Home-made lawn mower: making a do-it-yourself garden device
Lawn mowing is a very important process for a garden plot. A neatly trimmed lawn area can tell a lot about the status of the owner, and therefore it is impossible to ignore it.
But caring for vegetation is a rather complicated process, and in some cases it is also expensive, because the prices for high-quality lawn mowers are high.
But there is always a way out. to create a lawn mower with your own hands.
To create a lawn mower yourself, you need to have minimal skills in construction, as well as understand something in the assembly of mechanisms.
A home-made lawn mower has a lot of ready-made schemes, so you definitely will not have to improvise in this case. The main advantage of a do-it-yourself mower is its low cost.
The owner takes all the necessary details from old and faulty devices.
The quality of the mower will directly depend on the power indicator of the motor, as well as the sharpness of the knives. Cheap steel should not be used to create a home-made model of a lawn mower, as it can ruin all the work.
Masters advise using stainless steel for this. It should be sharpened unevenly: sharp to the ends, and leave it dull to the attachment point. Thus, vegetation will not be wound on the screw and the engine will not become clogged.
You can improve the finished home-made design. Experienced mechanics advise creating lawn mowers with an adjustable long handle, a grass catcher, insurance bumpers, the ability to watch the mowing height, in some cases this model even fits in with a bicycle.
Having decided to create a lawn mower by your own efforts, you need to consider all the main advantages and disadvantages of the design, because not everyone can create such a product on their own.
The simplest version of the mower includes the following details:
- handles for design control;
- protective cover;
- a frame on which all units of the mower will be mounted;
- Details for system control: RCD, switch, cable and plug for connecting electricity.
The frame of the lightest model will include a metal sheet with a thickness of 2 to 3 millimeters with a hole in the middle for the passage of the motor shaft. The sheet is combined with a frame of metal corners. An engine is attached to the sheet from above, a casing with protection is installed from below, wheels are mounted on the sides of the axis, as well as handles for controlling the device.
If the product uses a flanged motor, then it can be attached to the sheet itself by drilling holes in the latter that are identical to the holes in the flange. If the engine is a classic type, then it is necessary to weld or screw several perpendicular posts from the corner so that they coincide with the legs of the engine.
In the corners, special holes are made for mounting the engine. If the holes are created as grooves, this will help to combine the engine with the frame when attaching. Such an assembly will be very useful for selecting the optimal cutting height for the grass. The easiest way will be to create holes for different engine positions in height.
The best option in this case is an asynchronous electric motor with a power of 500 to 600 W and above. The number of revolutions during such work reaches 3000 per minute. A great advantage of the asynchronous engine model is its quiet operation. The higher the engine speed, the better and smoother the mowing of the grass.
In general, the quality of mowing will be determined not by the speed of rotation of the knives, but by the linear speed of movement of the cutting edge relative to the vegetation. At the same number of revolutions per minute, the linear speed of the cutters becomes higher, based on the size of the grip (the diameter of the circle along which the cutting edge rotates).
Therefore, with a large grip (more than forty centimeters), the number of revolutions of the device can be significantly reduced. But in this case, the power indicator of the motor should be greater in order to overcome the increasing resistance.
Practice has shown that such a configuration is operable: capture. 50 centimeters, engine power. 1 kW, number of revolutions per minute. 1500. But the engine with a power of 500 W and a rotation speed of 1500 revolutions per minute will be grass mowing, although worse.
With a small engine power, you need to grind the knives regularly.
To connect a three-phase motor to a single-phase system, you need to use the principle with a working and starting capacitor. Information on such a connection can be easily found on the Internet. It will also be easy to find a formula for calculating the required capacity for capacitors. Most often, about 200 microfarads are used in the design for an engine with a power of 2 kW. For a power of 500–600 W, only 60–80 μF are enough.
You can create a lawn mower by using a simple electric drill with a speed of up to 3000 per minute. To come up with a method of installing a drill to the frame will be simple.
But for this you need to understand that the reliability and duration of the drill can not be compared with an induction motor, which is why if you have to mow a large area of the plot with grass, then it is best to think about buying a powerful engine.
The drill is best suited to create a separate independent trimmer. It will be very easy to install knives in a drill. The knife with the hole in the center is clamped with a special nut on the bolt, and the bolt is clamped in the drill chuck.
