Making band saws for wood

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Saw band design

Band saw machine

The band saw belongs to the category of cutting tools and is an integral part of specialized equipment for wood processing. It is a closed belt, on the outer edge of which there are teeth.

For manufacturing, special grades of steel are used. 9HF, B2F or C75. During the production process, the teeth are treated with high-frequency currents. This increases their hardness. It is this fact that affects the spreading of the cutting edges and maintainability. Often, several types of steel are used in the manufacture. The main belt is made of spring and the cutting part is made of steel with a large m of tungsten or cobalt.

Features of the use of band saws for wood:

  • wood requirements. The harder it is, the faster the blade will dull;
  • installation conditions. The tension indicator must be observed. If it is less than required, sagging will occur. With strong tension, the probability of blade breakage will increase;
  • periodic sharpening. This will require a special machine.

The implementation of the last point will increase the service life of the belt structure. However, sharpening on your own is problematic. you need to choose the correct layout, observe the angle of processing of the blades.

When buying a used saw, you need to pay attention to the presence of repair welds on the blade. They indicate frequent tool breakage.

Design features of band saws

  • , which has a hardness of 40 to 46 HRC.
  • . When cutting cheap wood, this moment is not so noticeable, but when cutting valuable and exotic types of wood, it is critically important.
  • . At the same time, the band tool works quickly and creates a high quality cut.
  • .

note!
In order for the machine to work always stably and efficiently, you should approach its maintenance with the utmost responsibility.
Sharpening and setting of band saws on wood must be carried out in a timely manner and competently.

Wiring

Setting band saws into wood is the first step in restoring the profile of the cutting edge. During operation, the location of the teeth can change, so until the correct geometry is achieved, it makes no sense to sharpen the saw part.

There are 3 ways to open the saw:

  • classic. the teeth alternately deviate to the right and left sides;
  • stripper. the 1st and 2nd teeth deviate in different directions, the third remains even. This profile is created for sawing hard materials;
  • wavy. the most difficult option, resembling a wave in shape. Here, each tooth is individually shaped, and this type of setting is usually performed only in specialized workshops.

It should be noted that when wiring, not the whole tooth is bent around, but about 2/3 of the upper part. The procedure is performed on a special band saw setter. The cost of such a tool is quite high, so they buy it if you need to adjust several tools. Its presence can become the basis of a sharpening business.

Of course, the first time you can do everything correctly, even on an adjustable machine, it may not work, so at least the geometry of the profile should remain the same as before the start of work.

How to sharpen a band saw correctly

Immediately, we note that if there is no experience and skills in performing such work, it is better to entrust saw sharpening to professionals. Violation of the geometry of the teeth of the cutting edge, the appearance of dross on the metal or incorrect setting will significantly reduce the life of the blade.

Having decided to sharpen the band saw with your own hands, it will be useful to first familiarize yourself with the key definitions, the knowledge of which may be required in the process. So, for the correct formation of the cutting edge you will need:

  • setting. deviation of the teeth from the plane of the main saw blade;
  • the height of the teeth is the distance between the top point and the base;
  • pitch. the distance between the teeth, usually varies between 19-25 mm.
  • sharpening angle. depends on the intended purpose of the tool; for example, the recommended sharpening angle of carpentry saws is 35 °, indexing. 18-22, intended for sawing a bar. no more than 15 °.

The sharpening angle is determined by the manufacturer, therefore, when self-dressing the saw, it is recommended to adhere to these parameters.

Here are detailed instructions that will help you sharpen a closed saw correctly without resorting to the services of specialists.

Saw material

Band saws are made from different materials. depending on what material they are intended for cutting.

Saws for wood are made of tool alloy steel with a hardness of 40-45 HRC. Domestic manufacturers use steel 9HF, B2F (for band saws for metal), etc., foreign ones use their own steels (C75, Uddeholm UHB 15, etc.). When the teeth of such saws are hardened by high-frequency currents, they can acquire hardness up to 64 HRC and higher.

Hardened Band Saw Teeth

Saws for cutting carbon steels and non-ferrous metals of small thickness are also made of tool steel with mandatory hardening of the teeth by high-frequency currents. However, more often for cutting metal, bimetallic saws are used, in which the blade is made of spring steel, and the strip on which the teeth are cut is made of high-speed steel with high tungsten and cobalt. After hardening, it acquires hardness up to 65-69 HRC. High speed steel is electronically welded to the base of the saw.

