How to choose a sander for wood What to look for when choosing a sander, their types and advantages.
How to choose a sander for wood
The wood sander is an indispensable tool for finishing work. Thanks to its use, the process of polishing and grinding wooden surfaces is significantly accelerated. The unit itself is convenient and compact, which makes it possible not only quickly, but also to level the walls, floor, furniture and other wooden surfaces with high quality.
The most popular of all grinders.
In terms of the frequency of processing wooden surfaces, the vibration machine is slightly inferior to the belt type. With its help, the final (finishing) stage of grinding wooden, plastic, metal or stone flat surfaces occurs.
The main part of the machine is a plate that makes frequent reciprocating movements. The very same shaft rotation is translated into translational movements of the platform due to the vertically located motor.
What to look for when choosing this tool:
- The amplitude of the sole stroke. It is better that it has small indicators (1-3 mm), which indicates a careful cleaning of the surface. Some machines are available with an amplitude of up to 6 mm, such models are suitable for quick and coarse sanding.
- Vibration type models can be selected with 150-300W power. They are characterized by good maneuverability, compact size and mobility. There are units up to 600 W, differing in larger dimensions and the ability to work for a long time without the threat of overheating.
Grinder in standard sizes.
Sole stroke rate. The greater its value, the faster the machine removes a sufficiently thick layer during operation. At a low value, you can achieve a better final sanding result. Some models have the ability to adjust these indicators, which allows you to process not only wooden surfaces, but also other materials.
- Platform dimensions. There are standard and mini models. In the latter case, the sole reaches 10 square meters. Cm, which allows high quality sanding of narrow surfaces.
- Outsole quality. The sander should have a perfectly flat, high-quality sole with a clear geometry. Cheaper options include a plastic or steel platform, expensive magnesium and aluminum alloys.
- The material from which the pad is made. A porous polymer pad is considered best, while rubber works worse with a plane.
The vibratory sander processes any surface with high quality. This is the best option for handling hard-to-reach places.
The Bosch GEX 125150 AVE model has a power of 400 W, which will easily extend the sole up to 15 square meters. Cm.
The orbital or eccentric machine features a round sole, while the sanding element itself is attached with a special Velcro. The unit includes a counterweight and an eccentric that drive the sole in multiple directions.
The product can work in two ways:
- By orbiting;
- By rotating along the axis.
Axial movement in most models occurs by inertia, less often forced. As a result of its complex movement and high machine speed, a high quality surface is obtained without any single flaws. Dust is discharged to the outside through special holes on the grinding wheel, as well as on the sole itself. To collect it, containers or a vacuum cleaner are used.
- The power of the grinder can vary between 200-900 watts. The higher the value, the more productive the tool will be.
- The speed of the forward motion. Adjustable grinders can have this indicator in the range of 4000-14000 rpm, without adjustment up to 12000 rpm.
- Sole type. If a delicate sanding is required, then you should not choose a large sole, which also has a dead zone and an amplitude of up to 7 mm. For convex surfaces, it is advisable to use an elastic pad.
The compact outsole is capable of handling even hard-to-reach surfaces.
- Plate material. The best choice is a metal plate, which has high strength and reliability, conducts heat well, and is also particularly stable.
The orbital type is designed to carry out the polishing and grinding process at a high level.
Disc surface grinders
Disc grinders are equipped with one or three discs on which abrasive wheels are attached. The discs rotate around their axis and thus smooth the wooden surface. Such a principle of operation, combined with a floating fit of the discs, allows high-quality polishing of the surface after preliminary processing by tape or drum machines.
Drum sander is a technique designed mainly for coarse sanding. At the highest level, it also copes with scraping, removing the paint layer from the parquet.
The principle of operation of drum machines is based on the rotation of a cylindrical shaft (drum), started by an electric motor. An abrasive belt is installed on the shaft. When the drum rotates, it is pressed tightly against the wooden surface and erases a layer of the specified thickness from it (depending on the grain of the abrasive on the belt). On average, during the grinding stage, the drum machine removes a layer of 1-1.5 mm from the surface. This is accompanied by the formation of wood dust and sawdust, therefore most models of drum machines are equipped with dust collectors.
The abrasive belts used for this type of grinder are quite coarse P24-40. Therefore, they cannot cope with polishing, and after the passage of the drum machine, it is usually necessary to refine other types of machines (disk, vibration, eccentric).
Any drum grinder is a massive unit that moves on wheels. Weight can vary from 70 to 90 kg (on average). The less weight (respectively, and dimensions) of the machine, the easier it is to operate, but its performance may be lower. If work is coming up in an apartment, then it is better to use a machine with less weight. For large production areas, oversized units are more suitable.
Performance also directly depends on power. Average value 2.2 kW. The more power, the stronger the mechanical effect on the surface. And the more a large drum (with a wide and long abrasive belt) such a machine will be able to pull.
Typically, disc sanders are used for surface finishing. The working element of this technique is a flat rotating disc on which the abrasive material is fixed.
Disc grinders are divided into:
- Angle (angle grinder) well-known hand-held angle grinder, as well as specialized boots machines. The design of the angle grinder has one disc rotating parallel to the tool axis.
- Disc surface grinding overall units with 1-3 discs rotating around their own and central axes.
Which sander is best for wood
There are several types of wood sanders. The design and principle of operation determine their purpose and the ability to perform certain types of work.