The simplest mandrel design looks like a disk or a strip with a flange, in which there is a special hole equal to the diameter of the motor shaft. The process of creating a mandrel such:
- The flange is put on the shaft and locked on it, legs are attached to the strip or disk. The total diameter of the sheet will directly depend on the desired working width and length of the knives. For a finished mandrel, a pulley with a bore diameter suitable for a shaft with an engine can be used. This will help to get rid of two difficulties at once. centering the mandrel and its installation. But the pulley must be reliable and strong.
- The mandrel must be secured to the motor shaft. Most often this is done with bolts that are screwed into the flange perpendicular to the axis of the shaft.
- In the form of a mandrel, a stone holder can be used for sharpening. To prevent excess grass from wrapping around the shaft and not spoiling it, you can close it with a tin can.
Fixing legs and wheels
The legs for such a device can serve as strips of tool steel with a total thickness of 2-3 mm and a width of 20 to 50 millimeters. The smaller the legs, the better it will cut.
But a thick knife is much stronger. Given the bumps and other obstacles encountered during mowing in the form of stones and foreign objects, strength is of great importance.
The construction of the legs is as follows:
- Knives can be attached to the product of two types. The first is a knife in the form of a long strip, which is mounted on the mandrel symmetrically to the axis. The length of the knife should coincide with the width of the capture. 30-50 centimeters. The sharpened ends of the strips play the role of incisors. The mandrel and knife can be a one-piece integral part to which a flange with a hole for landing is fastened or welded.
- The second type. two short knives with a length of 50−80 millimeters, which are installed at the edges at an angle of 180 degrees. They can be located directly or with a slight slope. You can fix the knives with two or one bolt. The first method is considered more reliable, but fastening with a single bolt allows the knife to fold and not break when it collides with a stone or a hill. Fastenings of folding knives must be inspected, as over time they can grind the screws.
- The steel at the knives must be strong, in no case brittle, otherwise they will have to be replaced very soon. Such a design can even harm a person if one of the knives flies off to the sides. The experience of the craftsmen showed that for this purpose, a blade of hacksaw on wood with a thickness of two millimeters is suitable.
- For the manufacture of a knife on the canvas, two blanks are marked in the form of strips, which are cut by an angle grinder. Holes are drilled in the blank for subsequent fastening. Then it remains only to sharpen the knife, install it on the frame and center.
If it is quite difficult to drill holes, then it is allowed to put the blade on a metal surface with a hole of a larger diameter than the hole in the blade, after striking it with a punch. The protrusion that arose after the impact is removed with a file (if the metal is quite soft) or on a sharpener. If the hole does not fit in diameter, then the process is repeated again.
Cutting edges are best created slightly bent down, like factory models of lawn mowers. This will greatly slow down the process of winding grass on the motor shaft of the device. You can also create a special disk that will cover the shaft. If the engine power is close to the power of branded products, you can purchase a special high-quality knife for a lawn mower.
The diameter and arrangement of the wheels must be selected so that the knives are at a total distance of 5 to 6 centimeters from the ground surface. This mowing height is considered optimal for the lawn.
If the vegetation is cut at a high height, then it will bend, letting knives pass over it and remain uncut.
A lower haircut is very difficult with such a device due to uneven ground.
Work safety measures
When you start creating a lawn mower with your own hands, it is very important to remember about the possible danger that occurs when using the equipment.
If we talk about the main threats, then there are basically two of them: electric shock or injury by rotating knives, so it is important to take security measures seriously.
It is necessary to carefully isolate all the joints of the electric drives. both on the main engine and on the controlled parts.
DIY lawn mower | Building portal
A beautiful lawn near the house plays a decorative role, harmoniously combines different parts of the landscape composition and creates a comfortable atmosphere in the garden. It is impossible to maintain the attractiveness and “neatness” of grass cover without the use of a lawn mower.
The range of modern equipment allows you to choose the optimal type of lawn mower, based on the use of the site and its area. If you wish, you can assemble a lawn mower from improvised means. this is the best option if you want to save money and create a useful thing with your own hands.
Video: How To Use A Husqvarna Gasoline Lawn Mower Video
Why do you need a lawn mower
The lawn mower replaced the traditional tool. a scythe. Mechanical, electric and gasoline mowers are used wherever a neat and tidy lawn is needed: in parks, gardens, stadiums and house adjoining territories.