Making a bimetallic band saw

Bimetallic saws are capable of cutting thick metal from tool, stainless, heat-resistant and other steels, titanium alloys and other metals.

Bimetal Band Saw

Teeth with higher wear resistance are obtained by hardfacing them with stellite (an alloy based on chromium and cobalt with additions of tungsten and / or molybdenum) or by soldering hard alloy plates to them. Such saws are superior in their cutting abilities to bimetallic ones. They are used to cut fiberglass, car tires, cables, reinforced plastics, high temperature alloys, graphite, aerated concrete, bricks and other materials that are difficult to cut.

Carbide Tooth Band Saw

Sharpening

This is the main step in cutting edge dressing and can be done in two ways.

Full-profile saws are sharpened with an CBN wheel installed in a special sharpening machine.

This is a fully automated operation used by professionals. The work of the machine for sharpening band saws for wood is controlled by electronics, and the sharpening wheel processes the entire band in one pass. The disadvantage of this method is that the CBN wheel is selected individually to the profile of the saw, therefore, for dressing different tools, the sharpening element must be present in the assortment.

Sharpening of teeth is carried out manually or on specialized equipment.

Note! This is the method used for self-sharpening band saws. A normal emery wheel or file can be used here.

In the first case, the sharpness of the teeth can be restored in the shortest possible time, but the work requires certain skills. In the second. painstaking work: 4-5 movements along the edge of each tooth.

For automatic sharpening, diamond, CBN and corundum wheels are used. It is important to understand that when performing this procedure, only sharpness is given to the teeth, the geometry created after setting the blade should remain unchanged.

What you need to know about sharpening angles

The geometry of the teeth of band saws can be modified depending on the characteristics of the material being processed. This is expressed in the shape of the tooth and the distance between the individual elements of the cutting edge.

The band saw profile is determined by the markings applied by the manufacturer. It looks like this:

  • WM. a universal version designed for sawing soft and hard wood;
  • AV. used for longitudinal cutting and sawing of hard materials, such as frozen wood;
  • NV. has a narrow blade width, so it is ideal for shape cutting;
  • NU. a cutting edge with a wide tooth pitch, which provides high performance when cutting soft wood;
  • PV. almost a complete analogue of the previous blade, but has a flattened tooth shape;
  • KV. the profile is used for wide band saws intended for softwood;
  • PU. wide saw blade for cutting hardwood.
Read more:  Setting the Sharpener for Band Saws

The pitch of the teeth is selected individually, depending on the material. For example, when cutting hardwood and metal, only fine-toothed blades are used to avoid damaging the cutting edge. Soft raw materials and thick-walled materials are processed with saws with a large tooth spacing, which allows to speed up the production process.

Rules for sharpening band saws for wood

Band saw. closed-type cutting tool used on sawmill equipment.

The undoubted advantages of these elements are high productivity and a minimum amount of production waste. It is possible that when sawing ordinary boards, the latter fact does not play a significant role, but when it comes to processing valuable wood species, the kerf width and cut quality directly affect the economic benefits.

Correct sharpening of a band saw for wood is a guarantee of production efficiency and tool durability. Usually such services are provided by specialized companies, but if you know the procedure and the subtleties of the procedure, you can sharpen a blunt saw yourself.

  • Characteristics
  • What you need to know about sharpening angles
  • How to sharpen a band saw correctly
  • Wiring
  • Sharpening
  • Common mistakes
  • What you need to know about sharpening angles

    The geometry of the teeth of band saws can be modified depending on the characteristics of the material being processed. This is expressed in the shape of the tooth and the distance between the individual elements of the cutting edge.

    The saw band profile is determined by the markings applied by the manufacturer. It looks like this:

    • WM. a universal version designed for sawing soft and hard wood;
    • AV. used for longitudinal cutting and sawing of hard materials, such as frozen wood;
    • NV. has a narrow blade width, so it is ideal for shape cutting;
    • NU. a cutting edge with a wide tooth pitch, which provides high performance when cutting soft wood;
    • PV. almost a complete analogue of the previous blade, but has a flattened tooth shape;
    • KV. the profile is used for wide band saws intended for softwood;
    • PU. wide saw blade for cutting hardwood.

