How to cut a log into planks with your own hands and not spoil the materials
Beams and planks are common materials used in house construction. In the absence of funds for finished materials, you can make them yourself using a chainsaw. Before you cut a log into planks with your own hands, you should learn more about the features of this process.
Cutting logs into lumber with Chainsaw|| The Naga way
Types of working attachments
The choice of attachments for work depends on the volume and type of work being done. The following devices are used with a chainsaw:
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- drum debarker, which is necessary for removing bark from logs;
- lightweight nozzle for sawing logs;
- standard nozzle used for making boards.
Such devices are often used, but they should only be used when boards are being created for fences or sheds. This is due to the fact that the attachment of the nozzle on the tire occurs only on one side.
Sawing technique along
The most difficult step in the process is making the first cut. For this you need:
- install a guide ruler, which consists of two boards that are fastened together at an angle of 90 degrees;
- after that, it is necessary to place the log to be sawn on the supports and fix it;
- then it is important to check if the log is level;
- at the next stage, it is necessary to fix the leading ruler on the supports using self-tapping screws;
- after that you can start creating the first saw cut.
The nozzle for removing bark from logs is applied due to the wedge transmission. Attachment takes place with belts. special pulleys are used for this. It should be noted that the performance of the nozzle can be changed, since the speed of rotation of the shaft depends on the size of the pulleys.
Features of sawing logs when using a chainsaw
It is quite simple to create additional equipment for sawing logs:
- To create a support, a frame is used, which can be created from the legs of a school desk. The most suitable are pipes with a square section of 20 × 20 mm.
- When constructing the frame, it is necessary to create 2 clamps, and fix the cross member at one end. This element must have holes for the tie bolts. A protrusion for the tire is created in the middle.
- In order to cut a log lengthwise, it is necessary to design a support frame, the width of which should be at least 8 cm in length.
- For ease of use, a handle should be welded to the frame.
- Before carrying out work, it is necessary to carefully check whether the frame is securely attached to the tire.
Using a homemade tool is easy enough. Before sawing, you need to install 2 trestles. they will be used as a support for the log. In addition, a metal rail or flat board is prepared, which will serve as a guiding element.
Cross cut features
Cross-cut is used only for creating firewood or interior elements. The work is carried out according to several principles:
- Before carrying out work, the log is placed in a horizontal position on supports. Its height should be 0.5 m.
- After that, it is necessary to completely clean the log from bark.
- At the next stage, it is necessary to make marks on the entire log, located at an equal distance from each other.
- Then, according to the created marks, you can cut.
No special tools required for cross-cutting.
How to cut a log into planks
Wood, like natural stone, is one of the most ancient building materials. Despite the huge selection of various artificially created materials existing today on the construction market, timber is still highly popular. In order to get high-quality lumber, the log must be cut into boards. In this article, we will show you how to cut a log into planks.
Types of cutting logs
Sawing logs into boards is carried out in two main ways:
In addition, additional methods are possible:
- semi-radial (rustic)
Radial sawing is a type of sawing, during which the axis of the cut runs through the core of the log and, as a result, the annual rings in the section of the board form an angle of 76. 900. The lumber obtained with such a cut has a uniform color and texture. Timber is almost not subject to deformation during shrinkage and does not swell when wet, because the dimensions of the wood change mainly along the mowing line of the rings (across the fibers). In radial sawn timber, the annual rings are located in thickness. Such materials are distinguished by the highest performance indicators in comparison with other types of sawn timber.
Tangential cutting is carried out along tangents to the lines of the annual rings at a short distance from its core. The layers of the boards obtained are distinguished by a pronounced texture and a bright wavy pattern of annual rings. Such lumber is characterized by higher shrinkage and moisture swelling coefficients in comparison with radial sawn boards. As a result, they are strongly deformed when exposed to moisture. Such boards are in demand for use in dry conditions.
Rustic (semi-radial) and mixed types of sawing have signs of two main types of sawing at the same time: radial and tangential. Therefore, they exhibit average shrinkage and swelling rates. Rustic cut boards are distinguished by straight lines of annual rings, which are located at angles of 46. 75 degrees. to the layers. Mixed sawn timber differs in that the mowing line changes from straight at the edges (in width) of the board, to arched towards the middle.
The center cut is made directly in the center of the trunk and contains the core. Taking into account the fact that the core of the trunk is wood with the lowest strength values, center-cut sawn timber is characterized by a structure that is not uniform in strength.
