The main problems of the gasoline engine and their elimination
The main problems in the operation of a gasoline engine are:
- a drop in power after a downtime of the tiller (a possible reason for such a failure is deposits on the walls of the carburetor and the fuel system, it is eliminated by cleaning and short-term idle work “to warm up”);
- blockage of the carburetor (removed by cleaning);
- gasoline hose blockage (removed by cleaning);
- air filter clogged (cleaning required);
If the engine does not start, the probable causes of this condition are:
- the tiller tilt angle is too large (set on a flat surface);
- the fuel supply is disrupted (purging the fuel system will help);
- filter clogging (replacement or cleaning is recommended);
- spark plug malfunction (unscrew, clean, replace if necessary);
If the gasoline engine stalls or malfunctions, there may be the following reasons:
- the engine just hasn’t warmed up;
- the candle is dirty (clean and remove carbon deposits);
- failed magneto (alternator) – replacement will help;
- white smoke appears (the probable reason is low quality gasoline or the tiller is tilted, oil flows out and falls on the valve, it is burned there and is a source of smoke).
What gasoline to fill?
Owners of gasoline-powered tillers disagree on which gasoline is better for pouring into the Neva tiller. For example, for “Neva MB-2” and all its modifications, the manufacturer recommends choosing only AI-92 and AI-95 gasoline.
On farm forums, there are references to the fact that tillers work better on gasoline with a low octane number, for example, the AI-80 brand. GOST 2084-77 regulates the division of gasoline into winter and summer. Obviously, gasolines with a high octane number are less corrosive and more chemically stable, therefore they are suitable for most tillers by default..
Most farmers try to rationally use any resources, including fuel for tillers. Diesel engines are considered a more economical option than gasoline ones due to their slower fuel consumption..
The main advantages of a diesel engine are:
- high efficiency (efficiency);
- long term of service;
- economical fuel consumption;
- suitable for large land plots;
- works more efficiently at low speeds;
- has a greater pulling force.
There is an opinion that parts of a diesel engine wear out less than that of its “gasoline competitor”.
Important! To lengthen the service life of a diesel tiller, it is necessary to run the tiller at full power from time to time, at least for a few hours, so that it does not stand idle for years – this will significantly increase the service life of the diesel engine.
The main problems of the diesel engine and their elimination
A machine that runs smoothly is every farmer’s dream. However, in practice, it often happens that problems arise with the Neva tiller engine..
The most common problems and factors leading to diesel engine malfunctions are:
- fuel thickening (eliminated by fuel dilution);
- clogging of the nozzle (removed by cleaning);
- low air temperature (when working in frost, for example);
- low pressure during fuel injection (adjust the injection system);
- a reduced level of compression in the cylinder (caused by a number of reasons, including loosening the cylinder head nuts, which is eliminated by adjusting the nuts; damage to the gasket, which is eliminated by replacing; destruction of piston rings, their jamming; damage to the components of the cylinder-piston group; too large a gap between the valves , which is eliminated by adjusting the size of the gap; jamming the valve stem – dismantling the valve to flush it and clean the guide will help).
Another major problem is transmission malfunction. The main reasons for these failures are as follows:
- clutch slippage due to unbalanced belt or cable, high wear of discs or springs;
- the clutch is not completely disengaged (you need to check the serviceability of the friction discs and the tension of the cable);
- the gearbox emits a high noise level (first of all, you should check the oil level and quality, as well as the level of wear of gears and bearings. If necessary, replace the worn parts);
Finally, if the speed does not change on a Neva tiller with a diesel engine, the reasons may be as follows:
- the ends of the gears are out of order (you can fix this problem by disassembling the gearbox and grinding or replacing the faulty gears);
- the bearings and splines of the shafts are worn out, which is why the shafts are displaced along the axis (it helps to install another set of retaining rings and, of course, replace the bearings);
- the clutch system is misaligned (if the tiller is operated by a beginner, it is likely that the wrong way of shifting was used. In this case, the adjustment of the clutch system should be entrusted to a professional).
Which oil to choose?
There are two types of oil – for two-stroke and four-stroke engines.
The engine type is determined by the factory marking.
Porsche 987 Cayman DIY Oil Change Tutorial
Oils are divided into:
How to Change the Oil in a Porsche Cayman
- synthetic (mineral)
Oils for engines of Neva tillers are used depending on the season, for example, in the winter season it is better to use synthetic oils, they are less sensitive to temperature drops. Semi-synthetic oils are used in summer.