    The pitch of the teeth is selected individually, depending on the material. For example, when cutting hardwood and metal, only fine-toothed blades are used to avoid damaging the cutting edge. Soft raw materials and thick-walled materials are processed with saws with a large tooth spacing, which allows to speed up the production process.

    Sharpening

    This is the main step in cutting edge dressing and can be done in two ways.

    Full-profile saws are sharpened with an CBN wheel installed in a special sharpening machine.

    This is a fully automated operation used by professionals. The work of the machine for sharpening band saws for wood is controlled by electronics, and the sharpening wheel processes the entire band in one pass. The disadvantage of this method is that the CBN wheel is selected individually to the profile of the saw, therefore, for dressing different tools, the sharpening element must be present in the assortment.

    Sharpening of teeth is carried out manually or on specialized equipment.

    Note! This is the method used for self-sharpening band saws. A normal emery wheel or file can be used here.

    In the first case, the sharpness of the teeth can be restored in the shortest possible time, but the work requires certain skills. In the second. painstaking work: 4-5 movements along the edge of each tooth.

    For automatic sharpening, diamond, CBN and corundum wheels are used. It is important to understand that when performing this procedure, only sharpness is given to the teeth, the geometry created after setting the blade should remain unchanged.

    How to sharpen a band saw correctly

    Immediately, we note that if there is no experience and skills in performing such work, it is better to entrust saw sharpening to professionals. Violation of the geometry of the teeth of the cutting edge, the appearance of dross on the metal or incorrect setting will significantly reduce the life of the blade.

    Having decided to sharpen the band saw with your own hands, it will be useful to first familiarize yourself with the key definitions, the knowledge of which may be required in the process. So, for the correct formation of the cutting edge you will need:

    • setting. deviation of the teeth from the plane of the main saw blade;
    • the height of the teeth is the distance between the top point and the base;
    • pitch. the distance between the teeth, usually varies between 19-25 mm.
    • sharpening angle. depends on the intended purpose of the tool; for example, the recommended sharpening angle of carpentry saws is 35 °, indexing. 18-22, intended for sawing a bar. no more than 15 °.

    The sharpening angle is determined by the manufacturer, therefore, when self-dressing the saw, it is recommended to adhere to these parameters.

    Here are detailed instructions that will help you sharpen a closed saw correctly without resorting to the services of specialists.

    Wiring

    Setting band saws into wood is the first step in restoring the profile of the cutting edge. During operation, the location of the teeth can change, so until the correct geometry is achieved, it makes no sense to sharpen the saw part.

    There are 3 ways to open the saw:

    • classic. the teeth alternately deviate to the right and left sides;
    • stripper. the 1st and 2nd teeth deviate in different directions, the third remains even. This profile is created for sawing hard materials;
    • wavy. the most difficult option, resembling a wave in shape. Here, each tooth is individually shaped, and this type of setting is usually performed only in specialized workshops.

    It should be noted that when wiring, not the whole tooth is bent around, but about 2/3 of the upper part. The procedure is performed on a special band saw setter. The cost of such a tool is quite high, so they buy it if you need to adjust several tools. Its presence can become the basis of a sharpening business.

    Of course, the first time you can do everything correctly, even on an adjustable machine, it may not work, so at least the geometry of the profile should remain the same as before the start of work.

    making, band, saws, wood

    Characteristics

    Band saws have three distinctive features. They are made only of special grades of tool steel, which ensures high strength and wear resistance of the teeth. Russian manufacturers usually use steel grades 9HF and B2F, foreign companies prefer the C75 series. In any case, the hardness of the material must be at least 45 HRS.

    The cutting width of the band saw blade is much narrower than that of circular counterparts. As mentioned above, this is a fundamental factor in the processing of precious woods and industrial wood.

    The saws are able to handle workpieces of any length and diameter without any problems. At the same time, a properly sharpened band saw ensures high production productivity.

    It is necessary to clarify that the reliability of closed saws is due to the heterogeneity of the material used to make the blade.

    In particular, the body of the saw tool is usually made of spring steel, which has incredible tensile and dynamic resistance. Grades of steel with high m of tungsten and cobalt are used for the manufacture of cutting edges. Individual parts of the web are welded together by high-frequency currents. Tools made using this technology can be used for cutting metal.

