Restoration of the screwdriver battery
Recovery of lithium-ion and nickel-cadmium batteries in Bosch, Hitachi and Makita screwdrivers at home
Restoration of the 18 volt screwdriver battery
18V is a common power that corresponds to 15 units. As a donor, you need to choose an electrical appliance with a voltage of 14.5 V, that is, a 12 V car battery will not work.
Battery does not charge
A screwdriver, after prolonged use, sometimes fails. Its working element may stop charging, which will lead to the impossibility of fulfilling the functional capabilities of the instrument, the instrument, roughly speaking, will "die".
In order to extend the life of the instrument, so that you do not have to remove it from the field of view, you can try three methods in turn. Each subsequent one is considered more complicated and costly. They consist in:
- Restoration and increase of capacity after its reversible loss (memory effect);
- Adding distilled water to the electrolyte;
- Replacing some or all of the battery packs.
How to restore a screwdriver battery at home
Can all types of batteries be reanimated? Nickel-cadmium blocks, which are found in almost all modern screwdrivers, lend themselves better to repair.
For the recovery process, you need to understand the basics of electricity. That is, to have school knowledge about the operation of batteries.
To work you will need tools and materials:
- Soldering iron;
- Tin (with low corrosive flux).
A donor is required to resuscitate the battery. In the complete set of a screwdriver, it may be available, or you need to find it yourself, for example, by removing it from another old device.
To start the operation, you need to fully charge (about 6 hours) both batteries, swing it. Then remove the plastic cover from the part to be restored with a screwdriver. This procedure must be done carefully so as not to damage the clips. Otherwise, for subsequent assembly, you will need glue, like "Moment".
Assembly and initial charging of the screwdriver battery
- After you have replaced the defective elements, carefully check the soldering points.
- When installing the battery "bundle" in a protective container, do not forget about the insulating substrates that protect the elements from the moment of short circuit.
- Carefully glue or twist the fixing screws on the body connectors.
It doesn’t matter which battery for the screwdriver ("Interskol", Makita or Bosh) you restored. The main thing is how well you assembled the energy device. Since any minor mistake during installation, whether it be a housing gap, a "chewed" wire or incorrect positioning of the contact plates, can nullify all your efforts. Only after you have visually made sure that everything is assembled correctly, you need to completely discharge the "new" battery. The battery for the screwdriver (12V) will drain very quickly if you "load" it to the full. The next thing you need to do is do 2-3 deep charge / discharge cycles. It should be noted that this kind of prevention should be performed at least once every three months.
The process of replacing an inoperative battery
- Using a sharp knife (a scalpel is ideal) "cut" the contact plates "" and "-" from the malfunctioning container.
- Using a household soldering iron and low-melting solder, add a new capacitive cell to the overall battery “power strap”.
- Observe the polarity when installing a new container.
Important: do not overheat the case when soldering. Use special acid and catalytic fluxes.
Forced retreat: energy features of the battery
As you already understood, the device of the screwdriver battery is no different in anything daunting. Nevertheless, a series circuit of connected batteries can have an additional component in the form of an installed thermistor (heat sensor), the principle of which is to open the charging circuit at the moment when the temperature indicators reach a critical level – overheating. At the same time, when repairing a battery, you should take into account the output rating of the battery used in the power tool, and also adhere to the identity of the typical layout.
In other words, sufficiently powerful screwdriver batteries (18 volts is a very common standard) are usually assembled from fifteen nickel-cadmium cells. Each individual capacity has an energy potential of 1.2 V. In the case when the device is supplied with a lithium-ion type of battery, the 18-volt battery consists of five cells with a nominal value of 3.6 V. As a result, Li-ion batteries are more compact and lighter than batteries of previous technologies.
The battery voltage is uniform. The resistances in the circuit are also known plus or minus. Therefore, we can safely switch to the DCV voltage measurement mode. The battery voltage is used differently:
- Nickel battery voltage – 1.2V;
- Lithium-ion voltage – 3.6V.
To reanimate a screwdriver battery at home, you need to follow these simple steps:
- We charge all the way.