The use of lawn mowers provides a number of significant advantages:
- The device cuts the vegetation to the same height throughout the plot. When forming the grass cover, the height of the haircut is the main parameter.
- Ease and speed of a lawn mowing.
- If you use a model of a lawn mower with a grass catcher, then after cutting you will not need to work with a rake.
In the garden, the lawn is used as a background for bright elements of landscape design, planted in front of group or solo plants. A perfectly flat emerald lawn is a great place for families and guests to relax.
The main types of lawn mowers
All lawn mowers can be classified according to three main criteria: by type of food, method of movement and type of knives used.
Depending on the type of food, the following types of mowers are distinguished:
Cordless lawn mowers are equipped with an electric motor powered by a removable battery. A lithium-ion or lead power source is supplied. Such mowers are most convenient and mobile, well suited for mowing grass in areas with many obstacles: buildings, flower beds, shrubs, furniture.
Gasoline lawn mowers are characterized by high power and high performance. Used in large areas for lawn cultivation and grass mowing. A significant plus of such mowers is convenient handling and complete autonomy.
Disadvantages of gasoline lawn mowers:
- the mower makes a lot of noise during operation;
- the presence of exhaust gases.
Mechanical (manual) lawn mowers work without the participation of the engine. the knives begin to rotate due to the movement of the mower. For mowing grass with such an aggregate, a person will have to make a lot of physical strength.
The advantages of a mechanical mower include. affordable cost, saving consumables (gasoline and electricity), as well as noiselessness and environmental friendliness of work.
Electric lawn mowers are most popular among gardeners and gardeners. They have good performance and are relatively inexpensive. The only drawback of such equipment is the limited movement (cable length up to 60 m). Electric lawn mowers for summer cottages are self-propelled and non-self-propelled.
According to the method of moving lawn mowers for cottages are self-propelled and non-self-propelled. In the first case, the wheels rotate from the electric motor, and the user only directs the mower in one direction or another. When working with a non-self-propelled lawn mower, you will have to make efforts to control the device, since the engine transfers power only to the knives.
The mower drive (front or rear) affects the operation of the self-propelled mower. Front-wheel mowers are maneuverable, but devices with rear-wheel drive are preferable, since the rear axle is heavier during mowing.
In different models of lawn mowers, two types of knives can be installed:
- rotary. one knife with two blades is attached to the shaft; such mowers do better with weeds and tall grass;
- cylindrical. several knives are used at once; such models cut grass cleanly, without damage. optimal for caring for a decorative lawn.
Device and principle of operation of an electric lawn mower
Electric lawn mower has a fairly simple device. The product consists of the following basic elements:
The electric motor is mounted on a platform with wheels. A knife is installed at the bottom of the hull; some models of mowers have a grass catcher at the back. A handle with a control lever is also attached to the platform.
Most lawnmowers work on a single principle. An electric motor rotates the output shaft, which in turn drives the knives. Lawn mowers are washed down with electricity through a cord, which limits the path of the device in the area.
In factory models of lawn mowers, you can choose the mowing height, adjusting to the type of grass and the relief of the site.
When choosing a lawn mower, the technical parameters of the device are of decisive importance.
Power. Electric models, on average, have a power range of 0.75-2 kW, the power of gasoline mowers can reach 8 kW. For a well-groomed ground grass you can choose devices with low power, but only a high-power gas mower can handle tall, dense and unevenly planted grass.
The width of the lawn mower. Mechanical and electric lawn mowers have a small mowing width (30-45 cm). they are convenient to use in compact areas “overloaded” with plantings and decoration elements. Gasoline lawn mowers with a mowing width of about 55 cm effectively cope with areas of more than 10 acres.
Cutting height depends on the type of lawn. Lawn mowers usually have several mowing modes, the most common. 30/45/60 mm. this range is enough to care for the ground, decorative and meadow grass.
Body material. The market presents models made of plastic (polypropylene, reinforced plastic), aluminum and steel.
Aluminum housing is the most preferred, as it has good resistance to corrosion, impact and high temperatures.
A lawn mower with a steel platform will cost less than a plastic and aluminum model, but the service life of such an aggregate is less, since the steel undergoes corrosion.
In addition to the listed parameters, the following criteria affect the durability and usability of the mower:
- The mode of operation determines what happens to the grass after mowing.
