Types of grinders: how to choose the right one among the variety
Grinding machines are a group of power tools designed for surface treatment of materials. Roughing, grinding and polishing. They are used in various industries, construction and for household needs. The main materials for the processing of which are used grinders. Wood, metal, plastic, stone, glass, etc.
There are several types of grinding machines, which differ in their design features, as well as in the field of application.
LSHM are used for continuous grinding of large surfaces. Due to its high productivity and power, rough surfaces can be peeled with the draw frame. Non-planed boards, Rusty metal products, dense plastic. Practically not used for polishing.
Since this type of grinder has a rather large mass and a heavy lower platform along which the sandpaper moves, it is not necessary to apply great physical effort in the process. The operator’s task is to move the tool evenly over the work surface. A delay in one place can lead to unwanted deepening. Belt sander specifications differ depending on the model. Power ranges from 500 to 1300 watts. Belt speed from 70 to 600 m / min.
The device of a belt sander
Professional models are equipped with a speed controller, and of two types: stepped or smooth. Additional handles are often included in the kit, making it possible to work in different conditions. Disposal of dust generated during grinding is solved in two ways. Or it accumulates in a dust collector located on the tool body. Or a construction vacuum cleaner is connected to the machine, which sucks off small chips directly as they are formed.
In addition to the standard manual mode of using LSHM, it is also used in conjunction with a special frame that protects the workpiece being processed from damage. In addition, a special stand that fixes the machine in a stationary position is widely used. This is a kind of pressure, which fixes the LSM upside down. Sandpaper up or vertically. This position allows the use of a fast rotating sanding belt for sharpening and polishing cutting tools or, for example, skates and hockey sticks.
Two types of belt sander have a narrower specialization and allow you to solve non-standard tasks. First. It is a file-shaped LSM with a thin elongated working surface that can penetrate hard-to-reach places, narrow crevices, etc.
Example of a Metabo band file
Second kind. This is the so-called brush sander, which differs in that instead of emery cloth, it processes the surfaces with a brush. The bristles can vary from soft wool to hard metallic. It is applied to remove rust, apply structure to wood blanks, etc. Despite the fact that in appearance the brushing machine differs from the belt machine, their principle of operation is the same.
How to use the Interskol vibratory sander
What kind of skin is used for grinders
Sandpaper. One of the oldest instruments of humanity. The first mention of it dates back to the 13th century in handwritten parchments in China. An unknown author described in detail the recipe for making NB from shark skin and crushed shells using natural glue.
Since then, “sandpaper” has undergone many modifications, but the basic principle has remained unshakable. An abrasive grain powder is attached to a paper, fabric or other flexible base, which is used to process a particular material. The production of this product has acquired a global scale, and therefore a certain system of certification and labeling has emerged. Various hard materials are used to create an abrasive layer: electrocorundum, silicon carbide, garnet, as well as fine diamond grit.
Variety of types and forms of sandpaper
The main characteristic of sanding paper is the grain size, which characterizes the productive quality of the SB.
Granularity can range from 2.5-5 microns to 1 mm. And it is indicated by a number on the marking in tens of microns (corresponds to the minimum grain size). The letter “H” is placed after the number. The smallest sandpaper is designated by the letter “M”, it is also called “zero”.
Using the table, you can select the grain size required for processing a particular material.
NB appointment table, purpose, grain size
|Very rough work||80-N||P22||800-1000|
|Final sanding of soft wood, old paint for painting||8-H||P150||80-100|
|6-H||P180 (P 220)||63-80|
|Finish sanding of hardwoods, sanding between coats||5-H, M63||P240||50-63|
|Polishing final coats, sanding between painting, wet sanding||M40 \ H-3||P400||28-40|
|M28 \ N-2||P600||20-28|
|Grinding metal, plastic, ceramics, wet grinding||M20 \ H-1||P1000||14-20|
|Even finer grinding, polishing||M14||P1200||10-14|
|M10 / N-0||P1500||7-10|
|M7 \ N-01||P2000||5-7|
|M5 \ H-00||P2500||3-5|
Sandpaper marking is made in accordance with GOST R 52381-2005.
