What is a screwdriver for and what tasks it performs
Maintain comfortable living conditions in a house or apartment. It means that we have to constantly make small repairs. Power tools make work easier. The screwdriver became one of these “assistants”. He copes with such common tasks:
- Installation work with self-tapping screws, screws, screws.
- Drilling holes in walls, doors, furniture.
- Installing or removing fasteners (dowels or anchors).
According to the principle of power supply, power tools are battery and mains, operating at a voltage of 220 V. Despite these differences, the tools are similar in appearance and internal structure. They consist of the following parts:
- Plastic or metal case.
- Clamping chuck for various accessories.
- Buttons incl. / Off.
- Reverse switch, allowing you to adjust the screwing in and out of fasteners.
- Speed regulator that controls engine speed.
- Switch-on locks.
- Tightening force adjustment switch.
Inside the housing there is an electric motor with a board and a capacitor, a clutch and a gearbox.
Types of screwdrivers by appointment
There are household and professional tools:
- The former are used when working with soft and pliable materials. Plasterboard or wood. With their help, home furniture is repaired, shelves are fixed, windows and doors are repaired.
- powerful, professional, power tools are needed for drilling in materials of increased hardness and density. They have a high rotational speed (up to 1300 rpm) and increased torque (this makes them more powerful).
Screwdrivers are also divided by type of power supply:
- Network. Power 220V.
- Rechargeable. Autonomous power supply.
What is a screwdriver for and how is it used
Men often ask the question of what a screwdriver is needed for and whether it is necessary to buy one for use at home. To give an answer, you first need to consider its functionality, determine how it differs from an Electric Drill.
- What is a screwdriver for and what tasks it performs
- Technical specifications
- Types of screwdrivers by appointment
- Types of screwdrivers by battery type
- How to choose a device
Types of screwdrivers by battery type
Devices operating autonomously have different types of batteries. They are:
- Lithium-ion. Their advantages include good capacity, low self-discharge. They charge fast enough. The main disadvantage. Weak resistance to high temperatures.
- Nickel-cadmium. Well adapted to work at any temperature, the number of charge cycles reaches 1000, they are discharged with a large current. Disadvantages. Large weight, “memory effect”. They harm the environment.
- Nickel metal hydride. Environmentally friendly. Lighter than nickel cadmium, minimal memory effect. Of the minuses. Intolerance to low temperatures, double reduction in the number of recharges (up to 500).
You can also note the division of batteries by battery capacity and operating voltage.
To know why you need a screwdriver and how to use it, you should first find out its technical characteristics. The most important tool parameters are:
- Torque. Shows the force developed by the tool during rotation. Helps to determine the maximum screw-in size or diameter when drilling various parts.
- Rotation frequency. The lower the spindle speed, the more dense the material can be drilled. At reduced speed, you can get a larger hole.
- Chuck type. There are key, with a hex shank and quick-clamping.
- Weight. The heavier power tool is more powerful and is more commonly used as a drill for working with higher density materials. For screwing or unscrewing screws and screws, models with a lower weight are used.
- Impact function. Used when working with concrete or brick walls.
- Pulse mode. Used for “stubborn” fasteners.
What tasks can be solved with a screwdriver and what are its advantages
This is one of the most versatile appliances that you can start at home. Thanks to a wide variety of attachments, different cartridges, modes, you can perform the following operations:
- Screw in screws, bolts, install light metal structures on bolts. Most often they are used to create false ceilings, walls, fastening finishing materials.
- Remove screws, bolts, screws and other similar fasteners. Thanks to the gearbox, you can rotate in the opposite direction, thus disassembling the structure in a matter of minutes. It does not require much effort and time.
- Tighten dowels and anchors. It is very convenient to work with a power tool when performing this type of work. With a little effort on the handle, it is possible to tighten the anchor very tightly.
- Drilling and tapping. Thanks to special attachments when using a drill-driver, you can work with metal and wood, perform high-precision work.
