On a hot Saturday night, April 24, I did not go to the city cleanup (ouch, ouch, ouch), but decided to look at what is probably the oldest industrial facility in Samara province. We’re talking about the Samara power plant. It was built, of course, by the Germans. by the masters of high industry at all times, even in those. “Siemens and Halske” (Siemens und Halske). that’s who started this whole epic. The station is believed to have been started in 1900. It gave a ridiculous, at the time, 200 kW and lit up the Dramteatr, Strukovsky Park and a couple of central streets. Then a streetcar was added. It was running on fuel oil and smoking heavily in the sky. And this is the center of town! Until some member of the regional committee or party committee or something from Moscow came and said. “What’s that smoking over there?? Not good. “. After that we switched to gas 🙂 From the realm of the obvious-unbelievable. The German turbine lasted at the Samara power plant for 75 years instead of 25. After it was written off, it was offered to museums in Samara, but no one took it. The head of AEG flew in right away and took over. took it back to its homeland in Germany, where it’s still standing. One thing I realized. the valiant team will not let the station stop. We’ll be warmed up and have enough power to access the Internet. Thanks a lot v_gromov Gromov Vladimir.
I thought at once that my business was bad. Where do I find a special place??
Receiver. it’s not audio equipment.
This is the only digital scoreboard in the whole big room 🙂 Hello past.
I should note that the entire dashboard is made of marble (it doesn’t conduct electricity). They didn’t know plastic back then, but there was plenty of marble.
Then came some very interesting devices, whose purpose remains a mystery.
Looks like a device which spins a film 🙂
I guess generators are turned on by hand with these things.
An incomprehensible bubble. In general, the equipment will outlive us, even though it looks awfully old.
This is a masterpiece. Usability designers would die of envy.
The shift workers didn’t even want to look at us and yawned.
I understand them. distracted from work when there’s such a delicious soda from my childhood nearby.
White exhaust when cold
The exhaust is normally colorless. Although if it is cold outside or early in the morning, condensation collects in the muffler pipe. Water droplets start to heat up and evaporate when the car is started. So for a few seconds the exhaust may turn white. This is a normal reaction.
The existence of the problem is indicated by the fact that the car is blatantly smoking. Especially if it happens in the summer and in the daytime, when there is no excessive steam.
If there is a malfunction, immediately after starting the vehicle there is thick smoke with a pungent odor. It usually disappears as soon as the engine is warmed up. Although not exclude situations where the problem occurs every time you press the gas.
When starting a diesel engine
White smoke from the exhaust pipe of a diesel engine when starting from cold indicates that the cooling system is not working properly. Therefore, the first thing to do is to check it:
- Oil. Look for whitish spots with suspicious streaks. The substance must be clean and homogeneous.
- The contents of the expansion tank. A change in color, thickening or oily coolant indicates that oil has penetrated. Sharp smell with a hint of burning is an additional criterion.
When starting the gasoline engine
At sub-zero temperatures, condensation turns into hot steam. This results in the appearance of smoke of a characteristic color. And quickly disappears if you warm the car up well.
Unwanted causes white smoke from the exhaust pipe of a gasoline engine in the cold:
Deformation of individual elements leads to leakage. Because of this the antifreeze can go into the oil or vice versa. Often in injector and carburetor engines there is a problem when the coolant gets inside the cylinders. The motor begins to overheat heavily and frequently. And since antifreeze consists of at least a third of water, its mixing with gasoline leads to white smoke.
Diagnostic methods if there are suspicious exhausts
It is important to understand why the exhaust pipe smokes when you start the engine, and then stops. The easiest and best way to find out is to take a tissue. If its surface remains relatively clean under the exhaust, there is no problem.
- oily traces. oil leakage;
- sour smell and colored stains. coolant leakage;
- oil stains. fuel that has not burned down to the end.
When visually inspecting parts, take into account the design of the engine. Malfunctions in gasoline systems are about the same, but the principle of operation of the injector and carburetor is different. The former is more finicky about the quality of fuel used, and the latter is sensitive to temperature fluctuations.