Surface grinding (vibration)
The fundamental difference between this kind of grinding machines is that the abrasive material is driven by a motor with a small eccentric attached to the shaft. As a result, the working platform performs a large number of oscillatory movements (vibrates) with a small amplitude (up to 2 mm.). Frequency reaches 20,000 vibrations per minute.
Vibration grinder “Energomash angle grinder-80300”
Expensive professional machines of this type are equipped with an engine speed controller, which makes it possible to adjust the grinding mode taking into account the properties of the material being processed. Power consumption can be from 180 to 700 W. The difference from a belt sander is that the quality of grinding is more “fine”, it is impossible to damage the workpiece by careless movement. Sandpaper is attached to the plane of the platform in two ways. Velcro or clips. On the working surface of most models, there are holes associated with a dust extraction channel, at the end of which a dust bag or a vacuum cleaner hose is attached.
Attaching sandpaper with Velcro
The vibration machine is used for grinding Not only wood products, but also metal and stone (for example, plaster products). If the tool is equipped with a vibration speed regulator, plastic products can be processed at low speeds. Most often, mesh skins are used for this kind of grinding machines, which have different grain sizes and mesh sizes. The optimal size is selected depending on the task. Metal and glass are polished using felt materials using GOI paste, wooden surfaces are polished with fine-grained sandpaper.
How to polish phone glass?
With the scratched glass of the phone, they do the same as with other glass surfaces: rub it with GOI paste using soft suede or cotton napkins. In order not to contaminate the entire case, the screen is removed or the entire unprocessed area is sealed with tape.
For scratched touchscreen phones and polishing touch screens, we recommend special tools that remove scratches from CDs. But they hide damage rather than eliminate it. After a while, the procedure will have to be repeated. Note that heating the screen can damage the sensors.
How to polish glass?
Glass as an element of pottery decoration appeared 6 thousand years ago in Egypt and Ancient Babylon. For so long, glass materials of different compositions began to be used Not only for decoration, household needs and as a finishing material, but also in medicine and industry. The main quality of modern glass of any kind. Transparency. How to polish glass and return it to crystal and clearness in case of damage?
Polishing. This is the removal of the thinnest layer of material using an abrasive, chemical reagents, physicochemical or plasma methods, giving microroughness and shine to the glass surface.
How to polish car windows yourself
Minor scratches and haze from abrasions on glass surfaces of the car are polished with special pastes for car glass. Most of them are made according to the principle of GOI paste.
Owners of a “schlifer” for a car. They will NOT experience any difficulties. The polishing machine is replaced with a drill or an angle grinder. But there is a nuance. The side windows can also be polished at high revs. But for multilayer windshields and rear windows that have an adhesive and reinforcing layer of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) inside, heating from intense friction is contraindicated, since it causes darkening.
How to polish your car glass yourself:
Circle the defects from the inside so as not to lose the damaged places. Cover the parts of the body with a protective material and secure with tape so as NOT to spoil the paintwork. It can be applied to the glass with the same material that will be used for polishing. Be sure to use my tears from a spray gun to the surface at the beginning of work and in the process, so as not to allow the paste to dry out when heated from friction. Polish areas at 1000. 2500 rpm. Before proceeding to the next area, Rinse the treated area and look at it from different angles, including from the salon. If the result is not satisfactory, repeat the process. You may need to change the polishing compound.
When polishing car windows, use protective goggles and clothing.
GOI paste was named after the initial letters of the place of invention. State Optical Institute.
How to polish glass
Grinding and polishing. Different processes, which is confirmed by an electron microscope. Polishing is considered a physicochemical phenomenon, as a result of which, it is assumed that the top layer of glass becomes plastic, therefore, irregularities and bumps turn into a continuous smooth surface.
When polishing glass at home, micropowder solutions are used, which are passed through a fuel filter before being introduced, and pastes. Compositions for glass polishing can be industrial and homemade.
Paste GOI. A mixture of finely dispersed chromium oxide Cr2O3, active components and fatty binder.
