In order to design a carriage for a circular saw with your own hands and then use it comfortably in a home workshop, first of all, you should prepare a set of materials and tools for its manufacture:
- Stationary circular saw on the sawing table;
- A screwdriver or drill, as well as a hand router;
- Mounting glue. epoxy will do;
- Hacksaw or grinder. you may need to saw off the protruding parts of the structure;
- Self-tapping screws to secure parts of the product;
- The metal nuts are smaller in diameter than the thickness of the profile hole. they will be poured into it for a short time;
- 2 U-shaped channels made of metal (for example: aluminum);
- Two slats made of plywood or wood. they will serve as guides. In thickness, they should freely enter the U-hole of the profile;
- Square thin plywood plank for the base;
- Two wooden walls. for the manufacture of thrust walls of the carriage.
Reference. Additionally, it is recommended to keep a vacuum cleaner “ready” to blow the structure from shavings and wood “dust” after sawing or drilling.
Drawing 1 Drawing 2
Carriage base fabrication
Next, the movable base of the trimming carriage is designed. For this, two strips are taken, which, in thickness, freely enter the U-shaped groove. But there is one moment. the carriage will have to freely “slide” on the table, and for this it is raised by 2-3 mm above the table. To do this, nuts of the same thickness are laid out in the profile grooves at an equal distance, after which guide rails are laid on them.
Then glue is applied to them, which fixes the plywood base strip. To press it more tightly, you can fasten the clips on the sides.
When the resin dries, the nuts are removed from the profile grooves and the foreman checks whether the carriage can move freely along them. After that, for the convenience of further use, the carriage is cut on the sides along the table profile.
Instructions: do-it-yourself circular carriage
To simply saw a tree for kindling or to make longitudinal profiles for cladding or construction in a home workshop. one stationary “circular” will be enough for the master. If he needs to perform a series of more serious carpentry manipulations and make a more accurate cut, straight or with angles, he uses a carriage.
This tool is a clamp moving on a special “slide” for wooden blanks or blanks, which, with the help of small tips, can be easily made by every craftsman.
- Required tools
- Step-by-step instruction
- Fastening aluminum profiles
- Carriage base fabrication
- Installation of walls
- Making a Combo Miter Square
- Nuances at work
Installation of walls
After the walls are aligned, a test cut is made. It has two purposes. with its help, holes are cut in the walls and base of the carriage, and after measuring the sawn workpiece, they check whether the right angle of the cut is correct.
Important. The height of the walls must be sufficient so that the cutting edge enters them no more than half of it, otherwise the carriage may break during operation. and this is an unjustified risk when working with a circular saw.
Making a Combo Miter Square
So, a regular straight-through carriage is ready, but what if the craftsman needs to cut something at a different angle, for example 60, 40 or 30 degrees? For such operations, you will need an additional structural element, which is called a “combined square”.
The name is not accidentally put in quotation marks. the fact is that the base of the blank is really a square wooden platform. It is cut out so that it fits freely between the stops of the main carriage and one of the sides is fixed at the bottom wall.
After that, the workpiece is cut by cutting out fragments from it at the desired angles. the resulting bevels will be the guides along which the part that needs to be cut at this angle is laid.
After manufacturing, the “square” is rigidly mounted (with glue or self-tapping screws) on the carriage. Another, more advanced option. in the square and the base of the carriage, with the help of a router, rounded grooves are cut out, which allow the square to move along the base on a movable latch. It is made from a screw, a nut and two metal washers.
A detailed video on how to make a miter carriage described above:
Another example on
Fastening aluminum profiles
Since the carriage will “run on the saw table,” the first thing to do is the guide grooves. To do this, take two U-shaped profiles, approximately equal to the length of the table. You can adjust the dimensions with a grinder.
At the same distance from the location of the cutting disc, circulars draw two lines parallel to it. Then, with the help of a hand mill, U-shaped holes are cut through them, shavings are blown out of them, and the professional pipes are fixed in them with the help of glue. After the glue dries, the grooves are ready.
So, the design details and the necessary tools are selected, you can proceed to the assembly and subsequent installation of a homemade carriage.
What kind of machine is needed for the outlet
The rating is calculated similarly to the contactor, rounded up. Each electric motor has “jumps” in the load at the start, therefore, AB class “C” with an average response threshold is needed. It withstands inrush currents exceeding the nominal 5-7 times.
