Fluent vowels in root, suffix and prefix
Let’s find out what fluent vowels are. Here are examples of words of different parts of speech with fluent vowels “o”, “e” in the root, suffix and prefix.
What are fluent vowels?
When the grammatical form changes or when new words are formed in different morphemes, some vowels or consonants can be replaced by others. This is called interleaving. Let’s take an interest in examples of alternating vowels and consonants.
Sometimes the alternation of the vowels “o” and “e” can occur with zero sound. This means that in a word or its form between the consonants, a vowel “o” or “e” may appear where it did not exist before, or, conversely, disappear. We are talking about fluent vowels, for example:
- p about in – there is no (what?) a ditch;
- tent – many (what?) chambers about;
- box o k – edge (what?) box;
- courtyard e c – steps (what?) of the palace;
- man e k – silhouette (who?) man.
Examples of words with fluent vowels in the prefix
If the prefix ends in a consonant, and the root of a word is often a cluster of two or more consonants, then for the convenience of pronunciation, a fluent vowel “o” appears in the prefix, for example:
- ras to spread – spread to spread;
- to disperse to drive – once a gon;
- Sun walk – rise;
- to tear – to tear;
- to drive away – to drive away;
- from taking – from taking;
- to drive – to drive;
- to walk – to go;
- in pouring – in pouring;
- to take – to take;
- over tear – you need to tear.
Fluent vowels at the root of the word
Fluent vowels “o”, “e” are observed in the root of nouns in the form of genitive singular and plural.
- forehead – forehead, forehead, foreheads;
- sleep – sleep, dreams, dreams;
- mouth – mouth, mouths, mouths;
- ice – ice, ice, ice;
- ceiling – ceilings, ceilings, ceilings.
Interestingly, in masculine nouns, the stress moves from the vowel root to the vowel endings.
Let’s observe the formation of forms of feminine and neuter nouns and the appearance of fluent vowels in the root:
- sister – sisters;
- earring – earrings;
- poker – poker;
- land – land;
- drop – drops;
- oar – oars;
- saddle – saddles;
- hollow – hollow;
- heron – herons;
- saber – saber;
- tower – towers;
- cherry – cherries;
- plank – many planks;
- brand – several brands;
- jacket – jacket color.
IL, IR, IM, IN: Expand your English Vocabulary with Negative Prefixes!
Pairs of nouns in the nominative singular and plural forms have fluent vowels, for example:
- fire – fires;
- stump – stumps;
- day – days;
- coal – coals;
- angle – corners.
In short forms of the masculine singular of qualitative adjectives, we note the appearance of fluent vowels:
- thin – thin;
- funny – funny;
- cunning – cunning;
- sour – sour;
- warm – warm;
- faithful – faithful;
- sad – sad;
- adorable – adorable;
- incoherent – incoherent;
- interesting – interesting.
When new words are formed, fluent vowels may appear or disappear at the root:
- gloss e c – glossy;
- mesh about k – baggy;
- window – ok o shko;
- needle – needle, needle;
- one hundred – one hundred percent, one hundred percent, one hundred percent;
- z about in – to call;
- take – take.
Learn Negative Prefixes in English: IN-, IM-, IL-, IR-, IG-
Examples of words with fluent vowels in the suffix
Let’s indicate the word forms of different parts of speech, in which there are fluent vowels in suffixes:
- weeding to a – several weeding approx;
- hairstyle for a – a lot of hairstyles ok;
- dark n th – dark en;
- smart – smart;
- owned ets – the name of the owner;
- was able to – skilled;
- stubborn n – stubborn ts s;
- book to a – a couple of books;
- girlfriends to a – from girlfriends;
- mongrel to a – barking mongrels ek;
- venich ek – twigs venich to a;
- shoe ek – the color of the shoe;
- petal to – the smell of petal to a;
- frog to a – chorus of frogs ek;
- old women – advice of old women. old lady;
- kid to a – a few kids;
- glass box a – shine of glass box;
- camel onok – call camel onk;
- turkey onok – turkey feathers onk a;
- gulch onok – scream of gall onk a;
- scallop ok – no scallop to a;
- pocket ek – button pocket to a.
Fluent vowels in roots and suffixes of nouns and adjectives
Unstressed fluent and connecting vowels.
The correct spelling of a letter in place of an unstressed vowel in some cases is determined by the fluency of this vowel.
A fluent vowel appears in many nouns and adjectives in one of the declension forms, between two final consonants of the stem (as part of a suffix or root).
