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Wiring for saws
Band saws are often sold in unfinished condition. A professional tool must first be diluted and then sharpened. Once every two to three years, the wiring process is repeated. An improperly diluted and poorly sharpened saw can ruin all the work.
How to sharpen and breed the saw correctly? First you need to understand the essence of these processes. After all, the preparation of a hand tool is different from the preparation of an electric one. Hand saws have a completely different tooth shape and working technique.
Why make a saw
Wiring is such a process, as a result of which the teeth of the band saw are bent in different directions. Even teeth bend in one direction, odd. in the other.
Before you breed a band saw, you need to understand why this is necessary. Meaningless processes usually do not bring a good result. It is known that during sawing, the width of the cut should be twice as large as the thickness of the saw blade. If there is already a cut, then the saw will start to get stuck in it. If the wiring is incorrect, the web may bend. As a result, the saw will go crooked, and a smooth cut will not work.
Ways One of the easiest ways to breed saw teeth is with pliers. You just need to take each clove and bend alternately in different directions.
The tooth must be clamped by two-thirds, then the bias will be correct.
As a result of this work, half of the teeth will be bent to the right, and half to the left. Another wiring method is carried out using a special tool.
After breeding, the saw must be sharpened. This is done using a special set of simple tools. You can sharpen a band saw using a regular trihedral file. During sharpening, moving the file away from you, it is pressed to the teeth. Moving in the opposite direction, it should be slightly rejected.
If you can sharpen a circular saw only with the help of a whole set of tools, the band saw can be brought into working condition with just one simple trihedral file.
The teeth of the band saw should be pointed from two vertices.
In the working process, you can also grind the teeth using a bar. When the saw is constantly sharpened, the wiring gradually disappears, the cloves are aligned. In order to return the instrument to its working form, the dilution is repeated again. Major wiring and sharpening is not required very often.
Care It is important for a saw to be able to not only breed and sharpen. You must also be able to store it. When the tool is not in use, it should be placed in a warm and dry place. If moisture gets on the saw, it will rust.
Even processed with special compounds, the saw will not be able to withstand all aggressive factors.
You need to be careful about the tool, and then it will serve for a very long time. A saw usually wrapped in material is stored. You can also provide a case for her. Leaving the tool for winter at BAL-KO is not recommended.
Types of Band Saws
Band saws vary in tooth size.
Sharpening and wiring the saw
You should also highlight:
Two-handed saws are sharpened and bred in the same way as ordinary single saws. The whole difference of such an instrument is that two people work with it at once.
Using band saws, wood and varieties of this material are most often sawn. The tree does not require too much impact, it is a soft material that is easily sawn and drilled. However, in the process, it is desirable to still secure the logs and boards. During sawing, be careful not to keep your hand too close to the groove of the saw. This could result in serious injury.
Saw preparation includes planing, breeding and sharpening teeth. The shape, size and inclination of the teeth affect the nature of the saw. Saws with isosceles teeth are recommended to be used only for transverse sawing, rectangular. for longitudinal and transverse, with inclined teeth. only for longitudinal.
Saw saw (Fig. 1) consists in aligning the tips of the teeth so that they are at the same height. To do this, a file is fixed in a vise and the tops of the teeth are moved along it. The quality of the joint is checked by attaching a ruler to the vertices; while between the tops of the teeth and the edges of the ruler should not be gaps.
Saw tooth wiring.
Hacksaw teeth. Cloth hacksaw. Sharpening a hacksaw
So that the saw blade is not clamped in the cut, the saw teeth are bred, that is, they are bent: even. in one direction, odd. in the other. In this case, not the entire tooth is bent, but only its upper part (1/3 from the top of the tooth). When breeding teeth, it is necessary to observe the symmetry of the bends on both sides. For sawing hard rocks, the teeth are bred by 0.25. 0.5 mm per side, soft breeds. by 0.5. 0.7 mm.
When sawing raw wood, the divorce should be maximum, and dry. 1.5 times the thickness of the saw blade. The width of the cut should not be more than double the thickness of the blade.
For breeding a saw, it is recommended that a beginner joiner use a special wiring (Fig. 2). The correctness of the saw’s divorce is checked with a template (Fig. 3), moving it along the blade. The saw is bred evenly, without applying much effort, since otherwise you can break the tooth.