They completely replace hand tools, greatly speed up the pace of work, and reduce labor costs for performing all operations. To date, an electric screwdriver is presented in a very wide range, how to choose it and NOT be mistaken in doing so. We read further in the article!
Why do you need a screwdriver
When drills began to be equipped with batteries, they were often used as screwdrivers. The autonomous use of this type of instrument is very useful when working in confined spaces. You may need a screwdriver for work on the assembly of metal and wooden structures.
Such a tool has few external differences from a drill. However, its design is developed specifically for the effective tightening and unscrewing of screw screws, screws and self-tapping screws. There are models of screwdrivers, which can be used when drilling various holes. Screwdrivers are designed to relieve torque. When working with screw connections No high rotation speed required.
For this purpose, a special device is placed in the device. Reducer. It allows you to slow down to 300 rpm. This increases the torque at the same time. The screw is NOT deformed in this case.
To prevent the device from jamming, a special multi-speed system is installed in it, which eliminates overloads. The screwdriver can be equipped with special attachments, which allow you to twist and unscrew various fasteners. Impact screwdriver is capable of driving nuts and screws with the introduction of strong impacts.
Important! The presence of a special release clutch allows the creation of a tightening force. Thanks to this detail, the chuck stops automatically during overloading.
When using batteries, which are combined with the handle, the screwdriver is much more convenient to use. Such tools have become quite common in the construction industry. Similar devices are used for assembly work, for car repairs.
Screwdriver, drill-screwdriver, screwdriver, electric screwdriver. A hand-held power tool or pneumatic tool with adjustable torque and / or screw-in depth, designed for tightening and unscrewing screws, self-tapping screws, screws, dowels and other types of fasteners, as well as drilling holes (with a cam chuck or when using drills with a hex shank). The Electric Screwdriver is powered by a rechargeable battery or from an external power source (network, generator), pneumatic Screwdriver. Here is a compressor or tank with compressed gas (usually air).
To work with screws and screws, interchangeable screwdrivers-inserts (bits) with various tips are used, which are a steel rod with a uniform-sized hexagonal shank on one side, and a working part inserted into the slot of the fastener, on the other. The most common types of splines are Pozidriv and Phillips. In some industrial equipment, the shank of the screwdriver-insert has a thread instead of a hex, or a driven cam or other forms of a torque-transmitting element.
Screwdrivers-inserts (bits) can be installed both directly into the chuck (bits with a length of 50 mm or more are intended for this), and into a bit holder (for screwdrivers-inserts with a standard length of 25 mm) or, if available, into a hexagonal socket in the spindle Screwdriver.
A suitcase or bag, usually included in the screwdriver set, allows you to conveniently store and transport the tool, charger and replaceable batteries.
The screwdriver consists of several structural units:
Depending on the design, the gearbox may have a speed mode switch (gear ratio). The gear case in screwdrivers can be made of metal alloys, or wood (extremely rare). But in most cases, it is plastic. This reduces the cost of production and reduces the weight of the tool. Some of the gears of the gearbox can also be made of plastic. The metal housing of the gearbox withstands high mechanical loads and has a better heat dissipation than the plastic one. Wooden buildings are practically not used, due to the laboriousness of production, operation and repair.
Screwdrivers are divided into different types, depending on the equipment and purpose.
During construction work, screwdriver and drill. Indispensable tools. They are the most demanded among mechanized devices. Thanks to these devices, work efficiency is significantly increased. They are mainly used for tightening fasteners and making holes. Such devices can be powered by mains or batteries. There are also models that run on gasoline. Rotation in such devices can be supplemented by impact actions. Quite a common option. Drill screwdriver. These tools are versatile. However, the peculiarities of their operation should be understood in more detail.