Its value is indicated in the technical specifications on the case or data sheet (if it still exists). If Istart / In. 5, then it is better to take class “D”, otherwise the machine may react to high starting currents, as in a short circuit.
If the saw works with a frequency or soft starter (without starting currents), then it is advisable to set the class “B”. It has the smallest shutdown threshold and delay before triggering.
The place of installation depends on the specific application. If this is a home sawmill, and you know for sure that the circular will be connected to only one outlet, then you can put AB on this line in the switchboard. Otherwise, you can place it directly on the bed near the switch, only in a sealed shield of at least IP44.
When choosing a machine, take into account the operating temperature range, since not all are adapted for extremely low temperatures in cold months.
If the circuit breaker protects the network, then the RCD will protect you from dangerous phase leaks to the frame or housing.
How to assemble a circular saw with your own hands?
In a private house or in the country, it is difficult to do without a circular. She helps out both in the repair, and in the construction of the fence, and in the preparation of firewood. Hard and soft rock cuts butter like a hot knife.
On the Internet you can find any saw with various adjustments, clamps, guards and other gadgets. The more everything is in it, the more expensive it is. But why spend money if you can do it yourself? For this you will need:
- An electric motor from an old washing machine;
- Hands in the right place.
If the new circular saws can be both screwed to the bed and used by hand, then the self-made one is only suitable for stationary use. Therefore, first of all, you need to build a frame for her.
How to calculate a trigger
For a motor from 1 kW, it is recommended to install a contactor, and for 1.5 kW and above, it is simply necessary. Ordinary push-button posts are not designed for such a load, and at best they will simply break down, and at worst they will lead to a short circuit or another dangerous accident.
The contactor is designed in such a way that when a low-current signal is applied, it is safe to switch a line with a high load. Based on the fact that its rating is indicated in amperage (amperes), the motor power must also be reduced to this parameter.
For single-phase “engines” the formula I = P / U is applied, where P is the rated power (W), and U is the mains voltage (V). If you have a 1.5 kW circular saw, you will need a 7A contactor for it: 1,500W / 220V = 6.8A.
The result is rounded up to the face value. In this case, this is 7A. Considering that such a denomination is rare, you can take the more popular 9A instead. The main thing is not lower, otherwise it will quickly wear out and fail. For detailed parameters, you can select a contactor in the same AxiomPlus, which I mentioned at the beginning.
With a three-phase connection, it is impractical to use a contactor, since at the same power there is less current. The smallest common rating for 380V is 9A. Based on the formula P = I × U × cosφ, where cosφ is the power factor (default is 1.7), at 9A, the load on the network will be: 9A × 380V × 1.7 = 5,814W (5.8kW).
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This is too powerful a drive for a household circular. Therefore, if you are going to put the saw on the “three-phase”, the usual push-button post is quite enough.
When choosing a contactor or push-button post, pay attention to the degree of dust and moisture protection. If you are going to keep the saw indoors and only temporarily use it outdoors, then IP54 is enough. If it will be outdoors for a long time, and the probability of exposure to rain is allowed, then take IP65 or higher. This is a complete protection against dust pollution, and water spray flying from all directions.
Even if all electrical equipment is sealed, cover it with plastic wrap to prevent rain. Moisture not only can close contacts, but also contributes to the occurrence and spread of metal corrosion.
It is better to take a contactor in a housing with a thermal relay that protects against burnout of the windings on the coil. Otherwise, you will need a separate electric thermal relay. Usually comes as an accessory for the contactor, but in a circular it is simply necessary.
If the electric motor works above its power limit or suddenly the saw is jammed, the temperature of the current-carrying elements begins to rise sharply. The bimetallic plate in the thermal relay deforms and triggers a circuit breaker. As a result, the voltage disappears in a split second and the coil winding remains intact.
In addition to the adjustment range, electrothermal relays differ in response time. In this case, the optimal delay before triggering is up to 3s, otherwise the winding will have time to burn out. Given the high load, the main thing is to take a suitable type of wire of sufficient cross-section.
How and how to connect a circular
The power is unlikely to exceed 4 kW, therefore, for connection, take a regular VVG or PVA cable with a cross section of 1mm2 or 1.5mm2. Calculate the length so that 40-50 cm is from the motor to the control drive, and about 120-150 cm for the connection cord. 200 cm should be enough.