Sharpening the teeth of the saw. The teeth are ground with rhombus or triangle-shaped files with double or single notch. Before sharpening the saw securely strengthened in a vise on a workbench. The file is pressed to the tooth when moving away from you; when you return it is slightly lifted so that it does not touch the saw. Do not press the file strongly against the tooth, since it will heat up, which will lead to a decrease in tooth strength.
Video: Teeth Saws Bred In Different Sides
The saw teeth for longitudinal cutting are sharpened on one side and the file is held perpendicular to the blade. For transverse cutting, the teeth are ground through one and the file is kept at an angle of 60. 70 °. Bow saws are sharpened with a trihedral file.
Saws with a large tooth are bred and sharpened, and with a small tooth. they are mainly sharpened, but not bred. This is explained by the fact that carpentry works use completely dry material, the blade hacksaw blade is thin (0.5. 0.8 mm), the cuts along the length are not particularly large, so that the danger of clamping is almost eliminated, and small teeth with a step of 2. 3 mm is very difficult to breed. The cleanliness of sharpened, but not bred saws with a stretched blade is much higher than one-handed hacksaw with a divorce, which is especially important when sawing spikes and eyes.
How to sharpen a saw, a hacksaw, a plane, a chisel, a chisel. knife.
And also how to use and maintain these and other tools. A file, a hammer, a screwdriver. How to solder with a soldering iron.
Why is the saw, which was easy to work the day before, cut into wood with difficulty today, does the planer plan the surface of the board unevenly, and does the screwdriver slide off the screw slot? In the first case, the saw teeth were sharpened for longitudinal sawing, and they tried to saw the wood across the fibers with it, in the second the hand pressure on the planer was not correctly distributed, in the third, the thickness of the screwdriver blade exceeded the width of the slot.
Admiring a perfectly made thing, they say that it is done "with golden hands". This is the highest assessment of the quality of work. Such mastery is given not only by great practice, it is unthinkable without knowledge of the features of the application of this or that tool, care for it, "settings" to do the related work. This is a kind of alphabet of skill.
Here for example
. If it is intended for sawing wood along the fibers, the teeth are made with an inclination towards sawing (Fig. 1b). For mixed sawing, the teeth are triangular in shape (Fig. 1c), and for the transverse. in the form of an isosceles triangle (Fig. 1a).
The distance between the teeth affects the quality of the processing material. With a coarse saw (large distance between the teeth), saw the workpiece faster, but the cut will be rough. In contrast, the performance of a fine-toothed saw is lower, but the cleanliness of the cut is better. In practice apply
saws and hacksaws.
Despite the advantages of a bow saw (Fig. 2a). cut cleanliness, the possibility of sawing large boards and bars both in a straight line and on oval lines. it is recommended that beginners use a hacksaw (Fig. 2 b) with a wide blade (even in inexperienced hands such the canvas goes straight). For cutting parts with rounding, it is convenient to use a narrow trigger hacksaw with interchangeable blades (Fig. 2c), which have a different tooth shape.
Saw must be divorced.
How to spread the teeth of a hacksaw on a tree
that is, the teeth are bent alternately in different directions (at a height of 2/3 from the base). The width of the divorce is considered normal if it is equal to one and a half thickness of the web. There is another approach: when sawing hardwood, the teeth are bred by 0.25.0.5mm, soft breeds by 0.5-1mm. Wider divorce does not facilitate or improve sawing.
The saw is bred with a special wiring or a home-made metal plate (Fig. 3a) with slots 1.5 mm wide and 5 mm deep. This saw cut grabs the saw tooth, sandwiched in a vise between the planks (Fig.3b), bends it (Fig.3c). First, the teeth are bred through one to one side, then to the other.
After a divorce, the teeth may have uneven limb: some more others less. Such teeth need to be straightened out, otherwise the cut will be uneven. To do this, it is enough to hold the saw several times between the cheeks of a vice, spaced 1.5 mm apart. Or hammer in a board or bar at a certain angle two nails at a distance of the desired width of the divorce, insert and draw a saw between them several times. In both cases, move the saw in the direction opposite to the inclination of the teeth.
Make sure that the tops of the saw teeth are at the same height, otherwise the saw will "gallop" on wood. The level of the teeth is leveled with a file with a fine notch inserted into a wooden block (Fig. 3d). Moving the file along the saw, the strongly protruding ends of the teeth are ground. Do the same after long work with a saw and repeated sharpening of teeth.