1. Do not overestimate: buying a household screwdriver for professional work
The screwdriver can operate from the mains or from the built-in battery. The type of power supply depends not only on the mobility of the instrument, but also on its power. Small and handy cordless tool. The best assistant for a home craftsman. It has all the necessary functions, and it weighs very little, and the hands do not get tired. But the main disadvantage of the cordless screwdriver. Low power. Will play a cruel joke on the topic, who plans to use it as a professional tool. That is, a lot and often. For the pros. You need a completely different power. The price of a professional is higher. Most often it is tied to an outlet, but it tolerates intense loads well.
How is a screwdriver or device design
The considered type of tool works on the principle of converting electrical energy into mechanical energy, thereby performing useful work. Based on this, screwdrivers are classified into mains and cordless. Rechargeable models are popular due to their portability, but network models also have an advantage. This is a high power compared to battery packs. Network screwdrivers are also called drills, since they can not only screw fasteners, but also wood and metal drills.
It is interesting! A close relative of cordless screwdrivers are wrenches, which have not only the same device, but also the principle of operation.
The external device of the network and battery models is almost identical, with the exception of a slight difference. This difference lies in the presence of a battery on portable instruments, as well as the presence of a wire for connecting to an outlet on network-type appliances. The internal structure has more differences, however, the principle of operation of cordless and cordless screwdrivers is the same. The main structural elements of the considered devices are:
- High impact plastic housing
- Chuck (usually keyless type)
- Button, switch or trigger for starting the tool
- Mode switch for the direction of movement of the executive body. Reverse
- Speed controller in the form of a switch
- Torque force regulator. Better known as ratchet
To understand the device, below are photos with a description of each element. Operation of the device Based on the following parts, which are located inside the case:
- Brushless or brushed motor
- Gear mechanism in the form of planetary reducer
- Safety clutch with force regulator. Eliminates seizure and overheating of the motor, thus preventing its failure
Depending on the instrument model, they can also be additionally equipped with a backlight, battery charge indication or LED display. The housing design may have grooves to accommodate replaceable bits, which makes the device easier to operate.
It is interesting! In network screwdrivers, collector AC 220V motors are used, and in rechargeable ones, both collector and brushless DC motors are used. It should be noted right away that brushless models are less common, since their cost is 2 times higher than models with graphite or copper brushes.
Differences between a traditional drill and an impact type screwdriver
Before many craftsmen who choose tools for home use or for work, the question arises, what is the difference between the well-known impact-type screwdriver and the usual standard electric drill. With a similar appearance, the main difference is the principle of operation:
- In the first case, the tool has an impact mechanism, which drives the drill, while increasing the torque;
- The standard Electric Drill is based on a two-stage gearbox.
This distinction is beginning to show itself, giving an advantage to the percussion type tool when working on hard and especially difficult surfaces. When the drill senses resistance, a series of powerful and fast impacts are sent, which multiply the torque and tighten the fasteners much easier.
It is also worth distinguishing between an impact driver and a drill. With the same principle of operation, they have a different direction of impact. For a drill. It is longitudinal, but for a screwdriver. Perpendicular to the direction of rotation. The process of action of the tool is most clearly represented as small blows with a wrench while tightening the nut.
Why do you need an impact screwdriver
In the arsenal of each owner there is a tool that allows you to tighten or unscrew a screw, a self-tapping screw, to make minor home repairs, assemble furniture, drill a wall for a new picture. Automatic electric drills greatly simplify the process, allowing you to drill almost any surface without much effort and unnecessary debris.
Now on the market there is a huge selection of tools from different manufacturers, models, wired and mobile, for various surfaces and with a different principle of operation. According to experts, among the colossal variety of drills, the most productive, convenient, versatile and multifunctional is the impact driver.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Impact Tools
For many buyers who are faced with the choice of which drill or impact wrench to choose, the question arises how the impact driver is superior to the impactless model.
- The increased torque allows the technician to apply significantly less effort when working with the tool, rather than pressing on one body. For most models, the values of this indicator are in the range from 80 to 250 N / m.