Log sawing tools
Tools and cutting methods depend on the total volume of the logs, such indicators as length, thickness. In addition, you need to take into account the quality of the future lumber. Sawing a log involves working with different tools and specialized equipment. In order to get a small amount of lumber at home, a manual method of processing logs using a chainsaw or traditional hand-held hacksaws with teeth for longitudinal cutting is suitable.
The sawmill is perhaps the most famous type of sawmill equipment. This is a woodworking machine that has gang saws. On the sawmill, longitudinal sawn timber is obtained, for example, edged boards or beams. Sawmills allow processing logs with a diameter of 15 to 80 cm and a length of up to 7 m.
Sawing logs into boards using circular saws (circular) machines is carried out using a circular saw. Such equipment is single-saw (single-disc) and multi-saw (multi-disc). Devices containing one disc are suitable for handling small and low quality feedstock. Large-diameter round workpieces can be cut with multi-blade machines.
The most popular today are band sawmills. They are of two types: vertical and horizontal. The cutting tool in such equipment is a belt blade that is put on the pulleys. Working with band saws guarantees high quality longitudinal and mixed sawn timber, such as planks and squared beams. This produces the least amount of waste.
In large industrial enterprises, mowing lines are used to cut wood. They allow a very high surface quality and precise geometry of the end products to be achieved. These mowing lines are characterized by the highest performance.
In addition to all of the above equipment, such types of highly specialized sawmill equipment are used, such as debarking, edging, band-dividing and other types of machines.
Sawing logs into planks with a chainsaw
Very often there are situations when you need to make a very small amount of boards or beams for your own needs. Of course, buying machines in this case is not an option at all. Having certain knowledge and skills, it is much more profitable to cut logs with your own hands, using an electric or gasoline chain saw. Despite the fact that this work is quite laborious, the result is quite justified.
Most experts believe that a chainsaw is better suited for this purpose. Such equipment has high power and can function without interruption for a long time. In addition, the work of the chainsaw does not need electricity, so you can work far from the power supply, for example, right on the plot.
In order to cut a log into boards using a chainsaw, you will also need special tools, such as a mechanism for securing the log, a frame-attachment for a chainsaw, and a guide for cutting. The attachment frame must be attached to the tire of the chainsaw so that it is possible for them to adjust the gap between it and the chain. This will make it possible to create boards with different thicknesses. It is worth purchasing a special chain for longitudinal sawing. It has a special sharpening angle of the teeth. The guide ruler can be made from a metal profile of the required length or a flat rigid board.
Before starting work, you need to remove all the bark and remaining branches from the blanks, and also carefully examine the log for various flaws. This way, you can choose the most suitable cutting pattern and therefore reduce the amount of possible waste.
If you are ripping logs, you need to make sure that the resulting lumber is of the same density across the entire width. Since the density of wood from the northern part of the log is much higher than from the southern part, the sawing is carried out in a plane directed from east to west (or in the opposite order).
The first step is to remove the slabs from two opposite ends of the log. As a result, a two-edged beam will be obtained, which is then cut into boards of equal thickness or other lumber, according to the planned sawing scheme. The end product is an unedged board, from which the edges must be removed.
Benefits of sawing logs with a chainsaw
The saw and ax, as woodworking tools, have long faded into the background, giving way to more efficient gasoline and electric saws. The chain saw operates with a two-stroke gasoline engine; a sharpened chain is the working tool. Main advantages:
- high productivity, which greatly facilitates human labor;
- mobility, it is easy to transfer it from place to place, to load it into a car, it is not tied to an energy source;
- can be used in conditions of high humidity and even during rain;
- the possibility of using various types of attachments to perform different tasks;
- ease of use;
- financial affordability in comparison with specialized woodworking machines.
Therefore, not only experienced professionals prefer this tool, but also the owners of farms successfully use the chainsaw for solving everyday tasks in the garden and at the construction site. When building ancillary structures, it may be necessary to saw the log. It is very easy to cut the workpiece into boards in a workshop, but it can be done at home.
Log sawing tools
The choice of the right tool for sawing a workpiece depends on many criteria. These include:
- dimensions of workpieces for cutting,
- the quality and quantity of the required lumber.
To cut a large number of pieces and get a large amount of quality lumber, it is best to use a sawmill. This is a machine for processing wood, the working tool of which is different saws. Designed for longitudinal cutting of logs up to 6 meters long and 20-80 cm in diameter.