    Read more:  Making Cuttings Using Drills

    Common mistakes

    If a person tries to sharpen a saw for the first time, it is difficult for him to fulfill all the requirements and remember the nuances of the technological process. However, violation of these rules leads to the fact that the efficiency of using the band saw is noticeably reduced, the load on the blade increases, which leads to premature rupture.

    Professionals recommend avoiding such mistakes:

    • with mechanical sharpening, the abrasive stone is not positioned correctly relative to the saw profile. In this case, the sharpening of the teeth will be uneven;
    • excessive force when the saw and the grinding wheel contact. As a result, the metal overheats, dross appears, which leads to premature wear of the cutting edge;
    • burrs remain on the canvas. After sharpening, all roughness must be eliminated, otherwise microscopic cracks will appear on the metal during operation;
    • using your own sharpening angles. Many inexperienced craftsmen believe that only sharpness is important for saw teeth, therefore they shamelessly violate the geometry of the cutting edge profile recommended by the manufacturer. It is important to understand that the shape of the tooth has been tested over the years; it is useless to try to experiment here.

    Instead of a conclusion, we add that each band saw has a certain resource, so the blade cannot be sharpened indefinitely. Manufacturers guarantee the correct operation of the tool until the total blade width is reduced to 65% of the original size.

    Bison zpl-350-190

    Another inexpensive Russian band saw got into the rating due to its powerful motor and high quality sawing wood. This tabletop model is used in small private workshops and in the country. There is a protractor scale on the swivel stop, which allows precise cutting. The maximum speed of the saw band is 882 m / min. The saw stand has special holes for secure attachment to the workplace.

    Everything You Need to Know About Making Bandsaw Boxes!

    Jet jwbs 10

    The wood band saw is equipped with a 600 W motor, so it is used both in sawmills and furniture industries, as well as in home workshops. Has a high speed, making it easy to deal with hard wood. Able to perform precise and fine cuts, which is why it is popular. For precise work, it is equipped with a magnifying glass and a bar with millimeter markings. The structure rests securely on four legs. Thumb screw allows access to internal mechanisms.

    Recommended blade tension

    The smaller the width of the saw blade, the greater the tension should be:

    • 20 mm. 150 n / mm 2.
    • 34 mm. 200 n / mm 2.
    • 54 mm. 300 n / mm 2.
    • 80 mm. 350 n / mm 2.

    Over-tensioning can cause the narrow blade to burst. And with insufficient tension, a wide blade will make a curved cut or get stuck in a tree.

    Sizes of canvases

    When choosing a saw, additional recommendations are taken into account:

    making, band, saws, wood
    • Rip sawing is handled by wide band saws for a smooth cut.
    • For a thin workpiece, choose a thin blade, since a thick one will damage the material.
    • For curly cutting, a certain saw blade is selected. A saw with an average size of 35-40 millimeters is best suited.

    Cutting and feeding speed

    Sawing speed is measured in meters per minute. Feed is the speed at which the saw head is lowered.

    The higher the speed during sawing, the more the motor, band and workpiece heat up. A machine operating in this mode for a long time may break down.

    Too high a feed rate can cause a strong vibration of the band saw, dull teeth and break the blade, to prevent this from happening, you need to reduce the feed.

    A weak feed can deform the workpiece and dull the teeth, so you need to control the feed along the chips, it must be thin, curly and elastic.

    Sharpening level

    Before work, you need to check whether the teeth are well sharpened, since blunt teeth not only require an increase in motor power, but can also spoil the material. It is better to purchase a blade made of carbon steel, as it retains the sharpness of the teeth for longer.

    Before purchasing a saw band for wood, you should ask if sharpening is required for it, since it is undesirable to sharpen some in order to avoid breaking their teeth.

    Density, size and pitch of teeth

    The setting is the alternate bending of the teeth in different directions: the first to the left, the second to the right, the third in the center. The more the saw teeth are tilted, the less heat the machine and saw band get. Correct dilution prolongs the life of the equipment, produces a clean cut and reduces vibration. If the teeth are not set enough, the sawdust will stick to the surface of the board. If the saw is set too far apart, there will be tooth marks on the board.