- We check the banks one by one with a multimeter.
- Each can, the voltage of which is below the minimum threshold, is labeled.
- We collect the screwdriver, turn it on. The task is to plant the battery before a noticeable drop in thrust, for this you can give an increased load.
- After planting the battery, we repeat the voltage check manipulation along the circuit. If the voltage drops by 0.5 – 0.7 V, the battery cannot be restored.
Restoration of the screwdriver battery
Lithium-ion cells for any equipment fail forever, it is impossible to reanimate the battery of this type of screwdriver, you can only diagnose it. For elements with nickel leads, there are optional options. Sometimes the problem lies in the charger, and not only in the "receiver", the current output per amperes and volts must be checked there as well.
You can restore the nickel-cadmium battery of the screwdriver. Metal hydride electrodes are not subject to "repackaging", and Ni-Cd batteries are the main type of autonomous power supply for construction equipment.
Basic manipulations to prolong the life of Ni-Cd batteries:
- Elimination of the memory effect;
- Replenishment with fresh electrolyte.
Elimination of the "memory effect"
The transfer of ions only in fresh elements occurs completely. The essence of the "memory effect" is the clogging of cans with reaction products (salts and alkalis), which are no longer involved in the transfer of current and are stable. The effect does not completely disappear, but there is a way to partially remove it, restoring it to an acceptable value.
The recovery technique starts with a full charge with a small current, the next stage is a complete soft discharge under a small load, when the charge is released through the entire thickness of the plate. Old incandescent bulbs work well, sixty watt will suffice.
Before direct use of the recovered battery, the manipulation is carried out at least five times. The method will not give full power, but as a temporary measure it is an effective tool, for several months the walls and ceilings are drilled successfully.
Car battery recovery methods
Many problems in the operation of the battery appear after improper maintenance or neglect on the part of the car owner. Therefore, drivers should follow the recommendations of the battery manufacturer, keep the device clean, and perform periodic charging with a stationary device. In addition, the motorist needs to have an idea of the design features and the principle of operation of the power source.
Battery device and principle of operation
Since the invention of the battery, this device has been repeatedly refined and improved. They all have the main goal of increasing battery performance and longevity. Many manufacturers today use special materials that improve the battery’s properties. But a simple car enthusiast needs to know the general ideas about the device and the principle of operation of the battery.
Externally, a car battery is a closed plastic container in which a set of negative and positive plates made of lead or alloys based on nickel, cadmium, etc. Are hidden. Sulfuric acid is poured inside the battery, which forms a galvanic vapor. When current is applied to the battery terminals, electricity is accumulated. Having reached a certain limit of capacity, the storage battery is capable of itself becoming source of current with a voltage of 12 V. Each time the car is turned on, the battery is discharged. But as soon as the motor starts working, a working generator must replenish the supply of electricity. However, this idyll is not always observed in the car. Therefore, the battery weakens after each engine start, and soon it does not have enough strength to turn the starter. Car battery repair is carried out only after a thorough diagnosis has identified the cause of the discharge.
Common battery problems
There are several common car battery problems. In some cases, the battery cannot be repaired, and sometimes the current source can be restored.
- One of the most popular causes of battery failure is plate sulfation. The symptoms of this "disease" look like this. The battery capacity drops rapidly, the power of the device is not enough to rotate the starter. In addition, overheating of the plates, boiling of the electrolyte and an increase in the voltage at the terminals are observed.
- A common cause of battery malfunction is damage to the integrity and crumbling of charcoal plates. This problem is easily identified by the dark color of the sulfuric acid. It is not always possible to restore such a battery.
- The next battery malfunction appears when adjacent lead plates located in the same section are closed. This problem can be easily identified. The electrolyte in this jar boils away, and the section itself gets very hot. To restore the battery, you must open the battery and replace the damaged plates.
- Incorrect use of the battery, as well as errors in its storage, cause the electrolyte to freeze in frosty weather. As a result, not only the lead plates are damaged, but also the battery case. With such breakdowns, the battery cannot be repaired.