The composition is of four types according to the size of the “grain”: coarse. “Erases” scratches, the middle (of two types) smoothes out, and the thin one. “Reigns” to a mirror finish. With GOI paste, it is possible to remove scratches on glass ceramics, to polish any glass, up to optical. How to use GOI paste:
It does not dissolve in water, but in refined gasoline. Easy. Therefore, felt, flannel or felt is slightly moistened with gasoline (or kerosene), and then GOI paste is applied. Mineral oil is dripped onto the glass surface. And begin processing. Rotations should be soft, without sharp.
Specialists in the manufacture of lenses for telescopes recommend washing the organic binder from abrasive particles with solvents so that polishing is faster. But when rubbing organic glass, this should not be done.
Chromium oxide is toxic. It resembles corundum in hardness. Also contained in the art oil paint “Chromium Dioxide Green”.
In order to remove scratches from glass surfaces, whatever the beginning of the polishers, first use pastes with coarse “grain”, then thin ones. Used as a polishing material:
Soft broadcloth, felt, felt Leather (untreated), suede. Polyurethane. Grade polishing resin. Cork tapes. And even wood.
Glass polishers are advised to use an angle grinder with manually adjustable speed, a drill, a sander, attaching felt material to the disc and applying a polishing paste. Or with a special electric polisher.
Bars of wood, rubber, cloth or wadding, covered first with leather and then. Felt, are also suitable for processing, but will have to spend extremely much effort and time for manual polishing.
How to polish a glass unit and a mirror
In construction, a number of types of glass are used, differing in thickness and optical-energy characteristics. High-quality window panes are colorless, with a high light transmittance. There are two types:
M4. Polished float glass, which produce the casting of molten glass tape onto molten tin in a specific atmospheric environment and temperature. M5 and M6. Made by “Dedovsk” by vertical drawing method between rollers.
Heat-saving glass is opaque, reflective coating imparts a slight “haze”. Laminated. Have a shade. Their polishers are impractical. Tempered glass is also best not machined. Ordinary glasses are transparent to the radiation of the optical range of electromagnetic waves, for which they are valued. Small damages on them do not affect the illumination, but spoil the aesthetics of the room and the mood of the inhabitants.
If the scratches are small, “hairy”, then you can try to polish the transparent glass. If the grooves remain deep, they are clinging to the nails, or it is scale from an angle grinder, then it is better to change the glass unit. Since the material will become thinner during processing in one place and give a crack.
In double-glazed windows, thermo-polished glass is more often used, on which, after extended grinding, a lens is formed, which will be noticeable in a conspicuous place.
Just like window panes, mirrors are polished if damaged on the outside. In this case, the “lens” effect can also occur. Sometimes, it is better to apply a sandblast pattern than to polish the mirror from scratches. But it is worth choosing such a picture so that the scratch falls on the border of the stencil image, because sandblasting will deepen the defect.
Removing scratches from glasses and glasses
Before removing scratches from the watch glass, first determine the look. There are sapphire (including anti-reflective coating), mineral, plexiglass and combined (with an external sapphire coating). The softer the material, the faster scratches are removed. Cheap. Better to replace than polishers.
The most difficult to handle. Sapphire glasses, they are polished with diamond powders using a grinding machine, and with an anti-glare film. They are given for repair to professionals.
The watch is disassembled for convenience so as not to damage the case. And rub in a circular motion into a cloth covered with polishing agent (or vice versa).
Do the same with eyeglass lenses, protecting the frame. Previously, of course, Having dealt with the material (mineral glass or polymer). Glasses with diopter polishers cannot be done by yourself.
You can manually get rid of scuffs and dullness, and polish scratches on any glass. convenient and faster polishing machine. If you cannot get rid of defects, you can always contact a car workshop, watchmakers or glazier.
How to choose the right washing mode
Washing machine. The device is complex, so knowing how to use the washing machine correctly is necessary so that your assistant does NOT fail ahead of time. Tips from the practice of many housewives are given below:
- Sorting the laundry is mandatory. It is needed to select a specific type of fabric for enabling a special mode.
- Do not wash laundry in the machine that has warning markings.
- Different models of washing machines may have different temperature and spin parameters in identical programs, so carefully study the instructions.
- If you select an automatic wash program, you cannot forcibly stop the process. If this happened through no fault of yours (turn off the electricity in the house). The machine will continue washing itself, but then you need to restart this mode.