- Possibility of application Not only for self-tapping screws, but also for working with nuts. With the free running of the product, the screwdriver works in standard mode, when resistance occurs and the nut goes down, the nut gait along the thread automatically switches to impact mode.
- Since there is a need to apply excessive efforts to tighten the bolts and screws, the caps will NOT deform. The power of the tool is also sufficient for reverse action. Unscrewing parts that have changed their original shape or rusted;
- The ease of use of the tool also helps relieve stress on the user’s hand and wrist.
Limitations and disadvantages of impact-producing screwdrivers include a decrease in the tightening speed during impact mode, since the actions of the tool concentrate on the turning moment and on the quality of work. Also, only hex chucks can be used. The degrees of twisting must be controlled independently, since there is no limiting clutch. There is also an increased noise level when working at high speed.
The fundamental difference between percussion models and standard ones is their compatibility with other devices. It is possible to use ring dust in parallel, as well as replace the functions of a conventional drill for drilling holes with the use of special attachments.
The first parameter (Nm) means torque and is responsible for the “force” of the device. For simple household needs associated with the usual twisting and unscrewing of self-tapping screws, 10-12 Nm will be enough. If roofing works are planned, then the option with 20 Nm must be selected. In any case, if you take a screwdriver for your home, then 30 Nm will be enough for you. You will be able to do any work, even with bricks, metal, and NOT worry that the battery will quickly discharge due to the applied force.
What parameters when choosing a Screwdriver Pay attention
To make the right choice, you need to know what these or those parameters are responsible for. These are the main designations that you can find on the battery packaging:
- Nm (newtonometers)
- Ni-Cd and Li-ion;
- Ah (ampere / hour);
- V (volts).
The screwdriver can operate both from the mains and be equipped with a battery. When buying a stand-alone option, you don’t have to look for an energy source. This option is more mobile and suitable for work in the “field” conditions. You will not be burdened by the presence of a cord. But the price for this option will be at least 1.5 times higher.
Just in the batteries, you will see the value of Ni-Cd or Li-ion. The first option says that this is the nickel-cadmium option. It is most commonly installed on home screwdrivers. It does not have such a long service life (up to 1000 recharges). In addition, it has a “charge memory”. This suggests that it needs to be completely discharged and only then charged. Otherwise, the battery capacity will decrease. In lithium-ion (Li-ion) there is no such problem, but the price is higher. Therefore, when choosing a screwdriver for the home, you need to ask yourself about the frequency of use. If you rarely use it, it is better to stay with a cheaper option.
Now you know how to choose a cordless screwdriver. Let’s now talk about the benefits of the mains option. It:
- Low price;
- No need to spend money on batteries;
- Any need to charge the batteries every 20-30 minutes.
Although the option that provides autonomous work is more in demand, the second category also has the right to exist and be actively used.
How to choose a screwdriver. Pay attention to
For drilling, you need a higher number of revolutions (rpm parameter), and for ordinary household needs, much less. In a household screwdriver, this value fits in the range from 400 to 1300 rpm. For drilling, a speed of up to 1000 is required, and for working with fasteners no more than 500. This parameter is adjusted using a ring located on the device.
What is a screwdriver for?
A screwdriver is a necessary thing for the home. It will help speed up the repair time. You do not have to spend a lot of energy and time for hours of twisting or unscrewing screws and other fasteners using a screwdriver.
Why do you need a screwdriver
With a screwdriver, you can do it in 4 steps, which will take a few seconds:
- Place the hardware in the hole;
- Bring the screwdriver to the element;
- Press the button;
- Release the button.
With a screwdriver, you can also make holes in various materials (wood, stone, metal).
What is it and what is it for?
Impact screwdriver. This is a special power tool that allows you to most effectively drill a wall for the purpose of driving screws and installing second fasteners. Unlike bumpless models, this relative novelty in the domestic market makes a hole not only due to the actual rotation, but also with the help of directional blows. The latter are usually not permanent. The corresponding mode is turned on at the request of the operator, or automatically if the drill comes across an obstacle of particular hardness. In a way, it’s a little jackhammer.
