Evgeny Anatolyevich Bannikov
Country house. What and how to grow?
Site planning and development
How to dispose of land
Almost every summer resident is familiar with the feeling of dissatisfaction with their own site. Redevelopment, site change. a useful and exciting activity, which, however, requires experience and knowledge. If you want to change something, we are pleased to invite you to use the information contained in this section.
The main problem of the summer resident is the breakdown of the site, which is often very small or quite complex in shape and topography. But in any case, you need to get the most out of every square meter. Benefits can be expressed not only in kilograms of fruits grown, but also in the pleasure that a person receives from contemplating beauty, especially if it is created with your own hands. Everything should find a place. trees, flowers, garden crops and a place of rest. It’s wise to start with a plan. Try to create a concept for the plot, which depends entirely on the wishes of your family. Usually you want to have everything on your site and you need to immediately decide in what quantities your family needs vegetables and fruits.
It is necessary to decide which place is most suitable for home. After all, if the soil can be improved, then the shadow of the house, which falls on the beds, can no longer be moved to the side. When choosing a place for building a house, it is necessary to take into account the location of neighboring buildings, observe sanitary and fire regulations. The site should have a hozblok. Usually it includes a barn, shower and toilet. It is better to position the hut in the depths of the plot so that it does not block either the garden or the vegetable garden. The utility rooms of adjacent estates should be combined in one place so that, for example, a cesspool or a garbage bin of one of the estates is not located next to the resting place of other sites. The area of the hozblok should be large enough (at least 6×6 m) to allow the truck to enter.
Do not forget about the small inconspicuous building on your site, where you will place your garden tools. Also do not forget about the greenhouse and hotbeds that you want to build in your country house.
If you have an entrance to the site from the north side, then it is better to build a house at the beginning of the site, and if from the south. in the middle of the site or in depth.
This will help you avoid constant imperfections and unnecessary material waste.
If it so happened that the house on your site is located on the south side of the site, you can plant part of the fruit trees in front of the house, they will protect your house from direct sunlight. On the north side, in the shade, in this case, you can plant a decorative shrub. Currants are planted in the north, and raspberries and sea buckthorn in the east. You can plant plums, cherries and a pear between the hozblok and the rest area.
Trees are planted from the north, and raspberry and sea buckthorn bushes are planted on the west side if the house is on the east side of the plot. Cherries and plums are planted on the south side, and a recreation area is located. In the free space, decorative shrubs, flowers and lawns are planted.
What do you want to see at your dacha? For example, you want to have beds with strawberries, several fruit trees, a flower bed with perennial herbs and a small decorative pond. Or maybe there will be only a large orchard, a barbecue area and a flower garden with perennial herbs? Based on your goals and create a project for your site, realizing it gradually and in stages.
Free the area from stones and unnecessary vegetation, level and fill up old holes. Be sure to determine the level of groundwater occurrence and how much nutrients there are in the soil. This is very important for the breakdown of the garden and the vegetable garden; without this, it is impossible to determine what fertilizers the soil needs and whether it is necessary to lime, water, and drain it.
To do this, dig a hole with a depth of 5 m at the lowest point of the site. After the water settles in it, measure the distance from the water level to the soil surface. If this distance is below 1–1.5 m, then drainage must be carried out on the site.
When planting fruit trees, the level of groundwater should not be higher than 2.5 m from the surface of the earth. Otherwise, all fruit trees will be short-lived. Their roots, reaching the waterlogged land, die off, the growth of trees slows down and they gradually begin to dry out and then die.
Plums are the least picky, they can withstand the presence of groundwater at a depth of up to 1.5 m, and berry crops up to 1 m. If the waters come even higher, then it is necessary to carry out general drainage of the site.
Ditches are the simplest devices for draining groundwater and storm water. But their undoubted minus is that they occupy the useful area of the site. Closed drains are arranged at a depth of about 1 m, their width along the bottom is not more than 0.4 m. Ceramic or plastic pipes are laid at the bottom of the closed drains. Water enters the pipes through the gaps between them. For drainage, plastic pipes with round or slit-like openings can be used. Instead of pipes, drainage material has been successfully used: sand, gravel, brushwood, stones, etc.