- It is recommended to wash items with rhinestones or embroidery in the “gentle” or “Hand” mode. There are special modes for woolen or silk items.
- The “Fast-30” mode is considered the most economical, but it is useless to wash very dirty laundry in this mode.
What reagents are needed for high-quality washing
There are a lot of powders, additives and reagents for washing any laundry on sale, they are produced in the form of a liquid or powder. And each product serves a specific type of fabric.
- Universal powder for any laundry.
- Bleach Powders.
- Means for colored laundry.
- Reagents for washing and bleaching white clothes.
- Synthetic products without enzymes or other additives.
- Means with biological additives. They contain enzymes to remove specific stains.
- Powders for washing in cool or cold water (up to 40 0 С).
Washing liquids rinse out better and have an increased concentration of active substances. Additional bleaching agents and stain removers may be used with the base powder. Rinse aid softens laundry and relieves static electricity. Almost all laundry detergents contain surfactants (surfactants) that help flush any dirt out of the laundry. It is the most important additive that keeps your laundry clean and fresh. Other additives. These are flavors, bleaches, dyes, fragrances, decalcifiers, antifoam and so on.
|Washing powder||Price for 1 kg (rub)||Overall score||beverages||food stains||Cosmetics||Grass and dirt||fat spots||paint|
|Ariel “Mountain spring “||144.4||70||well||well||satisfied.||Average||average||passably|
|Ariel “Color Lenore Effect”||166.7||88||average||fine||passably||well||average||passably|
|Bi-Max “100 spots “||150||88||well||well||satisfied.||Average||average||passably|
|Ariel “White Rose”||151.1||65||well||well||passably||average||average||passably|
|E Active Plus 2 in Exotic||108||63||passably||well||satisfied.||Average||average||passably|
|Tide “Alpine freshness”||128.9||63||average||well||passably||well||average||passably|
|Biolan Culor||one hundred||63||average||well||passably||well||average||passably|
|Frosty freshness myth||102.5||62||average||well||passably||well||average||passably|
|Dosia “Alpine freshness “||110||61||average||well||passably||well||average||passably|
|LOCK “Mountain Lake”||117.7||61||well||well||average||passably||average||passably|
|Persil culor expert||166.7||59||average||well||satisfied.||Good||average||passably|
|Dosia Active 3||97.5||57||average||well||badly||well||average||passably|
- “Cotton”. This mode is used most often, it is in every washing machine. In this mode, you can wash bed linen or cottons up to 95 ° C. The process is quite slow. Up to 2 hours, and spinning takes place at maximum speed.
- The Synthetics mode is suitable for synthetic fabrics up to 60 ° C. Wash and spin times. The same as in the first option.
- “Hand wash” is intended for delicate fabrics. Tulle, knitted items, etc. Water temperature. No more than 30-40 ° C. Rotation speed of the drum. Low spinning comments.
- “Delicate wash”. The same as manual, but has a spin in many models.
- “Quick wash” (or “Express”, “Daily wash”) will refresh things well. Washing time. Half an hour, water temperature. 30 0 С. Spinning occurs at maximum speed.
- The “Intensive wash” mode is intended for stubborn dirt. The water should be 80-90 ° C.
- “Prewash”. In this mode, two washes are carried out at once. For this, the powder is poured into two compartments (main and prewash). The first wash consumes detergent from the first compartment, the repeated process consumes powder from the second section.
- “Economical wash” (ECO. Not to be confused with ecological washing). Can be a built-in helper option for other programs. In this mode, the water almost does not heat up, the water supply to the drum is minimal, that is. The unit saves both water and energy.
- Wool / Silk mode. For silk and wool items only. Perfect Gentle wash at low water temperature without spinning.
How to use a washing machine?
Today, more and more people buy modern washing machines, but not everyone knows how to use a washing machine. There are several washing modes from 5 (DAWOO) to 20 (LG automatic machine). Washing modes are selected using the installed programs.
- Washing programs
- How to choose the right washing mode
- Start washing
- What reagents are needed for high-quality washing
- General tips for working with your washing machine
First, make sure the water supply valve is open. Otherwise, the washing program simply will not start. Next, check if the machine is plugged in, after which you can load things into the drum.