The API standard defines three types of oils – for gasoline and diesel engines, and universal. For gasoline engines, oils are used with the first letter S and the second, determined by the oil quality (A, B, C, F, G) in decreasing quality. For diesel engines, oils with the first letter C are used..
For oils suitable for both diesel and gasoline engines, double markings are used, for example SG / CD. The second character in the label shows the quality of the oil, the closer the letter is to the beginning of the alphabet, the lower the quality of the oil (the CD label indicates that the engine oil is better than the product with the CD label).
Carefully study the instruction manual of the tiller. The manufacturer indicates what kind of oil should be poured into the engine or gearbox, so it is advisable to follow these recommendations.
For example, for the tiller “Neva” MB-2, the manufacturer recommends using transmission oil TEP-15 (-5 ° C to 35 ° C) GOST 23652-79, TM-5 (-5 ° C to 25 ° C) GOST 17479.2- 85 to SAE90 API GI-2 and SAE90 API GI-5, respectively. For “Neva” MB-1, transmission oil is recommended in accordance with GOST 23652-79 (TAD-17I, TAP-15V and others).
Popular brands today: MOTUL, ESSO, MOBIL, LUKOIL, SHELL, Valco, Yarneft, KAMA OIL, Leol, WOG, YUNIOIL, Krol, Spectrol.
The Tiller “Neva” gasoline engine has the following advantages over diesel ones:
- easier to maintain;
- fuel does not freeze in frost (for example, if it is necessary to clear the area from snow);
- suitable for light soil (not virgin soil);
- have proven themselves well in small areas;
- the noise level of such an engine is lower than that of a diesel engine;
- lower cost.
Gasoline engine maintenance – what to look for
The main work on servicing gasoline engines of Neva tillers is:
- oil level monitoring
- oil change according to the manufacturer’s recommendation
- control of the ignition system
- control of the fuel supply system
- air filter maintenance (usually performed after 50 operating hours). If necessary, such maintenance can be done earlier, especially if the Neva tiller is used in dusty areas..
Refueling with oil of a gasoline engine is carried out using a brand of oil used only for this type of engine or universal, suitable for both diesel and gasoline tillers “Neva”.
The oil level must reach a special mark on the filler neck.
Changing the oil in the tiller:
The first scheduled oil change in Neva tiller engines is performed after 25-50 working hours.
If the tiller is operated every day, then the oil must be changed after 25 hours, if less often, then, respectively, after 50. It is imperative to change the oil during the change of seasons, for example, before spring harvesting or sowing..
tiller “Cayman“: instruction
How to work with a tiller?
Check for oily substances and their level. There must be oil in the engine.
Pour gasoline fuel into a container (tank). The brand of gasoline with which the unit should be filled is indicated in the operating manual. If the tiller is equipped with a two-stroke engine, then gasoline must also be diluted with oil..
Check the quality of the connection of all components and parts: steering wheel, wheel, clutch cables, reverse and gas fuel. Excessive clamping is discouraged..
- open the gasoline tap;
- switch the choke lever to the “Start” mode;
- deactivate the ignition;
- pump it 3-5 times with a manual starter;
- activate the ignition;
- pull the recoil starter;
- switch the choke lever to the “Work” mode.
- put equipment on the site to be processed;
- attach certain attachments.
Attachments for the Caiman Tiller
- A shovel, the second name is trapping, is used to clean footpaths on sites, sidewalk paths, eliminate snow and debris, level the soil.
- Motoblock milling cutter. The width of the attachment under consideration can vary from 35 to 66 cm.In this case, the nozzle works to a depth of 20 cm.Distinguish between cutters 35, 50, 52, and 66 cm.Rotates at a speed of 290 revolutions in 60 seconds.
- Brush. Designed for cleaning the territorial area from snow and debris. Its width is usually 70 cm..
- Hiller. The purpose of operation is hilling.
- Mower. Designed for mowing grass or lawn mowing.
- Grousers. Used for most types of tiller work.
Scope of application of cultivating equipment
tiller “Cayman” is a universal equipment of a mechanized type. Differs in high indicators of power, degree of maneuverability and stability. What is an innovative unit capable of doing? the tiller is designed for digging, hilling, plowing, for planting and harvesting, for mowing vegetation, removing snow.