Above the drainage structures, it is best to arrange beds with garden plants. It is good if these are annual crops, since the drainage system will periodically require repairs and perennial crops may be damaged as a result of repair work of the drainage system.
Before embarking on planting, it is necessary to take into account the influence of plants on each other, the composition of the soils necessary for their normal development, air temperature and the amount of sunlight falling on your site.
According to existing scientific standards, on a garden plot of 6 acres, various buildings occupy up to 14% of the total area, vegetables. 26, berry and fruit crops. 70%.
A country house is best placed on the north or north-west side, then it will not obscure your garden and vegetable garden. Green spaces will not suffer from a lack of heat and sun. The house should be built no closer than 5 m from the border with the neighboring plot. Pay attention to how the windows are located in your house. If they go north and south, it will be constantly hot in one room and cool in another. It is best to place them west and east. When the house is located in the northern part of the plot, a small area between the house and the road can be occupied by shade-tolerant plants and shrubs. Apple trees on the south side of the house will protect it from overheating. Tall trees are best located on the north side of the site. The plot on the south side of the house is large. Here you can set up a garden, orchard, plant strawberries and strawberries. At the edges of the site at a distance of 1 m from its borders, you can plant berry bushes: blackberries, raspberries, currants, gooseberries, and pearberry.
On the south side of the house you can plant raspberries and sea buckthorn. It is better to plant raspberries in rows so that adult plants do not obscure each other. Raspberries are planted at a distance of 0.7 m from each other, and it is recommended to plant two strong seedlings in one seat. With this method of planting, you will get a high crop a year earlier. Make sure that they are not in the shade.
It is very good if you find a place for a children’s bed on your site.
You can use vertical gardening at your cottage. Such landscaping protects the site from cold and dust, as well as from noise.
If you do not know how and where to start, then listen to our simple tips. This will make your stay in the country not only useful, but also enjoyable. Following the tips, start with the simplest thing and you won’t have to redo anything.
The most favorable is the location of fruit, vegetables, berries and ornamental crops in separate permanent places. Temporarily berry shrubs can be grown among tall-growing tree species, but then, when severe shading occurs, temporary crops will have to be removed. Therefore, when planning a site and breaking up the land, think in advance about what and where will grow in 20 years.
Novice gardeners and gardeners make a very common mistake by applying the combined arrangement of crops (vegetables, berries, decorative crops are planted in the rows of young fruit trees). Such a neighborhood is welcomed for the first few years until the trees are young and dim the light. There is enough nutrition for all plants. Over time, the trees grow, and all intermediate plants cease to bear fruit. Potatoes and most vegetables cannot tolerate the presence of woody plant roots and shading in the soil.
It is necessary to provide for the possibility of changing vegetable crops, updating the plantings of fruit and berry bushes and cherry and plum trees.
Vegetables are recommended to be interchanged every year to prevent the spread of infections that persist in the soil. For example, strawberries bear fruit during the first 2-3 years, then it must be ruthlessly eliminated. In order for strawberries to be constantly updated, it should be included in the crop rotation with other vegetable crops. In such a rotation, there should be 3-4 beds with strawberries, one of them with new strawberries, and 1-4 beds with vegetable crops. The number of beds is planned based on the needs of the family. You can not plant a culture by culture, as well as strawberries and raspberries. after tomatoes and potatoes, since they suffer from the same diseases.
The farther the plants are from home, the greater should be their height. In order for the housing to be light and dry, it is necessary to place the lowest plants near it. flowers, lawns, undersized shrubs, and tall trees to bring to the background, away from the house.
There are two types of landings in the country. regular and landscape.
The landscape style, in contrast to the regular one, is not distinguished by the rigor of forms and the straightness of the rows, the same distances between the rows and plants.
The landscape style is characterized by the rejection of symmetry and strict geometric shapes in the arrangement of plants, the presence of a good lawn, decorative paths, ponds and various slides.