If a large item (bed linen, jacket) is being washed, then it is recommended to add a few smaller items to it to equalize the centrifugal force in the drum. Now you can choose a suitable program, and it is for it that you fill in the amount of powder, bleach or stain remover that is indicated in the instructions.
General tips for working with your washing machine
Long-term operation and reliable operation of your machine will ensure compliance with the following rules:
- The unit must be placed on a flat floor. A secure position will help prevent the body from shifting during spinning.
- Before washing, check the contents of all powder and bleach drawers. They also need to be periodically cleaned and washed, and the drum. Ventilate.
- A special filter is installed in each machine to retain debris. Pile, wool, thread, hair, etc. It is also recommended to periodically check and clean it.
- Overloading the drum of the machine with laundry is unacceptable.The unit can vibrate strongly, the laundry is washed worse, and the overload also affects the service life of the device very strongly.
- Do not turn on the machine with low water pressure. You disrupt all operating modes of the unit.
- Tap water can be very hard in your area, so it is recommended to add a descaler with each wash (see below about this).
The shows in detail how to use the washing machine. For those who do not know how to use the machine yet. How to load the laundry, where to put the powder, how and what wash modes to set, how the process will start and whether it needs to be controlled. Shown on a DAWOO washing machine, which are often similar to Samsung.
With your own hands. How to do it yourself. How to do something yourself, with your own hands. Home master’s site. Choosing and learning to use a sander
PURPOSE OF THE SANDING MACHINE
The Vibratory Grinder (Or Surface Grinder) is designed for dry grinding of a flat surface. Using abrasive sheets of different grain sizes, it allows grinding wood, metal, plaster and putty,
Products made of plastic, stone, composite materials, remove old paint, varnish coatings, rust, “renew” wooden surfaces exposed to atmospheric precipitation and high humidity. It is used for the final finishing. The main areas of use: woodworking, furniture repair and manufacture, repair and decoration of premises, body work in car repairs. There are also descriptions of techniques for non-standard use of the capabilities of this tool, such as felting felt and preparing various solutions (for vibration of the housing of the mortar container).
How to choose and use a vibration sander
EVERYTHING YOU NEED FOR THIS ARTICLE IS HERE
The principle of operation of the grinder
The vibration of the grinding plate of the device is achieved by rotating the eccentric connecting rod fixed on the motor shaft. Vibration grinders have a rectangular foot that reciprocates with a small amplitude, but at a very high speed.
The power consumption of the hand-held vibration sander is usually 150 to 600 W.
One of the most fundamental characteristics of vibration grinders is the amplitude of movement of the sole: the larger it is, the more. Faster, but at the same time coarser surface treatment. You should pay attention to these parameters when choosing a machine. Devices with an oscillation amplitude of 1.5-3.0 mm are used for finishing grinding, and with an amplitude of 3.0-4.5 mm. For fast and rough processing.
Many models are equipped with idle speed control devices ranging from 10 to 25 thousand rpm. This allows you to select the operating mode, taking into account the characteristics of the surfaces to be processed and expands the versatility of the tool.
It is good if vibratory grinders are equipped with a vibration number regulator. This allows you to more accurately select the surface treatment mode. For sanding plastics, it is best to work at low speed.
The lacquered surface is very sensitive to high temperatures and therefore, in order to achieve an optimal result, it is necessary to be very careful that the temperature does not rise. When working, do not press too hard on the grinder: This will not speed up the work, but the wear of the mechanism will increase and the quality of work will suffer.
Another useful feature. System of smooth set of revolutions and switch fixation. It improves the surface finish and the safety of the tool.
Most modern orbital sanders have dust extraction systems through holes in the pad and sanding sheet. The dust generated during work is collected in a special bag or sucked out of the workplace with an external vacuum cleaner.
Sanding dust is very harmful to health. It enters the respiratory system, can accumulate in clothes, surrounding things, settle in hard-to-reach places.
When using a dust extractor, a higher quality of grinding is provided and the resource of tools and sanding sheets increases.
Wood dust, which is NOT removed in time, can self-ignite under unfavorable operating conditions.