There is no point in connecting a cord that is too long, as it will provide inconvenience when rearranging. In this case, it is better to take an extension cord. If the circular will be used indoors, calculate the length so that it is enough for the outlet.
The plug must be a three-prong (grounded) plug, as this may leak from the case to the frame and risk getting hit. For outdoor use, choose with IP44, as it is better protected from moisture and will last longer.
In addition to the plug, the socket must also be grounded so that in the event of a leak, current can safely flow into the ground.
The wiring diagram is as simple as possible: network. control panel (contactor, electric thermal relay, push-button post). electric motor. The circular saw operates under non-linear load conditions and a motor protection relay is required to last as long as possible.
What is the best to make a frame?
Considering that during operation the saw will emit a rather tangible vibration, it is better to make the frame of metal. The tree loosens quickly and the structure loses its initial strength.
A channel or corners of sizes from 25 × 25 mm to 50 × 50 mm are optimal. Thinner ones may not withstand the weight load, and thicker ones will make the structure too weighty, and besides, they are more difficult to connect.
The frame must easily support a weight of 50 kg or more. On the Internet, you can easily find drawings of a homemade bed. Choose any option you like or do it yourself.
It is better to weld structural elements to each other than to connect with bolts, since with systematic vibrations the bolts will loosen.
The countertop is best made of solid wood with a thickness of 30-50 mm or sheet metal. Since it is fastened with bolts, through holes of the corresponding diameter must first be made on the frame. It is better to take thick bolts with a thread with a diameter of 10 mm.
For a straight cut, you can make a side stop parallel to the blade placement. A wooden block or metal corner is suitable for this. It can be fixed with bolts, so you need to make holes for several positions in order to adjust the width of the material being cut. Can also be secured with conventional clamps.
Having decided on the material and having designed the frame, we proceed to the choice of the engine.
What does the mandatory protection for the outlet include?
At high load in the network, the contacts heat up and weaken, the insulation strength is lost. As a result, a short circuit may occur, which will “burn” not only the cord, but also the electric motor itself.
Remember that a regular household 220V socket is rated for 16A, which corresponds to a load of 3.5 kW. If this threshold is exceeded, the contacts are likely to melt and burn out, therefore, for a more powerful drive, an industrial socket of 32A is needed.
A circuit breaker is required to prevent short circuits. And for it to work effectively, select the optimal characteristics.
How to increase the service life
The relay provides a smooth start and stop of the circular, thereby reducing inrush currents. This protects the network from short-term load surges and reduces wear on the electric motor. Thus, the actual service life is increased by 2-3 years. The functionality of the protective relays is different, but most of them protect against frequent network problems:
- “Surges” of voltage, if there is imbalance on one of the phases;
- Phase loss;
- A sharp increase in power due to a breakdown;
- Damage or breakdown of insulation of live parts;
- Short circuit of the stator winding to ground, during operation.
By installing a protection relay or one of the frequency converters, you protect the motor from failure due to the occurrence of one of the problems, which happens quite often. In such cases, the winding usually burns out, and it is difficult and expensive to replace it. It’s easier to put a protective relay, and not risk it.
Instead, a soft starter (SCP) is also suitable, providing a smooth start of the electric motor. By changing the frequency of the sinusoid, the revolutions smoothly increase to nominal and also smoothly decrease after switching off.
Proceeding from the fact that the UPP costs from 50, it is inappropriate to put it on old and cheap Chinese engines for the same 50. Nevertheless, this is an excellent solution for more valuable analogues, which will double their “lifespan”.
When you turn on the circular saw, the network load will increase by 1-1.5 kW, therefore the wiring and the outlet itself must also be protected.
Why you shouldn’t make the shaft yourself
The main reason is that manufacturing requires professional precision, and it is better to entrust this business to a turner. The slightest inaccuracy or deviation in the parameters can lead to breakage of both the blade itself and the drive.
The shaft is mounted with self-aligning ball bearings. Automotive wheel hubs are also suitable.
It is better to put the disc in the factory than to make it yourself from sheet metal, since the balance can be disturbed. This is dangerous because it may break during operation, and the fragments will simply fly at you. 10 the savings aren’t worth the risk.