The range of cultivators “Cayman
Model 340 is equipped with a powerful engine of 14 horsepower, large diameter wheels, treads. The type of movement is self-propelled. Supports reversing capability. It plows the ground to a depth of 22 cm, the occupied area is 90 cm. The cultivator weighs 107 kg. Gasoline tank capacity is 3.6L.
Model 330 is considered an analogue of the Cayman 340 tiller. The only difference is the power level of the motor. Here he reaches only 9 horses..
The cultivator “Vario” is an expensive unit, but it quickly pays for itself. This model is equipped with a gearbox that does not require any special maintenance. During the construction, high-quality waterproof seals were used, which represent an insurmountable barrier to dirt and dust, thus eliminating internal clogging, which significantly prolongs the service life of the device. Gears shift smoothly.
The principle of functioning of the tiller
From a technical point of view, the cultivator is considered to be of medium complexity. But it is worth noting that when designing a tiller, specialists provide for the use of many important component parts..
“Cayman” (tiller) runs on gasoline or diesel fuel. The principle of operation is based on the use of an internal combustion engine. It transmits rotational reflexes due to the transmission and clutch to the camshaft, which already provokes the movement of the wheel of the unit, the engine starts.
When the motor is running, the user activates the first speed setting, directing the device to where the cultivator needs to be.
Work with the ground and soil is carried out thanks to special attachments – attachments. A specific nozzle performs the corresponding type of tillage work.
In addition, the possibility of connecting various mechanized devices is provided, which, in fact, makes the “Cayman” tiller (the photos of the models of which are presented above) a universal equipment. You can call it a mini tractor.
Tillery “Cayman”: general information
The manufacturer “Cayman” is a French company that specializes in the manufacture of tillers and various attachments, which subsequently greatly expand the functionality of modern technology.
The main component of the tiller is a powerful Subaru engine equipped with pneumatic tires, thanks to which the cross-country ability of the device is significantly increased. “Cayman” – a tiller with a wide range of models.
Household cultivation equipment for amateur gardeners and avid gardeners enhances the efficiency and productivity of their work. One of the leading positions in the rating of the most popular manufacturers of tillers is occupied by the company “Cayman”, which has already established itself in the market of household equipment as a reliable manufacturer..
Features of maintenance of tilers
Any cultivators require special maintenance, and “Cayman” (tiller) is no exception. There is a set of recommendations, following which will help to significantly extend the life of the unit:
- Systematic oil change. The fuel oil must be changed once a year. It is better to do this after winter, because if you replace it before the cold weather, then during the winter it will become unusable..
- Checking the oil level before each start.
Fourth: how is the engine running in.
Air-cooled engines don’t like idling. Start the engine, warm it up for 1-2 minutes. and run in at work. During the break-in, try to adhere to 50-75% of the load and take obligatory breaks in work after 20-25 minutes. After a break, when the engine has cooled down (15-20 minutes), you can continue working again. In this mode, the engine should run for the first 4-5 hours, after which it is imperative to change the oil. Running in finished.
What you need to know about the running-in and operation of four-stroke air-cooled gasoline engines installed on garden, construction and road moto equipment.
Gasoline four-stroke air-cooled engines are widely used in gardening equipment – tillers, motor cultivators, lawn mowers, snow blowers, motor pumps, mini-tractors, in construction and road construction equipment – gas generators, vibrating plates, vibratory rammers.
READ THE OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS before operating the engine. Unfortunately, many buyers don’t. Therefore, the most elementary questions about the use of the motor arise..
TIP: READ ENGINE OPERATING MANUAL.
What kind of oil to fill in tiller cayman
Tiller Caiman Vario 60S TWK – new in 2012
The history of the Caiman brand
The Caiman brand was born in France in 2004. At this time, Subaru (Japan) decided to enter the market for engines for garden machinery. The French company Pubert, the world’s leading manufacturer of compact ground work equipment, actively supported this move..
On the basis of high-tech French products with the installation of advanced Japanese engines on them, Caiman was created, which is promoted in the Russian market by the owner of the brand – Unisaw Group. Both the creation of the brand and the further formation of the Caiman assortment correspond to the principle of Best-in-class quality: these are only the best high-tech manufacturers in Europe and Japan of each product category, a unique program “Full Service Unisaw Group”.