A fluent vowel is present in those forms where there is no ending (in the forms with the so-called zero ending), namely: for nouns husband. genus II declension – in the form of them. n. units h (bag – bag, father – father); in nouns of I declension and environments, genus II declension, as well as in some nouns that have only plural forms. h., – in the form of genus. n. pl. hours (sister – sisters, intestine – intestines, ring – rings, day – days); for quality adjectives – in short singular form. h. husband. kind (strong – strong – strong, smart – smart – smart); for possessive adjectives with the suffixes -y and -achiy (-achy) – in the form of them. n. units h. husband. genus (fox – fox – fox, feline – feline – feline). In all other forms of declension of the listed groups of words, there is no fluent vowel.
A fluent vowel can also appear not in a separate form of a word, but in another related word (in all its forms), for example: needle – needle, needle; glasses – glasses; taiga – taiga; Moscow – Moscow, Moscow region; one hundred – hundredth, hundred; ship – ship, shipbuilder; war is military; benefit – useful; casting – foundry, foundry; minister – ministerial, ministry.
Fluent vowels are found in both stressed and unstressed positions. Under the stress, fluent vowels o (in the letter also transmitted by the letter ё) and e are usually common. The vowel and is rarely found (one – one, egg – eggs, number – digit). In this case, before the d (as opposed to the unstressed position, see § 64, p. 3 and p. C), the letter e is written here, in accordance with the pronunciation, for example: nightingale – nightingale, family – families, family and family, friends (plural) – friends, cell – cell and cell attendant, whose – whose, third (third) – arbitrator, draw (noun) – no man’s.
Unstressed fluent vowels are conveyed by the letters e, o or and according to the following rules (below, after each example, a form or word is given in brackets where there is no fluent vowel).
After solid paired consonants, a fluent vowel is conveyed by the letter o, for example: bast shoe (bast shoe), kitten (kitten); cans (bank), fluff (fluff), daughters (daughter), kitchens (kitchen), windows (window), day (day), stretcher (stretcher); loud (loud), close (close); the same in derivatives from such words, for example: halo chiy (jackdaw, jackdaw), duck (duck, duck), staged (setting, setting), daily (day, day).
After soft paired consonants, hissing, c and j in front of all consonants except y, a fluent vowel is transmitted by the letter e, for example: little finger (little finger), woodpecker (woodpecker), wind (wind), guy (guy), Pavel (Paul) , lump (lump); weddings (wedding), banks (bathhouse), songs (song), towers (tower), watering cans (watering can), lids (lid), light bulbs (light bulb), dumplings (dumplings), stains (stain), towels (towel), feathers (feather), money (money); bitter (bitter), tasty (tasty), important (important), calm (calm), sultry (sultry), straightforward (straightforward); the same in derivatives from such words, for example: bitterness (bitter, grief to), line (line, lines), pawn (pawn, pawns), sissy (gentle, gentle), T-shirt (T-shirt, T-shirts), equality (equal , is equal), knot (knot, knot).
Before th, an unstressed fluent vowel is conveyed by a letter and, for example: cell (cell), pancake (pancake), guest (guest), songstress (songstress), gorges (gorge), spear (spear), hill (hill), foot th (foot), preserves (preserves); wolf (wolf), camel (camel), third (third); the same in derivatives from such words, for example: pancake (pancake, pancake), keliyka (cell, cell), but cf. keleika option.
|Exceptions: the letter I (instead of the expected e) is written in the word hare (hare) and in the derivative hare; the letter and (instead of the expected e) – in the form it is worthy (worthy) and in the derivative it is worth; the letter e (instead of the expected and) – in the words beehive (ulya), boil (boil), in the forms of the genus. n. pl. h. guns (gun) and judges (judge), along with the version of judges.|
According to the same rule, unstressed fluent vowels are transmitted in writing, which appear not in a separate form of the word, but in the word as a whole, in all its forms (as opposed to other single-root words where there is no fluent vowel). List of such words:
a) with the letter o in place of a fluent vowel (after solid paired consonants): bestol chi (stupid), veto sh (dilapidated), dig (smoke), murmur t (murmur), whisper t (whisper); buko vka (letter), isko rka (spark), tyko vka (pumpkin); light (lungs), runny (runny nose), pastry and pastor (Easter, food), blanc (blank), wide-range and narrow-range (spectrum), fireworks (fireworks), raspberry (rank); director p (headmistress), imperator p (empress);
b) with the letter e (after soft paired consonants): grief nka (room), goose and goose (gusli), kudery (curls), ladder (ladder), tsifer and tsifer rblat (number); airship (airship), gill (gills), large-caliber and small-caliber (caliber), kegel and kege lban (skittles), solar (sun), manger and nursery (nursery); burgomaster (burgomaster), magister (master), along with the master’s option; furniture (furnished, furnished), shabé r (locksmith tools) (scraping, scraping);
c) with the letter i (before j): Vasily (Vasilievich and Vasilievna), Grigory (Grigorievich), Vitaly (Vitalievna), etc .; lot (draw), mania (maniac), Italy (Italian). Exception (and not before j): rabbit (rabbit, bunny).