The classic design is that the engine is placed at the bottom of the frame, and the thrust is transmitted by means of a belt drive to the shaft. A V-belt with car pulleys is optimal for it. If you put pulleys of different sizes, then by swapping them, you can adjust the speed.
For example, if the driving pulley is wide and the receiving pulley is narrow, then the disk will rotate faster, and if they are swapped, the rotation speed will decrease by a factor. Speed control may be required for different blade shapes or for sawing wood with varying degrees of hardness.
It is better not to use a gear transmission in a circular. If the disc suddenly jams, the belt will simply begin to slide, which is safe for the engine, and the entire drive will fail with the gears.
Power is supplied through a switch, which is usually located on the side of the top of the frame for easy access by hand. The higher the power, the more dangerous the spark appearing when switching the network, therefore you cannot install a conventional push-button post without a contactor.
How to assemble a stationary circular saw
For more convenient work with the machine, the craftsman made a movable stop on the furniture rails.
Aluminum corner served as a longitudinal stop.
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To adjust it, loosen the bolts and move it to the distance required for further work.
However, in this position, the saws will be lost 10-20 mm.
Advantages and features of the tool
The circular saw has its advantages: it allows you to make an even cut, increases the speed of installation, ensures ease of use, and saves electricity. If you replace the disc, you can overcome the soft metal. To make a full-fledged tool for work, you need to place it on the table and provide an approach from all sides.
In this case, the following conditions must be observed:
- the table must be well strengthened, for which its legs are sometimes poured with concrete or screwed on with bolts;
- the hand saw is fixed with iron brackets to the table top to ensure safety during work;
- grounding required.
The large width of the table is inconvenient when working. The optimal size should not exceed 60. 70 cm, so that it is convenient to hold the bar (not on outstretched arms).
If the working surface is not static, then the quality of the cut deteriorates, therefore fixing is necessary. The wire can be secured with brackets in the floor so that you do not accidentally trip over when working.
As an option. make an additional socket under the table top.
First, you need to prepare a drawing of the countertop with an indication of the dimensions. This is almost a drawing, but simplified. On paper, you need to indicate the size of the gap for the disc. in width and length, where it should be in relation to the edges of the table. You can immediately imagine your work behind such a device.
Circular sawing machine for wood
List of required materials:
hand-held circular saw;
plywood 11 mm;
bolts М-8 with a furniture head;
hand-held circular saw;
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Description of the workflow
How the saw blade guide is made. A guide ruler attached to the workbench will help to make the cut straight.
The essence of the device is to prevent the sawing material from moving during operation.
The easiest option is to attach two profiles, one to the foot of the saw and the other to the sawing table.
To do this, you need to pick up two pieces of pipe, you can use an aluminum square profile of different sizes. The pipes must be cut vertically with a grinder. You should get a structure similar to a rail, when one part enters another.
Next, you need to measure the piece along the length of the table. Pre-cut the recess and fit the profile into it, securing it with bolts from the bottom side. The smaller profile is cut to the length of the sole and bolted. The edges of the metal should be sanded so that they do not interfere with smooth movement. It remains to combine both profiles and test the device.
Additional tools you will need:
In the process of work, you may need a router.
To make a table, you need to prepare:
- 2 guide rails;
- chipboard sheet 60/120 cm in size;
- blank for a table with legs (if any).
The bed can be made independently from ordinary wooden blanks, fastened together by slats, or a ready-made sawing table, iron or wooden, can be used.
Complain about the video?
Making various accessories for a hand-held circular saw with your own hands is as easy as shelling pears. One of them is a regular block that is inserted into the stop included in the kit. The standard stop does not allow cutting wider parts, as it is designed for a certain width, different for each model. To be able to increase the gap, you need to insert a wooden part of the required width between the wall of the stop and push it into the sole.
You can make a groove cutter that can come in handy when making furniture.
A circular saw from a hand-held circular saw can be adapted for miter cuts. Both additional parts and the ability to fix the disc itself at the desired angle are used.
Simple trimmer with hand-held circular saw. It is possible to cut at a given angle.
The auxiliary part “wedge” is suitable for the production of round wood blanks for decorative purposes.
The end saw cut is used in construction to decorate walls with wood, which are subsequently varnished, leaving visible the transverse structure of the tree.
