Procedure for installing piston rings on a single-axle tractor

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Four-stroke scooter engines

So, there is a set of rings, and the owner doesn’t know what to do with them. There are five rings in the set. two of them are thin, one is an oil ring and two are compression rings. There are three grooves on the scooter piston.

Lubricating the piston with oil, very carefully place the thin ring in the lower groove. They put an oil seal on it. Then it’s back to thin. Three rings must be set in one groove. The oiler must be between two thin ones.

Locks are not mounted on top of each other. They should be at a 120 degree angle to each other. Here’s how to put the rings on a moped piston. As you can see, there is nothing complicated here.

Tools and appliances for the job

To replace the parts yourself, you will need:

  • piston ring expander, to separate and not to damage the parts.
  • Wrench with built-in dynamometer and a set of tips for it.
  • Crimping tool.
  • A hammer for tapping parts.
  • Vise to clamp the piston.
  • Motor oil for fresh treatment.
  • A rag to remove old grease from the parts.

You may need some more tools. But this is a matter of personal preference. Since the above tools do a good job.

Step by step instructions for replacement

Piston rod repair work should be done on a ditch, hoist or trestle.

What you will need?

To perform the repair of the engine VAZ 2109 with their own hands need the following tools:

  • wrench set;
  • a set of heads;
  • funnel;
  • extensions;
  • A torque wrench;
  • a feeler gauge kit;

When buying piston rings for VAZ 2109, you should consider the material of manufacture and their width. It is better to buy the original products to avoid fakes.


  • First of all you need to dismantle with their own hands cylinder head.
  • Then it is necessary to remove the sump of the engine.
  • turn the crankshaft and install it so that the connecting rod retaining nuts are extended as far as possible.
  • Having unscrewed the fastening nuts, remove the connecting rod caps.
  • Using a hammer, tapping lightly, remove the piston and connecting rod from the cylinder.
  • Having unclenched the gap with your fingers, you need to remove one by one all three products from the groove and dismantle from the piston. Together with the oil casing, its expander is removed.

The table shows the clearance limits between the part to be replaced and the groove walls.

  • Lubricate all parts thoroughly with oil when installing.
  • first install the parts starting with the linchpin ring. Install the expander first. a special spring with a lock. Then the product itself should be put on top of the expander. The expander’s lock and the gap of the oil ring must be opposite each other.
  • lower compression ring has a groove and a tooth. They must be on the bottom of the part when installed. The upper plane usually has the inscription “VAZ” or “tor” on it.
  • Install the top compression ring in the same manner. with the lettering facing up.
  • The sequence of putting the parts on is as follows:
  • first unclamp the lock just enough so that the part is easily dressed on the piston;
  • then the lock itself is wound;
  • the rest of the piece is installed.

After mounting on the piston, all parts must be oriented. Piston pin installation axis should make 45 degrees with the lock of the upper compression ring. The latch of the next product should make an angle of 180 degrees with respect to the previous one. Thus, the angle between the lock of the liner and the upper compression ring will be 90 degrees. Then the pistons and rings are pressed with a special mandrel and inserted into the cylinders, of which they were removed. Next perform the reassembly with their own hands.

After replacing the piston rings VAZ 2109 should undergo a running-in. In this case, you can not load the engine, drive on roads with a protracted rise, shift speeds should be correct.

The function and design of piston rings

For a better understanding of the nuances concerning the diagnosis of failure and replacement of piston rings, it is first necessary to consider their device and purpose. Piston rings ensure the necessary tightness of the combustion chamber (above the piston space) during the reciprocating motion of the piston. There are rings:

Compression rings do not allow the gases from the combustion chamber into the crankcase. Lubricating rings remove oil from the cylinder walls and prevent grease from penetrating into the combustion chamber. The rings are slightly oval in shape and are not solid, as they are cut. This cut is called a piston ring lock. Piston rings also give up to 50% heat dissipation and effectively cool the piston. Excessive heat is transmitted to the cylinder walls via the rings. For this reason, special requirements are placed on the materials used for the rings, since they are subject not only to mechanical stress but also to temperature.

The end part of the rings that comes into contact with the walls of the cylinder is coated with tin or copper. Application of this material is conditioned by the task of high-quality lapping (running-in) of piston rings after assembly of a new engine or complete overhaul of an internal combustion engine. Let’s add that piston rings are not specially made of high-strength alloy steel, as such rings can not properly lapped in the engine cylinder. For this reason, engineers and manufacturers always maintain a certain balance in order to achieve the necessary ring strength while retaining the ability to run in. The solution was the above-mentioned application of alloys to the surface of the part.

Assembly and disassembly of piston rings

Clean any encrusted dirt off the used piston thoroughly. Make sure that the ring grooves are kept free from oil and dirt. If necessary, use a drill bit or other suitable tool to clean the oil drain back holes.

Take care not to damage the side surfaces of the groove when removing oil residue. On the underside of the groove it is the sealing surface. Scratched surfaces may cause excessive oil consumption or increased bursting of gases from the combustion chamber into the crankcase during operation.

It is essential to use special tongs for installing and removing piston rings. Other aids, e.g., wire or screwdriver loops damage the piston ring and piston.