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It is good if your site has a natural body of water or a river flows. Natural ponds allow you to organize watering, increase air humidity, soften sharp fluctuations in temperature, especially during morning frosts, create a favorable microclimate for plants. But this alignment of things is extremely rare. Therefore, when planning the site, you must consider the location of your site relative to the source of water supply. But what about those summer residents who do not have a natural reservoir nearby? It’s just wonderful if your cottage has water supply or a well has been dug, from which water can be pumped out. You can place a large tank on the site and fill it with water, and then use it for irrigation or as a shower. During rain, water will naturally accumulate in the tank. Rainwater is the best. And the more rainwater you collect, the better. You can place special gutters under the roof and put tubs, tubs under them, sometimes rusty nails are put in the tubs, thereby filling the lack of iron in the soil.
In the summer cottage you can arrange a small shower room with natural solar water heating. To do this, a barrel is installed on top of a special tripod, which will be filled with water.
In addition to a shower, in the corner of the plot you can put a bathroom or an inflatable pool. In the sun, the water heats up, and young children will splash in it with pleasure. The water in the pool is much warmer than in the river or lake.
The issue of watering is very important, because through water the plants receive full nutrition from the soil through the root system, and a lack of nutrition will affect the quality of your crop.
When digging a well, determine in advance where it will be located. It is advisable that the water tanks and well be closer to the beds. In this case, you don’t have to spend a lot of strength and energy to bring water to them. And the tracks need to be arranged so that it is convenient to move along them, without wasting energy on unnecessary walking.
Sometimes you have to uproot old stumps. To make it easier to drown out the growth of the plant, sprinkle on the resulting stump of table salt.
Never plant an apple tree in the place of a dead apple tree. At this point, you can plant a seedling of a new breed, and an apple tree. only at a distance of 1.5 m from the deceased.
You should know that birch inhibits the growth of fruit plants, even located far from it. Therefore, if birch and fruit trees are adjacent to your site, then you will have to get rid of some of them.
Usually on each site, in addition to trees, there are also shrubs. currants, gooseberries, raspberries.
Blackcurrant and raspberry should be used for fruiting for 5–8 years, and then eliminated. During this time, young bushes should be grown, a place for their planting should be provided in advance. Black currants need to be planted on moist soils. The site should be sunny, protected from the wind. But in very low, marshy places currant bushes bear much worse.
Planting horticultural crops should be carried out in early spring or late fall. In an emergency planting or transplant, the roots of the trees should be with a good lump of earth.
If your summer cottage is large, then garden trees can be planted according to a simplified wide-row compacted scheme. In the rows, the distance between the trees is small, and between the rows is large. This will allow summer residents for a long time to use the land between rows and grow vegetables and flowers in the garden.
The small distances between fruit trees provide a higher yield than with sparse placement.
It is practiced to plant trees with a row spacing of 4–5 m. In this case, plane-vertical crowns form in the trees. The width of such crowns across the garden is 1.5–2.5 m (already above and wider below). This method of forming the crown of trees needs annual pruning to limit the size of the tree, especially its height and width at the top of the crown. In the table. 1 shows the distances between fruit plants in an amateur garden.
Vegetables can be planted in the form of a flowerbed, beautifully arranged and spices. Everything will depend on your desire and taste, only you need to consider the compatibility of vegetable crops.
It remains to determine the place for compost. Break the compost pit so that it is easily accessible and at the same time does not catch the eye. It is better to make not one, but two compost heaps with passage between them. They must be protected from sunlight and wind, as these two factors negatively affect the compost mineralization process. If sunflower is planted near such pits, protection from wind and sun is ensured.
We must not forget about the paths and driveways in your country. It is necessary to plan on paper, and then carry out in-kind placement of roads and marking tracks on the site.
The tracks look very beautiful if sprinkled with clean sand, fine gravel and river pebbles. On the edges they can be decorated with larger stones. This design of the tracks is also good because they do not overgrow grass so quickly. Decorative stones can also be decorated with the same stones. The plot will be especially spectacular if you use stones of the same size and shape.