When sharpening a saw, its blade is clamped in a vise (Fig. 3d). The teeth of a longitudinal saw are ground at a right angle to the side surface of the blade (Fig. 3g). The teeth of the cross-cut saw are sharpened in the form of a knife-shaped blade, the tip of which is directed to the outside (Fig. 3e, and). A chamfer is removed from the edge of the tooth at an angle of 45-60 degrees to the side surface of the blade, a point is made through the tooth. first on one side along the entire length of the saw, then on the other. First sharpen one face, and then another, forming the front (the tip of the tooth) and side cutting edges. When burrs appear, they are removed with a file or file.
Having fixed the marked board on the workbench or pressing it with the left knee to the stool, start sawing from the upper edge of the board (Fig. 4). At the very beginning, support the canvas with the left finger of your left hand (higher from the teeth) lying on the board. Start with the middle of the saw, making short, smooth swings. When the blade enters the wood, release your finger and work on a full scale so that the entire canvas glides over the wood. If this is your first time picking up a saw, keep your finger safe and direct the saw with a small wooden block.
When finishing sawing, accelerate the movement of the saw while holding the sawn end of the board. otherwise it will break off and the edge of the cut will turn out uneven.
How to work with a saw.
How to sharpen a hacksaw
A hacksaw with large teeth saws faster, but the cut is rough, with uneven edges. The degree of sharpening can be checked by sliding the thumb over the tips of the teeth. The wiring is checked by eye: the teeth should be bent to the sides evenly, otherwise the saw will be brought to the side. At the same time check the evenness of the canvas. Even with a slight bend, the saw will jam. The saw blade should bend and straighten quickly. With a good saw, the teeth in the middle of the blade protrude slightly, forming a small arc.
How to sharpen and breed a saw
In this case, when engaging with the workpiece, fewer teeth are involved in the sawing process, while the pressure increases and the saw works better.
Figure 51 shows the sequence of preparing the hacksaw for work.
Fig. 51. Preparation of a hacksaw for work: a. alignment of teeth; b. sharpening.
Of great importance is the pen. It can be wooden or plastic, the main thing is to be comfortable to hold in your hand. An iron stamped handle is very inconvenient to work with. a hand gets tired of it faster, corns are formed.
When storing the saw, it is best to wear a piece of hose or PVC pipe cut along it along its teeth.
So that the saw does not get stuck in the wood, its teeth should be bred. bent through one left and right. Due to this, the width of the cut is obtained slightly more than the thickness of the saw blade, so that it does not get stuck in the cut.
For breeding a saw there is a special tool. wiring , by means of which the saw teeth are bent to the sides by about 0.5 mm (Fig. 52).
Fig. 52. Wiring and template for checking the correct breeding of the saw: a. wiring; b. template: 1. protrusion; 2. nut of the set screw; 3. saw blade; 4. plate; 5. spring.
In this case, the tooth bite on each side should be the same. If, after wiring, individual teeth are bent more than others, they are corrected. they are bent into one fishing line with the rest. If the teeth are different in height, then before sharpening they are leveled with a file (Fig. 52, b).
Divorce and sharpening of the hacksaw teeth can also be done with a vise, pliers and a trihedral file with a small notch (Fig. 53).
Fig. 53. Preparing a hacksaw for work: a. tooth bite; b. sharpening.
First, with the help of a wooden gasket, the blade is fixed in a vice and with the help of pliers, carefully begin to move the tops of the teeth alternately to one or the other side (Fig. 53, a), but not more than half the thickness of the blade. A wider divorce will only hurt, as the cut will turn out to be too wide and uneven. It is necessary to ensure that the divorce of all teeth is the same, otherwise, not all teeth will participate in the sawing process, but only the most bent and it will be difficult to work with such a saw. Bred teeth should be within the gasket, so the position of the blade is changed from time to time.
Sharpening of a saw is made by a trihedral file. The canvas is clamped in a vice and moved as the teeth are ground. There are two types of sharpening. oblique and straight.
If the saw is intended for mixed longitudinal-transverse sawing and its teeth are in the shape of a right-angled triangle, a simpler straight sharpening is used, during which the file is held perpendicular to the blade (Fig. 53, b).
Inserting it alternately in each gap between the teeth, with light pressure is carried out along their edges in the direction away from you. At the same time, the edges of the file should fit snugly against the edges. The reverse movement is performed by raising the file so that it does not touch the saw. It is not worth it to drive a file in the same place for a long time, it is enough to go through each tooth 3 times, and when re-sharpening, one is enough.
From the book: Korshever N.G. Wood and glass works