    A blade with a certain tooth pitch is selected for each wood:

    • 19 mm. requires increased engine power and low feed, easily handles frozen wood.
    • 22 mm. common saw blade.
    • 25.4 mm. found on 5 cm wide saw blades, used in high speed work.

    The higher the height of the tooth, the easier it is to handle hard or frozen wood, as well as logs. Small teeth are chosen for thin board and shape cutting.

    With a low density of teeth, the load on the part decreases, with a high density, it increases.

    After each start, it is necessary to re-sharpen the saw band. In this case, you need to ensure that the step remains the same.

    Top 10 best models

    The rating includes both floor and table band saws, which are the most sold, are safe, have many functions and are inexpensive.

    Characteristics and subtleties of the choice of Jet band saws

    • A little about the brand
    • Features of the
    • Classification
    • Popular models
    • Choice of canvas
    • Operating tips

    The correct choice of the machine tool park and the observance of the operating conditions provided by the manufacturer is the key to successful work both for small workshops for processing materials and for large factories. Our article is devoted to the characteristics of popular models of Jet band saws and the intricacies of choosing the right saw for different working conditions.

    Popular models

    The Jet company produces about 50 types of metal cutting machines and about 15 devices designed for wood processing. The most popular models for carpentry in the Russian market are the following units.

    • JWBS-10. one of the cheapest and simplest saws with a power of 0.37 kW with one cutting speed and a maximum width of the cut piece of 25 cm at a depth of up to 10 cm.
    • JBS-12 100001021M. 0.8 kW household model. The maximum web speed is 800 m / min. The presence of a gearbox allows you to adjust the processing speed (2 speed options are available). The dimensions of the working table for this model are only 40×48 cm, and the maximum width of the sawing performed with its help is 30 cm.It is possible to tilt the working surface at an angle of up to 45 °.
    • JWBS-15-M is a semi-professional model with a power of 1.8 kW and a sawing speed of 760 m / min, which allows processing workpieces up to 35.6 cm in height.
    • JWBS-18-T is a semi-professional machine powered by a 3.5 kW industrial power grid. It has two working speeds. 580 and 900 m / min, which allows using the device for processing wood species with different hardness. The maximum height of workpieces to be processed is 40.8 cm, and their width should be no more than 45.7 cm. The presence of a T-shaped groove allows cutting out parts of complex shapes.
    • JWBS-20-T is a powerful (6 kW) professional unit with two processing speeds (700 and 1280 meters per minute). Blades with a width of 3 to 38 mm can be installed on the machine, the maximum cutting depth is 40.6 cm, and the width is 50.8 cm.This set of characteristics allows the unit to be used for sawing and dividing any wood species in large industries.
    Read more:  Wood Band Saw Which is Better

    Such installations for metal processing are the most popular among Russians.

    • J-349V. household portable (less than 20 kg) machine with a power of 1 kW with a smooth adjustment of the processing speed (from 30 to 80 m / min), a rotary (up to 60 °) frame and a maximum workpiece diameter of 12.5 cm.
    • MBS-56CS. a household budget machine with a power of 0.65 kW with three speeds (20, 30 and 50 meters per minute), a rotary frame (from 45 ° to 60 °) and a maximum diameter of workpieces being processed. 12.5 cm.
    • HBS-814GH is a semi-professional model with a power of 0.75 kW, the gearbox allows you to set speeds at 34, 50 and 65 m / min. Workpiece diameter. up to 20 cm.
    • MBS-1213CS. a semi-professional version with a power of 1.5 kW with a stepless speed control in the range from 40 to 80 m / min and a maximum workpiece diameter of 30 cm.
    • HBS-2028DAS is a professional semi-automatic machine with a power of 5.6 kW with a pressure cylinder and smooth adjustment of the web speed from 20 to 100 m / min. Workpiece diameter. up to 51 cm.
    • MBS-1012CNC. 1.1 kW professional CNC machine for high-precision metal and stone work.

    A little about the brand

    The Jet Equipment Tools company was founded in the American city of Seattle in the late 50s of the XX century and at the beginning of its journey was engaged in the supply of Japanese and Taiwanese industrial machines to the US market. In the late 1980s, the company was taken over by the Swiss industrial corporation Walter Meier AG. Since 2003, the brand’s products ceased to be exclusive in the United States and began to be supplied to the world market, and already in 2004 the first representative office of the company appeared in Russia.