- throw to the side or back. after work, the grass will have to be collected with a rake;
- grass catcher. the grass is collected in a special container;
- mulching. a special knife is used, which after mowing cuts the grass; mulch is evenly distributed on the lawn, nourishes and protects it from drying out.
- Material and shape of the wheels. The most reliable metal wheels, it is good if they are covered with a tread on top.
- Lever. convenient models with folding and adjusting handles.
DIY lawn mowers
Selection of work units and parts
Before proceeding with the manufacture of the lawn mower, we will determine what parts and improvised tools can be used as working elements of the device. So, it is necessary to choose the following main nodes:
- frame or ready-made chassis for assembling and securing all parts of the mower;
- Electrical engine;
- control handle;
- components of the control system (power cable, plug, switches, RCD).
Wireframe. An all-metal sheet (thickness 2-3 mm) is suitable for the manufacture of the frame. The sheet is “cut out” in the shape of a lawn mower, and a hole is drilled in the center to install the motor shaft.
You can take any moving mechanism as the basis of the lawn mower: a chassis from a wheelbarrow, an old baby carriage, etc.
Engine. For an improvised lawn mower, you can use any induction motor (power from 500 kW, speed. about 3000 rpm).
Good performance is shown by the following combination of work nodes:
- mowing (diameter of the circle of rotation of the cutting edge). 50 cm;
- the number of revolutions per minute. 1500;
- engine power. 1 kW.
A three-phase motor lawnmower circuit should contain a working and starting capacitors. The capacitance of a capacitor for an engine with a power of 2 kW is 200 μF, and for an engine with a power of 600 kW it is 60-80 μF.
For a lawn mower, you can take an engine with a conventional electric drill with a speed of not more than 3000 rpm. Such a lawn mower is useful for lawn care of a small area, if you need to mow a large area, it is better to install an induction motor. it will work continuously longer.
Some craftsmen install an electric motor on a lawnmower from an old Soviet-style washing machine (from a drive for a centrifuge for drying clothes). The power of such an engine is small. about 200 watts, but due to its weight the engine has a significant moment of inertia. With a well-sharpened massive knife, this will even mow thick, dry grass and young shoots of trees.
Photo of a lawn mower from a washing machine
Knives. Strips of tool steel with a width of 20-50 mm and a thickness of 2-3 mm are suitable as knives for lawn mowers. Steel for the knife must be selected solid, but not fragile, otherwise the knife may break off and injure with a flying piece.
The shape of the knives can be performed in two versions:
- One long knife (30-50 cm) attached to the frame. The ends of the knife are sharpened, and act as incisors.
- Two short knives (50-80 mm) attached at the edges of the platform (frame). Knives can be installed with a small angle or straight.
The cutting edges of the knives can be slightly bent down, like a factory lawn mower. With this form, the grass is not wound so much on the motor shaft.
Wheels. The size and location of the wheels must be selected so that the knives are above the ground at a distance of about 5-6 cm. this is the optimal cutting height for the garden.
The choice of the number of wheels depends on the preferences of the manufacturer. Two wheels allow the device to be more maneuverable and work at different angles, three or four wheels provide an even mowing of grass.
Wheels can be taken from the same car, an old baby carriage, or made independently from thick plywood and bearings.
Electric Lawn Mower Assembly
After the work items are selected, you can proceed to their assembly. Consider the order of the work:
- From a metal corner (2525 mm) weld the frame. A platform for installing the engine and knives will be attached to it.
- At the corners of the frame, weld small racks from the same corner. The racks will be used to secure the wheels of the mower. If a three-wheeled device is manufactured, then two wheels must be mounted on the side of the control handle. it will be easier to raise the front of the unit for a turn.
- As a result of the work done, it should look like a trolley, if you use a ready-made chassis from a stroller or a wheelbarrow, then the previous steps need not be performed.
- From metal pipes, make a U-shaped control knob, choosing its height in height.
- Weld the handle to the platform of the mower.
- Drill a hole in the platform.
- It is advisable to weld a protective arc from the front of the frame. It can be made from a metal pipe of square section 1010 mm. The protective frame limits the mower’s movement, protecting trees, flowers, shrubs from accidental mowing.
- “Cut out” the knife and sharpen the cutters. Drill a hole in the middle of the knife (diameter. about 8 mm).
- Install the electric motor on the platform so that the motor shaft exits into the prepared hole.
- Install the knife on the motor shaft.