Never pull rings taut by hand (exception: oil piston rings with steel plates). Not only is there a risk that the ring will break, deform and stretch, but there is also a risk that if the ring breaks, its sharp edges could cause injury.

Putting the piston ring on quickly by hand without breaking it proves, true, the dexterity of the mechanic, however, damages the piston ring in most cases already during assembly.

Piston Ring Mounting Kit

Never tighten the rings on a piston in the way shown If the ring is deformed and no longer lies flat in the groove, it no longer rotates in that groove, is worn on one side only, or is not quite sealing enough. However, the situation is worse if the molybdenum layer comes off or breaks off on rings with a molybdenum coating. If the loss of the sliding layer does not happen already at the installation, it happens at the latest during the running-in. The sliding layer separates and damages the piston and cylinder surface. The piston jams in the cylinder diameter because hot exhaust gases are blown between the piston and the cylinder wall. The detached particles damage the piston and cylinder bore.

Avoid excessive removal and fitting of piston rings. The rings deform slightly with each assembly. Do not remove rings from previously assembled pistons again in order to, for example, re-measure them. Follow the mounting sequence for the rings. The piston oil ring is mounted first, then the second, after that. first compression piston rings. Pay attention to the markings when assembling. “Tor” means that this side should point upward, toward the combustion chamber. If you are unsure, or there is no “Tor” marking, then put the ring in with “up” written on it. “Tor” does not mean that we are talking about the first compression piston ring.

Check that the rings can turn (rotate) freely in the ring grooves.

Check whether the ring disappears completely over the entire circumference in the ring groove, i.e.е., the ring face must not extend beyond the piston skirt. This is important, because if there is insufficient clearance at the bottom of the groove (wrong ring or fouling at the bottom of the groove) the operation of the ring is not guaranteed.

When assembling two-piece piston rings, always pay attention to the position of the spiral wound spring expander

The ends of the expander must always be in line with the junction of the piston ring.

For three-piece rings, correct positioning of the expander spring is essential for oil film removal (Pic. 1 и 2). In any case, prior to mounting, check also the position of the expander spring on a piston with the rings already inserted. The spring ends are untensioned during transport and can bump into each other. Both coloured markings on the ends of the springs must be visible If they are not visible, the ends of the springs are overlapped and the ring does not function. All joints of the three-piece piston ring (the two steel plates and the expander spring) must be inserted 120° in relation to one another.

Align the joints of the piston ring ready for mounting the piston so that they lie approximately 120° in relation to each other. They help the piston and therefore the rings when the engine is first started. Reason: when starting the engine for the first time, compression is somewhat lower because the piston rings are not yet running in. Displacement of the overlapped ends can prevent that on the first start too much gas will leak from the combustion chamber into the crankcase and thus the engine will not start well.

Piston ring selection: dimensions and materials

Overhaul or engine tuning usually requires a complete disassembly of the engine to replace the elements of the cylinder and cylinder head. In the course of the work it is sometimes necessary to bore out the cylinder block, and then honing the cylinder. Further requires the exact selection of pistons in the size of the liners, piston rings, piston pins and rods are changed, replacement or repair of the crankshaft, etc.д.

Replacement of piston rings and pistons themselves on a gasoline or diesel engine involves maximum sealing of the slotted clearances. In this article we will talk about how to correctly make a selection of pistons, and then pick up a suitable size piston rings.

Correct replacement and installation of piston rings, wear and tear signs

Signs of engine defects, such as sharp deterioration of dynamics, increased fuel and engine oil consumption, problems with starting the engine, especially during the cold season, indicate that the engine wear has reached the limit, and without external intervention further use of the machine is impossible. The listed signs indicate a sharp drop in compression. If the engine is not completely worn out, the most likely way to restore its vigor is to change the piston rings.

To save money, the replacement can be done with your own hands. Besides the financial gain, the owner of a car can be absolutely sure that the piston rings have been changed exactly for the ones he bought, and the work was done qualitatively. Unfortunately, leaving the car in car-care center, the owner can’t know exactly how faithful masters have executed their work, as the statistics stubbornly repeats that cheating is everywhere, including official services.

On how to replace the piston rings with their own hands, written in this article.

  • the cylinder head is dismantled;
  • checks the condition of the rings and decides the need to remove the motor from the car;
  • then the old ones are replaced with new ones and the motor is assembled in the reverse order.

Below each step is discussed in more detail.

Functional faults

Quite often among the faults of the engine of a power tiller is its unstable operation. If the engine idles and stops when you try to add gas, the cause is rooted in the lack of fuel. The fuel tank, carburetor and line tap screens should be cleaned. And when problems arise even at idle, it is advisable to check the centrifugal regulator. Often there’s a sticky throttle.

A single-axle tractor simply slows down without jerking. In many cases, this is due to the use of improperly tuned, unsuitable or simply badly worn motors. But it’s not always wise to replace the power plant. Installing a better spark plug can help. It is also worth assuming the appearance of failure of the carburetor float in the high voltage wire.

If the engine of a power tiller knocks, it is necessary to examine the camshaft and crankshaft. That is where the sources of the extraneous sounds are mainly found.

In all of the above situations, there is no particular need for an overhaul. High-quality fault diagnosis is very important. Trying to increase compression in all modern engines is pointless, anyway, the decompressor will not allow to do it.