this device.
The way the ax is sharpened is determined by the following factors:
- Density and hardness of wood, which you plan to process.
- The quality and condition of the processed material. A lot of knots, twisted and dense wood require a sharper cutting edge.
- The moisture content of the wood. Dry wood is harder and puts more stress on the cutting edge of the tool, while wet wood is soft and does not dull the blade too much.
- The specifics of the work performed. Cutting wood in the transverse direction consumes the cutting edge more than cutting along the tangent.
- Metal grade. The harder the steel, the more difficult the sharpening, but the longer the time it takes to maintain the cutting edge.
Of all the factors listed above, the main one is the metal grade, since the ability of the steel to keep sharpening, withstand workloads and not break, forming cracks and dents on the blade depends on it.
How to sharpen with your own hands?
Sharpening an ax is the process of forming a cutting edge. It occurs on the mowing line where two chamfers are cut on both sides of the blade at the same angle. In order to ensure the same chamfers, uniform and symmetrical sharpening, you will first need to make a template, which is usually cut out of a piece of tin with scissors. Before starting work, the template is applied to the blade, the amount of work is estimated and marked with a mowing line marker, limiting the sharpening area. This must be done on both sides of the blade.
In addition, it is necessary to prepare a tool, which can be used as:
- Electric grinder.
- Angle Grinder.
- Abrasive bar.
It is most convenient to use an electric grinder, but in the absence of it you have to use what you have. An experienced master gets a good result on any device, here the main factor is the availability of the appropriate skills. Before starting the process, it is recommended to study the special drawings.
Product design and varieties
Faced with the need for felling or finishing wood, you will need to choose the right tool. Axes are widely used for rough processing of the massif. The device of the product consists of a metal blade, a wooden or plastic (shock-resistant) handle and a mounting wedge.
There are several main types of the instrument:
- Universal. The tool has a wide, straight chopping piece, often with a rounded blade. Performing a certain type of sharpening allows the ax to be used for various carpentry and joinery work.
- Multifunctional. The product is equipped with additional options. The reverse side of the blade is made in the form of a pick, hammer, nail puller. It is used for small volumes of work using additional tools.
- Lumberjack. The instrument is massive. Standard products weigh more than 2 kg, light versions – 1-1.5 kg. It is used for felling trees.
- Tourist. The compact product is fully consistent with its intended use. The tool is optimal for use on hiking trips due to its low weight and high quality steel.
- Cleaver. The blade of the product is made in the form of a wedge, which prevents the possibility of the tool getting stuck in the wood. Powerful long stick increases impact force when working. It is used for cutting massive logs.
Work efficiency largely depends on the quality of the blade steel. Marking acts as a designation of the degree of strength, impurity content. The high performance characteristics of the metal correspond to the “A” marking. Frequent loss of blade sharpness during work will require knowledge of how to properly sharpen the ax in order to ensure regular maintenance.
A blunt poleaxe is dangerous to operate and can cause injury or damage during work. The level of productivity drops by a factor of several when the blade slides off, increasing the need for labor.
Ax chamfer width
The chamfer size determines the distance from the blade axis to the base of the ax plane. Masters call this parameter descents. Correctly selected values make it easy to keep the blade sharp and provide good tool performance.
The process of changing the width of the chamfers is quite laborious. You will need to remove excess or deformed metal from the ax blade. The new parameters make the product lighter, but more serviceable.
Branded axes do not require a chamfer change, but are more expensive. Ax chamfering is quite common when there are impurities in the blade material, which leads to a decrease in strength. Slopes are usually made at different angles of 15 and 25 degrees on each side, which avoids degradation of work efficiency with low quality steel.
Ax sharpening angles
The sharpness of the ax blade is determined by two main indicators: the sharpening angle and the width of the chamfers. The choice of the optimal sharpening angle is directly related to a certain type of work. Trimming logs requires an angle sharpness of up to 20 degrees.
Solid cutting requires the selection of the sharpening angle depending on the degree of material hardness. The higher the index, the more the obtuse sharpening angle increases. Machining hard wood will require regular sharpening of the tool.
Universal work is performed when an angle of 25-30 degrees is reached. precise processes in the form of creating blanks, minor furniture repairs are performed at 15-20 degrees of the sharpening angle.
If you wish, you can also use a file to sharpen an ax with your own hands, having done everything on emery. Completing the task will require the following tools:
- Rust converter;
- Wire brush;
- Sandpaper of three types (from hard to velvet);
- Polishing paste;
- A piece of cloth;
- Locksmith vice;
- Measuring ruler;
- Grinding wheel with two working sides;
- A fragment of technical wax;
- Mineral oil for lubrication.
First of all, the blade is cleaned from the effects of corrosion and any contamination. Then sandpaper is passed over it. Further, sanding is carried out using medium-grained sandpaper. The next step is polishing with a special paste. The ax is fixed in a vice or between the squares, with the help of a file, sharpening of the chamfer begins. The abrasive surface must be moistened with water.
In order to properly sharpen an ax at home, it is important to choose the right way to process the cutting blade. It will depend on the following factors:
- What kind of wood they have to cut – in this case, the stiffness of the fibers, and their twist, and their other parameters must be taken into account;
- It is important whether the wood is wet – then the blade will need to go deeper;
- The type of carpentry is taken into account – whether the ax will be used for chopping trees, chopping wood or cutting logs;
- The stronger the steel from which the cutting blade is made, the more difficult it will be to sharpen it by hand, but the result will be more durable;
- The width of the chamfer is always taken into account – this indicator should allow the blade to plunge into the material being processed;
- The angle at which the sharpening is carried out is important.
During work, it is important to follow several safety rules so as not to harm your health.
How to sharpen an ax correctly?
- Necessary equipment
- At what angle to sharpen?
- Sharpening process
- Angle Grinder
- On a grinding machine
- Frequent mistakes
Axes are used to perform many works, the successful implementation of which largely depends on whether the metal blade is sharpened with high quality. In order to keep the device in order, it is not at all necessary to contact a specialist – you can do it yourself.
How to determine wear and tear?
Checking the saw blade for wear is an important issue that should be given special attention. Deep damage leads to the inability to sharpen the circle. There are three main signs by which you can understand that the saw needs to be sharpened or replaced:
- Excessive heating of the protective cover and formation of smoke. The circular saw has a special cover that signals when the saw is blunt by heating. In especially difficult situations, smoke may appear from it.
- Sometimes the saw device involves a mechanical feed (if you need to adjust the pressure with your own hands). In such a situation, wear can be noticed if the pressure has to be increased.
- If carbon deposits and a strong unpleasant odor are formed on the workpiece when sawing wood.
All the situations described above tell the user to sharpen the device.
Sharpening principles and angles
There are four main sharpening corners on the saw edges. Together with the shape of the tooth, they can act as the main operational characteristics of the tool. The following are used to describe each tooth:
- Front and back angle.
- Cut angles of the front and back surfaces.
These characteristics may depend on the type and weight of the circular saw, its purpose, as well as the density of the particular surface.
Sharpening angles in the diagram
Based on the parameters indicated above, all circulars can be divided into several types:
- For slotting longitudinal holes. A 15 to 25 degree rake angle should be used for this task.
- For cross-cutting. In this situation, the rake angle can vary from 5 to 10 degrees.
- Universal sharpening. For any operation, the saws are sharpened at an angle of 15 degrees.
The size of the sharpened angle is not only determined by the direction of movement of the saw, it is also related to the workpiece material. When cutting through very hard materials, the smallest angle should be chosen. For softer products, the angle increases.