- Belt sanders are designed for rough sanding and fitting of parts. Surface treatment takes place with an abrasive belt stretched over rotating shafts.
- Vibration (surface grinders) machines. They have a flat sole, often of a rectangular shape, to which a sheet of abrasive material is attached. Suitable for large flat surfaces.
- Vibrating with deltoid sole. Vibration type angle grinders. They are used to work in hard-to-reach places and to process parts with complex configurations.
- Eccentric (orbital) grinders. They have a round sole with replaceable abrasive pads. Designed for finishing and fine sanding.
- Brush grinders. They differ from the rest in that a brush with metal or synthetic bristles acts as a working consumable. Such a tool is not intended for fine grinding. Its main function is the removal of paintwork and rough surface preparation.
Depending on the type of the proposed work, one or another type of tool is used. Professional craftsmen usually have at least two grinding devices in their arsenal for coarse and fine processing.
Wood grinders: which one to choose
Grinding is a process that most people associate with painstaking, monotonous and often dusty work. But is everything being simplified? Thanks to the use of special power tools. With the help of a grinding machine, work is not only simplified, it also increases productivity and processing quality.
Belt sander for wood
It is the most powerful and productive species. Machining takes place with an abrasive belt attached to a pair of rotating shafts on both sides of the flat sole. The web width can be up to 110 mm. Such a tool easily handles large flat surfaces.
Some models provide for attachment to a workbench and the ability to install additional equipment. This turns the tool into a mini-machine, which is convenient for processing individual small parts.
Application of orbital sanders
The principle of operation of these tools is similar: grinding is carried out due to light circular and oscillatory movements of the grinding surface with an amplitude of up to 5 mm. As an abrasive material, sheets of sandpaper with various grain sizes are used, fixed to the sole with clips or Velcro.
Oscillating sanders provide high quality processing and are used for sanding almost any material: wood, plastic, metal, plaster and putty, as well as for removing corrosion products and old paint coatings.
The degree of processing depends on the amplitude of vibrations: for rough processing, an amplitude of 4-5 mm is chosen, for fine grinding, 1.5-3 mm. In household models, the rotation speed is usually regulated in the range of 2000-5000 rpm, and the oscillation speed can be in the range of 25000 per minute. The ability to adjust the eccentric amplitude, rotational speed and oscillation are very useful options for GSOM.
An important parameter is the power of the VSHM, usually it is in the range of 150-600 W. The higher the power, the greater the productivity and uptime of the tool. Another important factor that determines the use of GSM is the shape and area of the sanding pad. It can be square, rectangular, or deltoid.
Application of belt sanders
Belt sanders are used where it is necessary to quickly remove a fairly thick layer of material, for example, for sanding non-planed boards or removing old paint from surfaces. Also LShM is used for precise fitting of parts and processing of cut mowing line.
Material processing is carried out using an abrasive belt closed in a ring and stretched over rotating rollers. When moving, the tape removes a rather thick layer of material, comparable to the operation of an electric planer. The thickness of the layer to be removed depends on the grain of the abrasive belt.
When choosing an LSM, you need to pay attention to two parameters: the width and length of the abrasive belt used and the speed of its rotation. The area of the processed surface depends on the width, the aggressiveness and degree of processing depend on the speed. Standard tape dimensions for LShM are as follows: 76×457 mm, 76×533 mm, 76×610 mm. The width of the belt for semi-professional grinders can be more than 100 mm, but they are rarely used for domestic needs. The belt speed is usually in the range from 150 to 500 meters per minute, the power is from 400 to 1200 watts. Useful functions are smooth adjustment of the belt rotation speed and an automatic belt centering device that does not allow it to slide off the rollers even during rotational movements.
Abrasive belt for LShM is of two types, with an abrasive layer of aluminum oxide or zirconium. Zirconium tape provides a deeper, but more aggressive finish, contributes to the appearance of scratches that must be treated with a less grained tape. For processing metal surfaces, it is better to choose a zirconium tape, with its help you can sharpen the cutting surfaces.
Surface treatment with a belt sander is carried out as follows: the machine is installed on the surface to be treated without distortions, and, without exerting pressure on the machine, they make smooth longitudinal or circular movements along the surface of the material. If it is necessary to fine-tune the parts, grinding is carried out with short-term translational movements or using a bounding frame.
Wood sander: application, varieties
A sander for wood is an indispensable tool for finishing work in a country house. The use of a grinding machine allows you to speed up the process of grinding and polishing wooden surfaces of wall cladding, flooring, furniture, and decorative elements. Grinding machines for wood are convenient and compact, they allow you to perform high-quality leveling of any wood surfaces.
There are several main types of grinders for household use, their different design and principle of operation determine their purpose. For construction and repair, joinery and carpentry works, the following types of grinders are used:
- Belt sanders (LSHM) a tool for aggressive and rough processing of wood, plastic, metal surfaces.
- Vibratory grinders (GSHM) allow for softer processing due to circular motions with a small amplitude. The grinding surface of the orbital sander is rectangular, making it easier to grind corners.
- A type of flat orbital sander is a delta sander, it has a triangular shape of the sole. The delta sander is handy for small and hard-to-reach areas, corners, recesses and depressions.
- An eccentric sander refers to a tool that allows you to grind a surface to a polished state due to the combination of rotational and oscillatory movements of the grinding pad. But the eccentric sander is not suitable for small surfaces and interior corners.