At large woodworking enterprises with large volumes of production, specialized mowing lines are used for cutting wood. On the mowing line, you can cut different-sized logs, while obtaining lumber of exactly the specified size with high-quality processed surfaces. mowing lines are characterized by high performance.
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To obtain a small amount of lumber for the needs of a small farm from logs 2-3 meters long and 30-50 cm in diameter, you can use a chainsaw. Please be aware that sharpening chains for rip sawing is different from sharpening for rip sawing.
For longitudinal sawing with your own hands, you can make a wooden stop. a leading ruler that will allow you to cut the log evenly. The stop consists of two wooden boards, one of which is fixed perpendicularly in the middle of the other. The device is screwed to the workpiece with self-tapping screws so that the upper edge of the vertically located board is below the upper edge of the log. The difference between the top edge of the log and the top edge of the board determines the thickness of the slab to be sawn off.
Types of working attachments
If necessary, the workpiece can be cut into planks with a chainsaw using special attachments. The frame for the chainsaw is attached to the tool and is designed to ensure straight-line movement when cutting the workpiece horizontally. The structure consists of:
- a guide frame moving along a surface parallel to which it is necessary to cut a tree;
- a vertical stand on which the mechanism for adjusting the thickness of the product is attached;
- a mechanism for adjusting the thickness, consisting of adjustment knobs and a screw that fixes the desired size;
The ability to set the exact size and the correct cutting of the logs allows you to get boards of the same thickness and reduce waste. For the first cut in wood, you need a guide frame or a flat, straight plank. Alternatively, you can create a flat base surface using an ax, an electric planer, and a level. For subsequent cuts, the flat side of the board, obtained with the previous approach, serves as the base surface.
The saw carriage is a type of frame. It attaches to the saw and has additional rollers or wheels that allow the accessory to move more easily over the workpiece. At the same time, resting on the workpiece, the wheels give the rip saw stability, allowing the log to be cut evenly into planks.
Such attachments for a chainsaw for longitudinal sawing allow you to cut a log with your own hands without much labor and finance. Carriage types are mini sawmills and portable sawmills.
Chainsaw cutting technology
Before dissolving a log into planks at home, it is necessary to correctly cut it in order to get the maximum amount of quality planks with a minimum amount of waste. Rational use of raw materials is achieved by using special sawing schemes. The markings are applied to the tree, corresponding to the set goal and the type of planned sawn timber.
Before starting work, it is necessary to carefully secure the workpiece in order to achieve a high quality surface of the boards. Sawing of a log is carried out most often horizontally. The advantage of cutting horizontally is that it takes less effort to hold the saw. You can cut the workpiece along the chainsaw using rip sawing devices. a wooden stop. a DIY device.
When using the rip saw attachment, carefully attach it to the body of the chainsaw. Before starting work, you need to take care of creating a base surface, parallel to which the chainsaw will cut.
It is necessary to insert wedges into the longitudinal cut in order to avoid clamping the saw blade with the sawn edge of the board. The saw should move smoothly, do not press on it with force. It is better to cut a log together, as additional hands are needed to move and secure the workpiece in order to insert wedges into the cut.
Knowing all these subtleties and features, it is easy to independently saw a bar or log into planks.
Types of cutting logs
Before you start cutting the workpiece, you need to decide how to get a high quality end product with the least amount of waste. The wood is not uniform in quality, the lower part of the trunk yields the most valuable lumber. When sawing from a log, you can get the following types of sawn timber:
- timber. lumber, with a thickness and width of more than 10 cm. The most common type is a four-edged timber, square in cross-section. It is used as a building material and in the manufacture of furniture;
- board. lumber, up to 10 cm thick and double the width. Boards are obtained from logs or beams and are used in construction and furniture industry.
With theoretical knowledge and practical skills, you can make boards and bars with your own hands.
Sawing logs into planks with a chainsaw
Safety rules during work
Before you start sawing the workpiece with a chainsaw, you need to take measures to make it safe to work:
- make sure that the attachment is mounted on the chainsaw according to the attached drawing;
- be sure to know the types of chainsaw problems and how to fix them;
- carefully prepare the workplace and the reliability of fastening the workpiece;
- when working, it is imperative to wear overalls, goggles to protect eyes from small sawdust, headphones to protect against noise, a respirator to protect the respiratory system;
- the chainsaw starts on the ground, the chain brake must be unlocked before starting work;
- be sure to have a first aid kit on hand for first aid;
Knowledge and strict adherence to safety rules will allow you to cut the workpiece with a chainsaw without harm to your health and get high-quality sawn timber.