The first electric motor was invented in 1834 by the Russian scientist B.S. Jacobi. In the next 30 years, working tools began to appear on the basis of an electric motor. The first drill began to work in 1868 in the office of the American dentist D. Green. The instrument acquired a modern look in 1916, when the mechanics of Black and Decker designed the case in the form of a pistol with a button in place of the trigger.
Today, a drill with nozzles has turned into a universal tool that is used in dozens of works. How to use a drill safely? How to install nozzles, insert and pull out the drill?
What is the drill used for?
The main purpose of the electric drill is to drill various materials. The calculation of technical indicators in the design of new models is carried out on the basis of this particular task.
During operation, the electric motor rotates the chuck with a drill clamped in it. The speed is controlled using a special rheostat controlled by a start button. The direction of movement can be changed by switching the reverse lever. The function of changing the direction of rotation will help if the drill jammed at the exit of the material. In addition, with special nozzles, the drill can be used as a screwdriver. to twist and unscrew the screws.
Often drills have two or more speeds. This is achieved using a gearbox connecting the engine to the working shaft. A change in the gear ratio of the gears of the gearbox leads to a change in the rotation speed and power of the working tool.
Power tools in this category, as a rule, have two main operating modes. Normal drilling and hammer drilling. The regular mode is used during locksmith and carpentry. Hammer drilling is designed to make holes in stone walls, concrete and brick.
The impact mechanism of the drill consists of two coaxially located ratchets, which, when interacting, give the working shaft an additional translational movement. In this case, special drills with carbide taps at the end of the working part are used. The impact force of such a mechanism depends on the external pressure on the drill. In order for drilling to proceed quickly, a force of 10–15 kg must be applied to the casing.
Preparation for work
The readiness of the drill for work is determined by the following conditions:
- the device is connected to a power outlet (for drills operating on the mains);
- the battery is charged and installed in the compartment (for cordless tools);
- a drill is installed in the chuck.
Attention! To make the hole smooth, the cutting edge of the drill must be sharpened sharply. Take a new drill or grind the old with a grindstone.
To check the power, you can press the start button. If the cartridge rotates quickly, then an electric current is supplied to the motor and the tool is ready for operation. If the cartridge of the cordless drill rotates slowly, the battery is discharged. it must be put on charge.
How to insert a drill?
To properly insert a drill into a chuck, you need to know the following. The hole intended for clamping the tool has a depth of no more than 2 cm. The deeper the drill is set, the more reliable it will be held in the chuck. The clamping mechanisms of the cartridges are of two types:
- hand, tightened by the force of the hand;
- key, wrapped with a key.
In recent years, household models of drills are equipped with a manual (quick-clamping) chuck. it is simpler to operate and faster to operate.
To install the drill in the chuck you need to follow these steps:
- Turn the cartridge counterclockwise. The sponges should extend a distance slightly larger than the diameter of the drill.
- Insert the drill between the jaws as far as it will go.
- Gently turn the chuck clockwise, making sure that the drill bit is clamped evenly on all sides.
- Tighten the jaws by hand or with a wrench.
Attention! Before drilling, turn on the drill and look at the drill. A correctly installed tool does not hit and looks like a smooth line.
When fixing the drill in the cartridge, you can make significant efforts, especially if the drill has a large diameter. It should be remembered that then you will have to do the reverse operation to remove the drill or replace it with another. When clamping a drill, look for the “golden mean”: fasten the drill securely, but so that it can be easily removed from the chuck. The required effort is easily determined after a little practice. muscle memory is turned on.
How to pull a drill out of a chuck?
Before removing the drill, make sure that the drill is disconnected from the outlet; exclude accidental pressing of the start button of the cordless tool. Pull out the drill only after the rotation of the chuck is completely stopped.
Attention! Never brake the cartridge with your hands; this may result in personal injury.
If the drill is equipped with a quick chuck, the steps for removing the drill are as follows:
- Remove finger from start button.
- Wait until the cartridge stops turning completely.
- Take the cartridge by the base with one hand. With your other hand, turn it counterclockwise.
- When the cams of the chuck disperse a sufficient distance, remove the drill.
- Carefully place the drill on the table, making sure that it does not roll away.
If the drill is equipped with a key holder, do the following:
- Turn off the drill, wait for the cartridge to stop.
- Insert the key into the hole in the cartridge.
- Turn the key counterclockwise so that it moves the chuck.
- Unscrew the chuck by hand so that the jaws release the drill.
- Remove drill bit from chuck.
- Put the key in the hole on the wire so as not to get lost.
How to use a drill?
Drill is a powerful electric tool that is source of danger. The basic rules for safe work with the drill are as follows:
- Before starting work, securely fasten the workpiece in a vise or clamps. Do not hold the part in your hands.
- Firmly fasten the drill or tool in the chuck. Tighten the cartridge by hand or tighten with a wrench. Be sure to remove the key from the hole in the cartridge.
- When working with hard and massive materials, hold the power tool with both hands.