A visual inspection will help diagnose why the problem occurred:
- presence of oily film of antifreeze;
- the expansion tank smells of carbon monoxide;
- the container contents have changed color/conformity or contain many small bubbles.
Start the vehicle and check the oil and antifreeze levels. If they begin to change, there is a leak in the system. A similar conclusion can be drawn when there is a change in pressure. For a complete diagnosis and troubleshooting, it is worth contacting a service center.
Why it smokes when cold
As a rule, the car gives off dense smoke due to the escape of oil into the coolant, as well as when antifreeze gets into the cylinders. The car may be delayed in starting, causing gas to build up inside the system.
- Keeps for a short period of time;
- weakly pronounced;
- appears in cool or cloudy weather;
- is not accompanied by other problems;
- without a strong odor.
But it should be understood that this refers to a translucent cloud of water vapor. Causes of white smoke from the exhaust pipe of a gasoline engine in the cold when starting the car:
- ingress of coolant or oil into the combustion chamber;
- clogged filters;
- worn turbine;
- operation of regeneration system of particulate filter.
The alarm is raised when “steam” does not disappear even after the engine warms up. It is worth making a diagnostic test if the smoke is visible when the engine is overloaded.
If blue smoke comes out of the exhaust when starting the engine when cold, the problem is in the engine overheating.
- quality of used antifreeze;
- proper operation of the thermostat, temperature sensors and fan;
- integrity of elements of the cooling system;
- condition of heater connectors.
Often the reason is in the same leak of antifreeze (toluene). A foreign fluid gets inside the cylinders and burns, staining the exhaust with a distinctive color. And if the problem occurs in a car with high mileage, check the condition of compression and inner rings.
With black smoke
Black smoke from the exhaust pipe at startup indicates badly burned fuel.
In modern brands of cars with injection engine malfunctions occur if the injection system does not work properly. The “symptoms” are most pronounced in diesel cars:
- Hyundai Santa Fe;
- Mercedes Sprinter Classic;
- Peugeot Boxer;
- Nissan X-Trail;
- MTZ tractors;
- Some of BMW, Volkswagen Touareg, Niva, etc.
Sometimes high pressure is to blame, as well as loss of power and increased fuel consumption. The spark plug gets dirty and fails if there is too much fuel. If the problem is ignored, then sooner or later the car will stop starting.
White exhaust with a blue tinge
Lubrication inside the cylinders is the main reason for the blue smoke from the exhaust of a gasoline engine running cold. It’s okay if the blue cloud appears when you start the car and disappears after a couple of seconds.
But if the muffler smokes with regular consistency, the possibility appears:
Such a problem can be encountered on Opel and Toyota vehicles. And when a diesel engine is run cold, it is either stuck rings or overheated that cause blue smoke from the exhaust.
Usually gray smoke indicates a lubricant leak. The oil mixture begins to seep into other systems, settling as a yellow-brown emulsion on surfaces. And when burned together with the fuel, it colors the exhaust with darker shades.
Lawnmower Smoke. Construction Portal
In this section, we’ll break down the faults of all brands of Salyut motoblocs and cultivators. Neva, Zubr, etc. Д., And their troubleshooting and repair. Most problems are common to all types of engine blocks, their engines and other components.
Engine power has dropped
It often happens that a previously serviced single axle tractor that has been in service for several years suddenly loses power.
The engine does not start
Smoking engine Lifan LIFAN, causes, heated carburetor.
Engine ran fine for an hour after repair and adjustment. After an hour he started smoking and after 20 minutes.
Engine intermittent, stalls
Unstable idle speed
Motoblock foggy smoke
White smoke comes out of the motoblock and begins to chow.
Starter screams, cord comes out
Cultivator let out a few pops, started “floating”,
Malfunctions of small two-stroke engines
Whatever the country of manufacture, no matter what mini machines equipped with a simple two-stroke engine, any malfunction it will depend on what ‘feed’ the engine and the quality of the assembly. Of course, the quality of the assemblies themselves may be doubted, and you can talk a lot and a long time about it. Some people are happy with it, others are not.