Use personal protective equipment when working with the grinder. Goggles, a respirator, comfortable clothing and shoes reduce the risk of injury.
Sanding sheets on the surface of the base plate are fixed using pressure levers or Velcro Velcro.
Some machines successfully combine both methods of fixing sanding sheets.
It is necessary to select the correct sanding sheets, the corresponding model of the sanding machine. Check the position of the holes on the sheet and select the correct grain size. Sanding machine manufacturers also offer sanding paper punching tools (template and punches).
Special abrasive cloths and dusting nets can also serve as consumables. With their help, you can structure wood and clean metal from rust, polished and plastered surfaces. When using nets for sanding with a large mesh when processing putty surfaces, it is easier to remove dust from the surface to be treated with a vacuum cleaner.
The presence of a brake of the sanding pad allows you to limit the speed during idle operation, increases the life of the machine.
Interchangeable sanding pads in different sizes expand the tool’s versatility.
Also, the presence and design of additional handles affect the convenience of work. Powerful machines with comfortable grips are good for large areas, but in confined spaces and small parts it can be impractical.
Most power tools are equipped with an electric cable 1.5-4.0 m long. The longer the cable, the tool. agile. But a cable that is too long for small jobs rather only interferes.
When choosing a surface grinder, you must also take into account its weight (usually, it ranges from 1 to 3 kg). Lightweight machines are better suited for sanding “in the air”, for example, walls and ceilings, heavy. For stationary work on large surface areas.
FEATURES OF SANDING MACHINES
Professional models are designed for continuous, continuous operation. The quality of the materials used in their manufacture, the reliability of assemblies and electronics are higher than that of household vibration grinders. Professional grade tools are designed to work in intensive use and therefore have higher operational requirements. When developing them, not only the requirements for maximum performance are taken into account, but also criteria such as ease of use, as well. Minimum vibration of the machine body.
Household grinders work “occasionally”. They usually have less power and weight, lower performance, and fewer additional features. Every 15-20 minutes of work, they need a “rest” for the same time, and it is recommended to work with them not more than 2-3 hours a day. A clear advantage of household grinders is their lower cost.
I was pleased with my choice. He coped with the planned work for several hours, regularly giving the car a rest. Such a need was reminiscent of the increased temperature of the air cooling the engine and the slight heating of the case. And the hands, too, periodically required rest or a change in the type of activity.
The tool lies comfortably in the hand and is easy to operate, has a powerful 300-watt motor, electronic control and preset speed (10000.24000 rpm), vibration amplitude. 3 mm. The design of the machine provides for the suction of dust through a perforated sanding pad, allows you to use a sandpaper with Velcro, as well. He fixed the sanding sheets with special staples on the sole. To connect to the mains, a 4-meter rubberized network cable with a quick-release lock is used. Plug. Tool weight about 2 kg. It comes with a removable reusable dust bag and vacuum cleaner adapter.
As a disadvantage, it can be noted that there is no conductor in the kit with a Punch for preparing ordinary skin for use with this tool.
The nuances of choosing a grinder:
- The tool is completed with a removable adapter for the vacuum cleaner.
- Reusable bag. As it fills up, the efficiency of the dust extraction decreases. Necessary Monitor the filling of the bag, clean it regularly.
- The sole of the vibrating sander is covered with loops of polyamide threads, and replaceable sanding sheets on the reverse side with loops of threads with a side cut, that is, hooks (loop tape and hook tape).
- Velcro fastening. Comfortable, provides a snug and even fit
- Sanding sheets to the entire surface of the sole.
- Clamping machines are more versatile because It is easier to find consumables for them. You can use regular sandpaper (sandpaper).
- The additional handle is convenient for working with the machine on large flat surfaces. The handle can be easily removed if necessary.
- Rubberized mains cable with a lock-connector provides additional convenience for using the tool.
- The tool and accessories are packed in a plastic transport case. If you have a large number of power tools in the workshop, this is the most convenient way to store and transport.
- A very simple and effective solution was suggested by manufacturers for connecting vacuum cleaners with different nozzle diameters to a vibration grinder. Additional rubber coupling (piece of rubber pipe).
Popular and reliable brands of grinders