- Do not press hard on the drill body so that the drill does not jam. Reduce the pressure at the drill exit from the workpiece.
- Use personal protective equipment: goggles, respirator, gloves.
- Switch modes and change the tool only after the cartridge stops completely.
- Sweep away chips with a brush only.
How to make a vertical or horizontal hole
To make a vertical or horizontal hole, you must perform the following steps:
- Mark the location for the hole.
- Install a drill of the required diameter in the chuck.
- Hold the tool and set the drill to the mark.
- Gently start the engine and press on the drill body.
- When the hole is ready to take out the drill without turning off the motor.
- Release the start button, wait for the cartridge to stop.
- Put the drill on a flat surface.
Attention! Do not be distracted from work until the hole is completely ready.
How to make a hole perpendicular to the surface or at an angle
If you need to make a hole perpendicular to the surface, you can use a protractor or a square. Home craftsmen figured out how to drill a hole at an angle of 90 degrees to the surface without a goniometer. An old CD is placed on the surface of the workpiece. The drill is aligned so that the visible part of the drill coincides with its reflection in the “mirror” of the disk. In this case, the hole will be made strictly perpendicular to the surface.
Video: Remove Cartridge With Drills Black Decker
If you want the hole to go at an angle to the surface, you must fix the workpiece at this angle. The most accurate holes will come out if you use a special stand-clamp for a drill.
How to drill metal
Drilling metal surfaces has its own characteristics. First of all, you need to choose a drill designed for these purposes. A wood or stone drill is not suitable for metal, stainless steel or cast iron. These drills differ not only in the grade of steel, but also in the angle of sharpening of the cutting edge.
When working, there is no need to rotate the drill at high speed, the drill will slip on the surface without clinging to the material. The optimal speed when drilling metal is low, when you can see how thin chips are formed with the naked eye. The pressure on the drill can be significant, but within reasonable limits, so that the drill does not break. When drilling steel and cast iron, it is recommended to lubricate the drill with engine oil for cooling.
In order for the drill to catch on solid material, it is recommended to make a recess at the drilling point with a core drill. The drill will not lead away.
How to drill concrete
When drilling concrete, stone or brick, a lot of dust is emitted, small fragments can fly out from under the drill. You must use a respirator to protect your respiratory system and goggles to protect your eyes.
Tip. You can reduce the amount of dust by wetting the workpiece or the drilling site with water.
If you need to drill concrete, then the best option would be to use drills equipped with a victorious solder at the end. Such drills do the job best and can be sharpened periodically as needed.
The shock mode is incorporated in the design of the drill for drilling stone objects. Use the shock mode carefully. If the tile is drilled, it is not worth turning it on, as a blow will inevitably lead to the breaking of ceramics. The same can be said about hollow brick. it is dense, but fragile.
Recommended drill speed is medium. Regulate the pressure on the drill body, it is necessary based on the properties of the material. But in any case, the movement should be smooth and measured.
Attention! When drilling stone and concrete, the drill gets very hot. Before replacing the tool, wait for it to cool so as not to get a burn.
How to drill a tree
Wood is a soft and comfortable material for drilling; it is perfectly processed and polished. When drilling wooden products, it is recommended to use special drills for wood.
It is best to start work with marking, marking with a pencil a place for the hole. Then, resting the end of the drill at the intended point, turn on the maximum revolutions of rotation and smoothly immerse the drill in the wood. If the hole is deep. from time to time you need to pull the rotating drill to the surface so that it can be freed from chips.
Often in modern life, one may encounter the need to make a hole in plastic. In general, plastic is drilled in the same way as wood, as it is a soft material. Some synthetic materials (for example, ebonite, textolite, caprolon) have high hardness. For processing such plastics, it is better to use drills designed for metal.
How to make a groove in a wooden board
If you need to make a groove in a wooden board, this can be done with an electric drill.
To make a groove, you must do the following steps:
- Take a drill on wood, the diameter of which corresponds to the width of the future groove.
- Mark the holes along the groove so that their centers are at a distance of half the diameter of the drill.
- Drill all holes to a depth of 2-3 mm. so the drill will not lead away.
- Drill all holes to the end.
- Using a file, remove the jumpers (if any) and smooth out irregularities.
How to drill a brick
Brick is a rather soft material, so its drilling is possible by the power of a conventional electric drill with a shock function.
A brick wall is drilled as follows:
- Mark with a pencil or marker the location of the future hole.
- Mark the core or old drill.
- To apply 2-3 blows with a hammer so that a recess remains on the brick. then the drill will not lead away.
- Install a drill in the drill, turn on impact mode.
- Drill a hole by gently pressing the tool.
Note. If the finished hole should be more than 10 mm, it is recommended that you first drill a hole with a drill of a smaller diameter. 6-8 mm, and then drill it to the desired diameter.
Video: drilling a brick wall
The main malfunctions of the drill and how to solve them
No matter how perfect the technique, sooner or later, there comes a time when the technological resource has been exhausted, and this or that part requires replacement.