When arranging the tracks, the microclimate of the garden must be taken into account. For example, a wooden walkway will look good, but you need to do it only in dry, sunny places. In moist and dark places on such paths mosses and lichens settle, it will lose its appearance and will quickly fail. Brick paths in a humid environment acquire an ugly gray-green color and completely lose their decorative effect.
For wet areas, natural stone paths are best.
The shape, paving pattern, texture and color of the material from which your paths will be made. it all depends on their purpose, the general style of the site and your personality. However, it should be borne in mind that the materials of the tracks should be durable, not requiring special care, practical.
Paved paths are more durable, they are always neat and clean, and often more beautiful than grassy and gravel ones, and do not require constant care.
Interesting in the garden look paths from shredded tree bark. They give the impression of forest paths, but should have borders. Most suitable for recreation areas.
Grass paths are great, but they require constant care: watering, haircuts, top dressing, weeding, etc. It is necessary to select grass for shaded and sunny areas. The track made of plates and grass squares laid out in a checkerboard pattern looks beautiful.
When trimming decorative shrubs and trees, you can give the most diverse form: from geometric shapes to fantastic fairy tale characters. At the same time, the bottom of decorative hedges should be slightly wider than the top, that is, a trapezoid should be obtained in the slice.
Living plants are wonderful protectors from wind, sun and dust. Arranged in a row of tree or shrub plantings with well-closed crowns are beautiful long-term fences of the site. They form solid green walls with a height of 1 to 3 m and protect the territory well. In addition, ornamental shrubs adorn the garden, give fruits and berries.
For hedges, hawthorn, rosehip, mountain ash, sea buckthorn, spruce, lilac, willow, yellow acacia, and honeysuckle are usually used. Seedlings are planted at a distance of about 50 to 100 cm from each other, depending on the characteristics of the growth and development of the planted breed. The green hedge of decorative grapes looks good. In April-May, according to the foreground of the planting grooves, a 2-3-year-old vine of arbitrary length is laid out. It is necessary that the wood of such a vine was already ripe. It should be planted to a depth of 5 cm. Care for such a landing is usual: weeding, fish
Care must be taken in the existing landscape. It is necessary to preserve plants that will look decorative in your area, or combine wild-growing species with cultivated ones.
Soil is called the surface layer of the earth with fertility, that is, the ability to produce crops. A characteristic feature of fertile soil is humus, or humus, which is formed as a result of decomposition of organic substances. Substances that are contained in humus are the main elements of plant nutrition. Therefore, the more humus is in the soil, the more fertile it is. While the lower soil layer serves to fix the roots of plants and provides them with water. Soil quality is critical for plants to grow healthy and strong. The soil should be free of lumps, sufficiently airy and permeable. Plants can be damaged by both excessive moisture and lack thereof, as well as a high concentration of salts caused by repeated use of mineral fertilizers. Still the soil can serve as source of various plant diseases.
The genetic type of soil is divided into: sandy and sandy loam, clay, loamy, peat-bog, sod-carbonate, sod-podzolic, gray forest, peat (bog), floodplain, chernozem, etc.
The basis for dividing soils according to their mechanical composition is the quantitative ratio of clay (less than 0.01 mm in size) and sand (more than 0.01 mm in size) mineral particles contained in the soil.
The best soils for orchards and berry lands are sod-podzolic, light gray, gray and dark gray forest loamy mechanical composition with subsoil of forest-like loams. The subsoil of sandy and sandy mechanical composition is absolutely not suitable for gardens. Good soil is good for the garden. Its composition determines the growth and development of plants, in it they are fixed by the roots, receive water and the necessary nutrients.
To get a good crop from your site, you need to determine the type of soil. You can collect soil at a depth of 30 cm in ten different places on the plot (approximately 500 g) and send it to the laboratory for analysis. If on the site there are places with sharply different soil characteristics, then several samples should be sent for analysis.
And you can determine the composition of the soil manually.