    Since then, the company has sold more than 10 thousand units of its products on the Russian market, becoming a leader in the supply of band saws for small and medium-sized workshops in the Russian Federation. In 2013, after the reorganization of the Swiss concern, JPW Tool AG began to sell Taiwanese machine tools, which has since owned the rights to the Jet brand.

    Choice of canvas

    The most important factors when choosing a cutting blade are the hardness and toughness of the material being cut. In this regard, there are four main types of these consumables. These are the canvases:

    • for metal;
    • on wood;
    • stone;
    • for plastic.

    Also, when choosing a canvas, you need to take into account the dimensions of the workpiece. The larger it is, the larger the size of the teeth should be on the used blade. When processing large metal workpieces, you also need to pay attention to the setting of the teeth: it is desirable that wide and narrow settings alternate on the blade. If it becomes necessary to cut workpieces of different sizes with one saw, you should choose the option with variable teeth and alternating setting.

    The choice of a blade for Jet machines is facilitated by the fact that the instruction manual for each of the machines contains a table of blades that are used on them for different materials and dimensions of workpieces.

    Features of the

    In fact, band saws are a modernized version of a hacksaw sawing machine, in which the cutting blade has a noticeably longer length and is made closed. The belt is driven by an electric motor. All machines supplied by the company are distinguished by the use of high-quality components and an excellent level of assembly quality, which ensures their reliability and compliance of the passport technical characteristics with real ones.

    An important advantage of the American-Swiss-Taiwanese brand machines is the availability of any spare parts for them in the warehouses of the official SC in Russia.

    Classification

    According to the complex of characteristics of power, cost, dimensions, productivity and equipment with auxiliary systems, all machines, including Jet band saws, are usually divided into the following categories:

    • household (usually connected to a 220 V network);
    • semi-professional;
    • professional (almost always require a three-phase 380 V network).

    According to the level of automation, the following varieties are distinguished:

    Building the woodgears.ca 20″ bandsaw

    • manual (all operations for assembly and disassembly of blanks are performed by the operator);
    • semi-automatic (there is at least a hydraulic cylinder that lowers the frame);
    • automatic;
    • equipped with CNC (the machine not only automatically mounts and dismantles workpieces, but is also capable of processing them according to preset modes with feedback).
    According to the material for which the device is intended for processing, Jet band saws are divided into:
    • machine tools for metal and stone;
    • machines for wood and plastic;
    • universal machines.

    Operating tips

    Before starting work, be sure to read the operating instructions for the model of the machine you purchased and strictly follow all the instructions specified in it.

    • In particular, remember to regularly check the pulleys and belts for breaks and damage. Failure to comply with this rule is fraught with not only damage to expensive equipment, but also serious injury to the operator.
    • Be sure to observe the operator’s clothing requirements specified in the instructions. In particular, do not use gloves or loose work clothing.
    • Check the level of sharpening of the teeth periodically and replace the blade as soon as it becomes dull. Working with a blunt tool is strictly prohibited. Therefore, you need to regularly lay out and sharpen the blade (in this sequence).

    Finding a bluntness, remove the canvas, turn it out and hang it up. Let it hang for at least 4 hours and only then can you start laying and sharpening it.

    • In cases where the supply of material to the cutting part is difficult, it is necessary to replace the wax coating of the working surface.
    • If you are cutting valuable types of wood or expensive grades of metal, then to save material, it is worth reducing the cutting speed to the lowest possible. It is also necessary to reduce the speed in cases when work is performed on a metal part, the thickness of which exceeds 2.5 cm.
    • Before starting any repair or maintenance work, including replacing the blade, disconnect the machine from the power supply by turning off the machine to which it is connected, or by pulling out the plug from the socket. Use only original spare parts certified by the manufacturer for repairing the device.
    • Replace the power supply cables as soon as damage is found.
    • Never try to lubricate parts inside the motor. To avoid smoke generation, use only water-soluble, not oily cutting fluids.

    Never use any model of machine to cut explosive dust.

    In the next video, you will find a comparison of the two most popular band saws Jet JWBS-14DXPRO and Jet JWBS-14OS.