Impact screwdriver. The device itself is more complex and “smart”, so a certain versatility should not be surprising. This means that the tool, as a rule, is fully compatible with various attachments, thanks to which the scope of its potential application significantly expands. Instead of a drill, you can attach, for example, ring dust or a mixing attachment.
It is logical that such a tool is somewhat more expensive than unstressed models, but its purchase is often justified even at home. The external, load-bearing walls of multi-storey buildings are usually characterized by the highest strength, which only an impact screwdriver can overcome.
The device is also appreciated by professionals who drill walls or various parts on a daily basis. According to them, for all its assertiveness, the drill of an impact driver usually does not cause significant damage to the fasteners, increasing their durability. This characteristic is especially valuable in the context that the same tool is often used to assemble furniture.
Impact screwdriver classification is NOT so extensive, but it can still drive many inexperienced consumers into a dead end. The logic of dividing tools into drills, screwdrivers and screwdrivers confuses most of all, but in fact everything is extremely simple here: the mechanism is generally the same for everyone, and the exact name depends on the nozzle.
So, a drill is usually equipped with a drill for making holes, and a screwdriver and a screwdriver at the same time know how to screw in fasteners. Some models imply a simple replacement of nozzles, therefore they can have complex compound names like “screwdriver-drill”, but if such multifunctionality is not provided, the unit is called the most accurate term.
Often, when choosing, beginners are also confused by the fact that the device is supposedly electric and pneumatic. Electric models The most common, especially at home, but pneumatic. These are only very rare models, which will definitely not be in demand at home, the main places of their use. Various service stations and tire companies.
Since the screwdriver is powered by electricity, you must clarify that it can be both mains and battery. The first is good for minor home repairs or daily work in a well-equipped workshop, because it is lighter, and the master does not need to constantly remember to charge the battery.
However, it is the battery version that is the uncontested solution during the construction process or for use on the street, when the working site does not imply the presence of functioning outlets.
When deciding whether to choose an impact or a shockless model of a screwdriver, first you need to figure out how they differ.
Many consumers who have managed to evaluate the work of the striking mechanism will say that such a unit is better, and that is how they are ready to substantiate their point of view.
- Due to directed impacts, the torque of the percussion tool is increased to the range of 80-250 N / m, which makes it possible to break through the most difficult obstacles. It is significant that in the process there is even a need to firmly press the body against the wall. The tool bites into it even without significant pressing.
- Without the need for constant physical effort on the tool, the wrist and hand of the master get tired much less, which allows to increase the same productivity.
- Given that even a solid wall is NOT able to successfully withstand the onslaught of such a tool, it usually does NOT deform the fastener, which in the future will allow it to be removed without additional effort. over, many models also predict the reverse function of removing old fasteners from the walls, and even the fact that, due to long-term operation, it has experienced strong deformation.
- The screwdriver works Not only with bolts, but also with nuts, in each case achieving the most tight tightening. A “smart” car usually automatically switches from shockless mode to shock mode when it senses that the nut has become tighter at a certain moment.
Unfortunately, this solution has certain drawbacks, which, perhaps, will never allow it to completely supplant the Unstressed models. Thus, an impressive twisting speed is observed only in the shockless mode; when switching to impacts, it significantly decreases.
Cartridges for such a tool are NOT suitable for any. We need strictly hex. Most models have a Restriction Coupler, so the degree of tightening must be carefully monitored by the operator, otherwise damage to the wall or parts will not be done. Finally, at high speeds, such a unit is capable of producing deafening construction noise, therefore constant work with it requires the mandatory use of protective equipment.
How to choose?
When choosing a particular model of impact screwdriver, pay attention to the smallest details. The first thing they usually pay attention to. This is a type of food. Pneumatic models are definitely not needed at home, but electric ones are network and battery, as mentioned above.