If the soil easily wakes up through your fingers, then it is sandy. Loamy soil is easily compressed, it crumbles and does not stick to fingers. Medium loamy soil wakes poorly through fingers and leaves dark traces on the palm.
If the soil is easily squeezed by hand, it easily takes the given shape, has a shiny, oily surface, and a thin dark coating remains on the palms. the soil is heavy clay.
The composition of sod-podzolic soil can also be determined differently. It is necessary to take a handful of earth from the arable layer, add water there and mix to a pasty state. Then roll the stick out of this mixture and bend it into a ring. If the ring is cracked. the soil is loamy, no. clay. If even the dough does not work, the soil is sandy or sandy loam. It is impossible to roll a tourniquet from such soil.
Soil composition may vary, so soil analysis is best done at regular intervals (once every few years).
When digging the ground, you should notice that its topmost layer has a darker color, then the soil becomes lighter.
And now about the most common soils.
Sandy and sandy loamy soils. lungs. They consist of countless sand particles through which moisture seeps easily. Such soils are poor in nutrients. They warm up easily, but also quickly lose heat. They are easy to process, they are quite water-intensive. Sandy soils without additional processing can not provide a high yield of garden crops. Due to the high moisture permeability, nutrients from sandy soils are easily washed away, organic substances decompose. On sandy lands, plants usually suffer from "malnutrition" and lack of water. That is why such soils must be enriched with humus and binders. compost and peat powder. Sandy soils, as a rule, have a small admixture of clay, they are easy to process.
The fertility of sandy soils can be improved by artificially creating a fertile layer or by repeatedly applying organic fertilizers. Fertilizing is better in spring and in small doses, but much more often than in clay soils. The method of creating a fertile layer is claying. It consists in pouring a layer of clay or clay soil 5-6 cm thick (5-6 buckets per 1 m 2), carefully leveling it and then pouring a layer of sandy, peat, loamy soil, taken from the side. The layer of poured soil should be at least 20–25 cm, so that when digging with a shovel, the clay layer should not be turned out.
With the introduction of organic fertilizers and a sufficient amount of moisture on sandy soils, fruit trees grow well and develop.
Clay soilin their characteristics are the opposite of sand. They are characterized by great cohesion, weakly let moisture through, warm up slowly and are poorly permeable to air. These soils are difficult to process, dry out late. The structure of clay soils is heavy and dense. They are waterproof and damp. The root hardly penetrates this viscous and wet mass. During rain, water stagnates on clay, and during drought the earth becomes solid as a brick.
Clay soils also need cultivation. The reception is called sanding. To make them more loose and less cohesive, ordinary quartz sand, sawdust, manure, peat are added to the soil. Then the soil in its composition begins to resemble sandy loam. However, the work is very laborious. when loosening, mix sand (40 kg per 1 m 2) with the introduction of organic fertilizers (10 kg in the same area).
Increases clay soil fertility and liming. Every year it is necessary to apply 3-4 kg of organic fertilizers, 200-300 g of lime per square meter.
Lime and organic fertilizers are embedded in the soil to a depth of 25 cm by deep plowing.
Vegetable crops on clay soils should be grown on ridges and ridges. Seeds are sown to a shallow depth, potatoes are planted finely to a depth of 6 to 8 cm. The soil is loosened often and plants are cultivated at least twice. Due to this treatment, the soil becomes moisture- and breathable, quickly colonized by microorganisms that enrich the soil with humus and humus.
Also, to enrich the soil with moisture helps greens grown on such soil for smelling. Deeply penetrating roots form voids filled with air. Composts and mulch will gradually accumulate a surface layer rich in humus. source of the earth’s harvesting power.
Loamy soilshave a good structure and are rich in nutrients available to plants. They are able to accumulate water and nutrients, accumulate and retain heat well, and also contain calcium, which is necessary to maintain normal soil acidity. The soil is fertile, suitable for growing all vegetable crops with systematic fertilizer. They must be constantly supplied with compost and covered with mulch.
Clay and loamy soils are called cold and heavy. Loamy and loamy soils are.