In order not to spend extra money on various devices for small jobs, you can try to think over a solution to the problem yourself and create a working tool from the available materials.
For arranging circulars, old hand saws are suitable, possibly with an inoperative motor. You can design a workplace according to any scheme. Having picked up parts in terms of power, it is possible to cut materials of various widths and densities. With the help of additional devices, you can organize a carpentry workshop and perform various operations without extra costs.
Manual device from angle grinder
A lot of work is done with the popular Bulgarian tool. From this tool you will get an indispensable circular saw made by yourself. It is enough to make a sliding stop from the material at hand. The design assumes the presence of two small pieces of corners, which are located parallel to the disk. The connection is made using bolts, the clearance is adjusted with the supplied washers.
Install the strap clamp so that the screw is at the bottom. Next, a strip of metal with a hole is attached, in another case, the structure can be single, but this is how the thickness of the metal is lost. The next step is to cut the holes in the body through which the handle is attached for basic work. A hand-made handle is a horn or bracket, a metal rod or pipe is taken as a basis. Riveting should also be taken into account, if the ends are relaxed, the handle may bend during mechanical action on it.
Design features of the circular machine
Circulars of any fixed type consist of main parts.
- A table for connecting mechanisms. An assembly compatible with larger motors is preferred with an all-metal table. The surface of the table must be made even with your own hands, for a better product at the exit.
- In most cases, the engine is used from what is in stock. Electric motors designed for long operating time from the mains will be preferable to collector drives.
- The shaft is the most critical unit of the circular. Finished products are used most often, in other cases the assembly is made on a lathe. It is important to calculate the bore holes, to exclude runout.
When making a machine with your own hands, you should pay special attention to safety. The main cleaning of the saw blade must be covered by a protective cover. The moving parts of the drive and motors must be covered. Emergency stop button is built into the drive circuit and has a convenient location.
Adjustable side stop
Any type of work will require a support. The side stop is made from a block of dense wood. In other cases, it is possible to manufacture from a metal corner. The location should be slightly longer than the table structure. The stop is installed using bolts. The template is installed between the table and the cutter, for precise positioning, better tuning.
The most critical part of the design is the shaft mounted on the circular. A do-it-yourself circular shaft can damage the structure and cause injury. The reason for this is the beating, which cannot be avoided in the manufacture of the shaft by handicraft methods. The production of the shaft should be entrusted to a specialist with good turning equipment. Remember to have a cutter that needs a seat. Holes must be machined symmetrically and machined.
Finished shafts are sold in specialized markets. Preference should be given to parts with a self-aligning bearing. Otherwise, the usual mechanism can soon render the circular unusable.
There are several types of gears that can be used in a do-it-yourself circular design:
- V-belt transmission;
- gear mechanism.
The preferred option is the use of a belt drive. Using a gear mechanism can lead to seizure by foreign bodies and injury to the worker. When choosing the diameter of the pulley, the maximum number of revolutions of the saw blade is taken into account.
Circular do it yourself
In the household, a circular saw always comes in handy. Overhaul is a costly and troublesome business. Not everyone can afford to buy an expensive tool for processing wood materials. A hand-made circular saw allows you to perform safe work and speed up the construction process. A hand-made saw has a number of advantages, such as reliability, economy and sharpening for immediate needs.
Electric motor for circular
Homemade machines are equipped in most cases with an engine from an old washing machine. The main features are increased service life and efficiency. The revolutions of such engines are not high, which makes working on a circular saw, assembled by hand, safer, more prolonged, and has a positive effect on the result. The use of a special three-phase motor implies the presence of a 380 volt network. If one is not available, you will have to use a starting and working capacitor, which leads to additional costs.
Desktop Miniature Circular Machine
The stationary machine is more functional and safer to use. A homemade tabletop circular is made at home in the same way as a hand saw, with the addition of some elements. A homemade circular saw with your own hands will require prepared drawings. The process involves the use of a 2 cm pipe, the metal is bent in a U-shaped shape. The mount is bolted to the table, the lower ends are bent in the direction of work. Additional stability is gained through the installation of a lever with a jumper, sealed by welding in the shape of the letter “T”.
DIY mini circular
A table for a do-it-yourself table saw can be used as a cutting machine. The cut cannot be more than 8 cm, so larger work will require a larger machine.