The network option is good for working in an equipped room, it is most appreciated for its almost unlimited power. Give preference to just such a device, evaluate its cable. It must be of considerable length and thickness, have good insulation and NOT raise doubts about the strength of the place where it enters the unit.
In the case of the battery model, there are more selection criteria. First of all, you need to find a balance between the large battery capacity, which extends the battery life, and the weight of the device, because an emka battery always weighs quite a lot.
Another point. This is the choice of the type of battery: lithium ion models are most common today, but nickel-cadmium ones are also found. The first ones are good with a small mass with a significant capacity, they allow charging at any time, however, they are more expensive than the main competitor and can wear out quickly at low temperatures. The advantages of the nickel-cadmium solution completely eliminate the disadvantages of the lithium-ion option. Such a battery is cheaper and is NOT afraid of frost, but it is heavy and environmentally dangerous, and most importantly. It must be completely discharged and then fully charged, otherwise the “memory effect” will provoke rapid wear of the media.
At high voltage, the engine power also increases, but sky-high indicators are not needed for home use: 500-700 W is enough, otherwise the tool will be heavy and unreasonably expensive.
Screwdriver chucks, in which replaceable nozzles are attached, are quick-clamping and key. The first can be organized in different ways, but its advantage is that maintenance can be done with bare hands. The key cartridge has a characteristic rim; for its maintenance, a special key is needed, which is not always convenient.
Since we are talking about the cartridge, an important criterion is the maximum diameter of its opening. The larger it is, the more different attachments you can use.
Maximum torque. This is an indicator of how hard the nozzle will rotate. This indicator does not always directly depend on the power of the motor, sometimes it can be increased due to the gearbox, but it is always desirable that the maximum torque be quite high. Models with stepless torque control are in priority, since they are more gentle on fasteners and surfaces that are drilled.
The use of an impact screwdriver will be safe and as effective as possible only if done correctly. Obviously the first tip. This is to read the instructions before implementing, but there are other reasonable tips for using.
For example, if possible, DO NOT expose the equipment to maximum torque, because many brittle materials with a treated surface can simply break from this, and you will ruin the workpiece. In addition, working at maximum speeds up the wear of the tool, do not say that in this mode you need to hold it tighter, otherwise it may even be possible to get injured.
Operating modes, by the way, are described in the instructions for a reason. Each of them assumes optimal settings for this particular task, and for the other may not be suitable. So, drilling is needed to make holes, and the screwdriver mode. For screwing in fasteners, when used, on the contrary, efficiency decreases, but the risk of injury increases.
Always wear protective goggles and gloves, especially with delicate materials. When drilling walls in advance, make sure there is electrical wiring. Remember that the device has a limited uptime. If the nozzle or any other unit is noticeably warm, let it cool.
By the way, if the drilling mode is not provided for in a particular model of a screwdriver, then it is better NOT to try to drill anything with it. Such experiments often end with a burned out engine.
Impact screwdrivers: what is and how they differ from shockless?
- What is it and what is it for?
- Distinctive features
- How to choose?
- Operating rules
- Care Tips
One of the original criteria for assessing the masculinity of the owner of the house is considered to be his ability to drive a nail (and in a modern way, will screw a screw) into the wall. Without this elementary skill, it will not be possible to either hang a shelf, decorate a room with a picture, or install a curtain rod.
An electric screwdriver is called upon to cope with this task faster and without unnecessary efforts, and the impact screwdriver is especially often praised, but not everyone understands what it is and why.
If you have purchased a rechargeable model, remember that the battery should always be in the disconnected position, except for direct work. In this case, the nickel-cadmium battery must be completely discharged before turning off the device, and then immediately put it on charge. Among other things, it is also NOT capable of storing a charge for a long time even when it is idle, therefore sometimes it needs to be recharged, even if you have NOT used it.
In the next one you will find an overview of impact and non-impact screwdrivers: AEG BS12CS vs BSB12C2.