Another heavy representative of Caiman’s line of tillers weighing 90 kg. The volume of the fuel tank in it is the same as that of the Tiller Cayman 403. But the speeds are higher: 3 for forward and 2 for reverse.
There are many programs in this unit
The engine is a four-stroke Subaru EP17, with a maximum power of 6 hp. In fact, this is almost the same 403, but with a lot of gears, which may well come in handy when plowing difficult surfaces.
Subaru EP17 Engine Specifications
(from the instruction manual)
Tiller engine oil – automotive (API / SE or higher class, SAE / 10W-30, etc.) – see in more detail what oil to fill in the tiller engine
The oil in the gearbox must be changed every 2 years or every 100 hours using 80W90 oil (which oil to fill in the tiller gearbox)
Spark plug – TORCH E4RC (NGK BR-4HS)
Belts according to the spare parts catalog above item 48 are used depending on the installed engine:
VARIO Pubert Belt (Analogue VA450)
Belt (analogue VB-4L460K / VA440) VARIO Pubert
Caiman VARIO 60S Tiller Maintenance
Caiman technique is professional.
Caiman equipment is produced in high-tech factories in Europe and Japan. Since 2011, an assembly plant has been successfully operating in Russia, organized jointly with Partners from France, Italy and Japan..
Only the most advanced Japanese engines are installed on Caiman gasoline powered vehicles with reduced fuel consumption, low noise level, high reliability and long service life..
Caiman transmission gearboxes come with a 5 year warranty.
Caiman equipment comes with 3 years basic warranty 2 years additional warranty for non-professional use. Total: 5 years of a long-term unique program.
Professional dealer consultations and Full Service.
Changing the engine oil
The procedure for replacing the lubricating fluid in the motor is as follows:
- The motor vehicle engine is started and warmed up;
- the tiller is installed on an elevated horizontal surface;
- Open the drain hole of the tank to drain the contents into a separate container, and then close tightly;
- Pour a new agent through the filler hole, controlling its level with a dipstick;
- Wipe the drain and fill holes with a dry cloth, carefully removing the remaining lubricant.
Engine oil is not cheap, but you should not save on it, as well as on fuel. Only original and high quality grease should be filled in, since the performance of the tiller, as well as the durability of its mechanisms, will depend on it. Only a high-quality product and with correctly selected parameters will be able to provide the most useful effect and ensure minimal wear of the internal engine parts. The instruction is suitable for such tillers as: shtenli (shtenli), Patriot, tarpan, cascade, hoper, agate, oka, ray, mtz.
For all three Caiman Vario models, the list of supported attachments looks the same and consists of the following attachments:
- Brush – this device is actively used for cleaning medium and large areas from debris and snow. They are also actively used when cleaning sidewalks from leaves in the autumn season..
- Trailer – in this case, the tiller is able to play the role of a car. Of course, it cannot carry the same weight as a car, but it is still quite suitable for medium-heavy loads. It looks like an ordinary trailer, just with a slightly modified mount.
- Rotary mower – this type of device is designed for cutting both agricultural and weed vegetation. It is also often used by farmers in the preparation of feed. This type of equipment is often used with lighter models of tillers, for example, with the Caiman Vario 60S TWK.
- Snow blower – for small layers of snow and in general surface cleaning, you can use a brush. However, if it is a large layer of snow and the sidewalk / road needs to be cleaned thoroughly, then a snow blower will already be needed..
- Double-row hiller – this equipment is necessary for plowing furrows in order to further plant seeds in them. In some cases, they are used to increase the level of soil looseness. A two-row hiller is needed in order to make two parallel furrows so that the whole area is planted evenly and neatly.
- Cultivator tiller – These devices are mainly used for processing heavy types of soil. Before using devices of such complexity, it is advisable to read the operating instructions.
- The plow is a device designed for easy plowing of the earth, turning its upper layers and burying fertilizers.
- Shovel blade – can be used both for cleaning roads and areas from snow, and for moving earth masses.
- Lugs – this concept refers to certain wheel modifications designed to work in difficult conditions, with loose and already worked soil. When driving, they go much deeper, but at the same time they only contribute to movement..
- Potato digger – there is not much to tell here, it is used to dig up potatoes. Often used with Caiman Vario 60S Tiller or other lightweight model.
- The adapter is a tool that makes life easier for the earthmaker. A kind of analogue of the cab, with a seat and control levers.
- Lawn mower.