Electric drill is no exception. Here is a list of possible, most common problems:
- Malfunction of the electric motor (power supply is correct, but the motor does not rotate).
- Wear or burning of carbon brushes (during operation of the device, brushes will sparkle strongly).
- Failure of the bearings of the engine mount (the hum of the motor is heard, but there is no rotation, or the cartridge rotates intermittently, with a rattle).
In addition, the causes of unstable operation of the electric drill can be associated with the integrity of the power cord or the release of the start button. Such problems are solved by replacing the cable and preventive cleaning of the button from debris and dust.
To fix the drill at home, you will need many special tools, including electrical ones. If they are not, it is cheaper to give the drill for repair to a service center. Replacing carbon brushes is quite within the power of a home master. In all new models of drills, designers have provided quick access to the place of attachment of the brushes and their easy replacement.
Nozzles for a drill and their installation
In addition to drilling holes, an electric drill is capable of performing many other diverse operations. For this, various nozzles have been developed and are made with the help of which you can grind, polish, cut or sharpen. All nozzles are mounted in the drill chuck, as well as a conventional drill.
Designed for polishing surfaces using abrasive materials. It can be sandpaper or a felt base on which GOI paste is applied. The nozzle is a rotating flat surface, which is processed grinded material.
For cleaning metal surfaces (for example, pipes), wire nozzles (brushes) are used. They are a cylinder, on the surface of which are stiff bristles made of metal wire. Available with bristles of different stiffness ranging from thin wire, and ending with pieces of cables.
A nozzle called “cricket” turns the drill into nibblers for metal.
Using the “cricket” you can cut holes in metal sheets up to 1.6 mm thick. The nozzle has proven itself very well in roofing works when it is necessary to adjust and cut metal sheets of a given shape.
Video: scissors attachment for metal “Cricket”
The nozzle made of abrasive material makes it possible to significantly facilitate labor when performing work on sharpening parts, fitting grooves and holes. They are represented by a wide range of grinding stones of various shapes and sizes. Among the nozzles there are conical, cylindrical, flat, spherical stones.
Nozzles on a drill designed to perform milling work on wood or plastic are also called cones. With their help, you can make a groove, a groove, a notch of a given size.
In form and purpose, cones are divided into:
- end and end;
The type of cutter is selected for a specific task in accordance with the density of the material and the power of the electric drill.
For cutting materials
There is a nozzle with which you can make sawing wood, metal or plastic. The principle of operation of its mechanism is similar to the device of an electric jigsaw. The set includes a set of files with various shapes and number of teeth. Such a nozzle can easily cope with cutting a wooden board up to 20 mm thick, as well as chipboard or plywood. For cutting more massive workpieces, it is still better to use a jigsaw.
For drilling large holes
For drilling large-diameter holes, special devices and tools are available that can be used as accessories for electric drills. For the manufacture of large holes use:
- crowns. steel cylinders with teeth or spraying. for wood, stone or tile;
- feather drills. metal plates with a center and two blades. for wood and plywood;
- beam drills. long pins with spiral grooves. for drilling thick wooden beams;
- Forstner drills. a special tool with numerous cutting edges. for precise and clean holes in wood.
Photo Gallery: Drills for Large Holes
To tighten fasteners
Drill nozzles designed for screwing in screws, bolts and nuts are widely used and used. Their diversity is comparable only with that huge range of products that exists in the world of fasteners. With these nozzles, provided that the speed range of the drill includes low-speed modes, the electric drill turns into a full-fledged screwdriver or wrench.
One cannot also ignore such a useful practical function of an electric drill as its use as a mixer when mixing paints, gypsum and other mixtures.
Using a special whisk for kneading, you can successfully give the right shade to the paint at home or stir glue for the sticker on the wallpaper. In addition, lightweight building mixtures, such as plaster or putty, can also be kneaded with a drill.
It should be remembered that excessive overload on the drill can damage the main mechanism of the tool. an electric motor. It is not recommended to use a drill as a mixer when mixing heavy concrete mixtures. For this, there are special concrete mixers and mixers.
Attention! If the drill body has warmed up and the motor is buzzing hard, you should stop and allow the machine to cool down.
Drill Drilling Machine
Electric drill can be made with your own hands. Such a machine consists of a bed, a vertical stand, a rotational mechanism and a feeding device. Despite the simplicity of design, the machine significantly improves the accuracy of machining parts.
Video: DIY drill from a drill
Among the many nozzles for an electric drill manufactured by industry, there are also such "exotic" specimens, such as a pump nozzle for pumping liquids or a special nozzle for plucking feathers of poultry. In everyday life, they are not so often in demand as carpentry and locksmith tools, which are used in almost every home.
An electric drill can save money and save power. For home and one-time work, you do not need to buy several professional machines. Special nozzles will make the tool universal: drilling and cutting, grinding and turning, kneading and chiselling. this is not a complete list of operations available for a drill. To work was a joy, you must comply with safety rules.