- Center the knife. scroll manually and make sure that the knife rotates smoothly, without distortions. If the knife is not installed smoothly, then it can be balanced by cutting off excess metal from one end of the knife (the total length of the knife cannot be changed).
- Connect the cable to the engine.
- On the handle, fix a piece of wire with a switch and a plug. For ease of use, an extension cord can be connected.
The pros and cons of a homemade lawn mower
Practice shows that lawnmowers assembled with their own hands have their own advantages and disadvantages, like any other device.
Advantages of a home-made lawn mower:
- significant savings on the purchase of a new device (prices for electric lawn mowers range from 5,000 to 50,000 rubles);
- the ability to use old, unnecessary things to good use;
- own made lawn mower can be repaired by yourself;
The disadvantages of such a lawn mower include:
- the cutting height cannot be adjusted;
- sometimes the power of a home-made mower is not enough for mowing too grown or thickened grass;
- lack of grass catcher;
- very often, a hand-assembled lawn mower is heavy. this makes the lawn maintenance difficult.
Lawn Mower Safety
When planning the manufacture of a lawn mower, you must be aware of the danger that the use of a poorly assembled device can pose. There are two main threats: injury by rotating knives and electric shock. Both risk factors are very serious, therefore, safety precautions must be taken very responsibly.
- All places of the electrical wires (on the engine, on the control parts) must be carefully insulated.
- To power the engine, you must use a cable with double insulation, having at least three cores.
- The lawnmower must be connected to the network using an RCD (protective shutdown). RCDs de-energize electrical appliances that are energized due to inadequate insulation.
- The mower cannot be used without a protective cover.
- Work on the site must be carried out when there are no people or animals nearby. A broken knife flies at a very high speed.
- Mow the grass in closed shoes.
- The work is carried out in conditions of good visibility. in the morning or afternoon.
- If the mower’s engine appears in the area of children, it must be switched off immediately.
- Wet grass cannot be mowed.
- Before each device is turned on, it is necessary to check the condition of the knives, case and electric cable. Particular attention is paid to the strength of the fasteners of the working units of the mower.
Mechanical lawn mower. technical parameters and areas of use
The owners of land has become prestigious to allocate space for lawns. Arranging an attractive grass surface is not so simple. In addition to preparing the soil, placing and growing planting material, regular mowing of grass on the lawn is necessary.
Mechanical mower cutting device
To do this carefully with hand tools. oblique, sickle, clippers, is almost impossible. And you consider the purchase of a rather expensive electric or gas mower for a small lawn area to be an inefficient investment.
We recommend that you take a closer look at the mechanical mowing units offered on the market of garden devices under the well-known brands Gardena, Bosch, Husqvarna, Skil. Products of acceptable quality, but at lower prices, are offered by GRINDA, AL-KO.
How lawn mower mechanics work
Devices with a gasoline or electric drive perform grass mowing with a cutting knife rotating around a vertical axis with high revolutions.
In mechanical lawn mowers, the principle of operation of scissors is used. the material is cut, falling between moving knives.
The basis of such products is a platform on one wheel axle. The torsional force from the wheels is transmitted through a single-stage gearbox to a cylinder rotating around a horizontal axis, with 4–5 spiral knives fixed to it. The rotation speed of the cutting unit is 5 times higher than the wheels of the mower.
Mechanical lawn mower
The fixed knife is fixed on the platform, its position is adjusted to set the gap between the cutting elements. The cut is made by feeding grass captured by the knives of the rotating cylinder into the inter-knife space. The distance from the soil surface to the mower platform is changed by the operator when selecting the cutting height parameter.
By directly touching the knives, the device is designated as contact. A small gap between the cutting elements is typical for contactless products, which have found greater application due to the reduction of efforts when working with a lawn mower and a lower level of noise loads.
Mounted to the platform:
- handles adjustable in length to move the device by rolling;
- devices directing the grass cover to the knives and forming the appearance of the lawn after mowing;
- container for collecting mowed grass.
Manual lawn mower with grass catcher
Some models of mowers allow the installation of grass catchers. The collection of mown green mass in a special device allows you to:
- do without subsequent processing of the lawn with a rake;
- use herbal waste as mulch and for composting.
Grass catchers up to 50 liters in plastic or fabric material are available as an option, mounted on the mower without tools.
Mechanical grass mower with soft grass catcher