For example, we only need a chainsaw for one day. Rent or buy the cheapest one. For professional sawyers will need a chainsaw with a long service life, here and the cost of it is noticeable. But what about when a single piece of equipment is sold as a professional or semi-professional at the right price? We, the uninformed, do not know about it. That’s how things break down, and sometimes all at once.
Two-stroke engine failure or breakdowns occur differently and depend on a large number of reasons.
Here’s an example. The owner had been using the chainsaw for years. The lawn mower changed hands and this is the result. The engine jammed and the user didn’t understand why it stalled. ‘A good knock comes out. The piston had a defect in the casting, which came to light at that very unnecessary moment. Tried to start it up for a day, but it didn’t work. When opening the piston, aluminum particles of the piston were rubbed against the cylinder wall.What’s the compression here?? And the finger pressed the plug hole and the wad of newspaper was inserted by the master. Blame the carburetor, and for nothing.
Causes of malfunctions in a two-stroke chainsaw or lawnmower engine.
Leaks in gaskets and machine parts.
Contamination of the carburetor and formation of additional carbon deposits on the piston head and spark plug. The more dirt that enters the cylinder’s working chamber, the more noticeable will be the smoke in the exhaust fumes. Light gray to black smoke with a corresponding smell of burning. Muffler and cylinder exhaust port are covered with oily or dry sludge, which narrows the orifices. The piston and the bottom of the cylinder are covered in sludge, which, depending on the nature of the contamination, may be solid or of the appropriate viscosity. Engine stalling may be caused by a spark plug electrode shorting to ground or piston jamming. At best, the compression rings will stick or the engine will detonate when the ignition is switched off.
Air intake, lean mixture or no mixture. The engine could hardly be started with the choke closed but would not run normally. No idle speed. The carburetor is covered with wet dust and in some cases you may see air bubbles or fuel leaking at the carburetor connections.
With the carburetor choke closed, a cold engine may start and run at higher rpm. Idle stroke is disturbed or absent at all. When the cylinder heats up, the gap between the cylinder and the carburetor will increase and the engine will stall. It will start to lose power at optimum, not to mention maximum power mode.
At one period of engine operation, the piston moves down the cylinder. Passing the intake window, its skirt cuts off a part of the volume with the fuel-air mixture formed in the diffuser, and lets the mixture into the upper part of the cylinder through the bypass channels / photo 1/.
If the tightness between the cylinder and crankcase is poor, the piston will not create enough pressure to operate the fuel pump and cannot move the fuel-air mixture into the upper cylinder volume.
The compression may be good and even very good, but there is little or no pressure to operate the fuel pump. The engine won’t start or will start with great difficulty, but not for long. Noticeable increase in fuel consumption.
When the gasket is torn, a micro-crack in the crankcase, or the cylinder tie rods are slightly loose, the pressure created by the piston to operate the carburetor fuel pump will be insufficient or non-existent. And no matter what you do, the engine won’t start. Even when, after fuel injection into the carburetor diffuser or directly into the cylinder through the spark plug hole, the engine will ‘shudder’, it will run as long as the infused fuel is enough. And this is a second or a little more.
The crankcase cavity communicates with the carburetor fuel pump membrane through a through hole 1 in the engine cylinder / photo 3/. On the crankcase wall at the cylinder attachment point there is a slot /foto 2/ that coincides with hole A on the cylinder base /foto 3/.
When the ‘caring’ owner installs a new gasket somehow, when the hole is clogged with dirt or blocked with a gasket, the engine will not show even a ‘sign of life’. This will be a great mystery to many people. It’s a small thing, but what a correlation!
You can check it by injecting fuel into the carburetor nozzle or into the cylinder cavity through the spark plug hole. The engine starts right away and immediately stops. If two people are involved in the diagnosis, it is enough for one to start the engine, and the other medical syringe inject fuel into the open cone of the carburetor. The engine will start and run on injection at different carburetor modes.
The engine is difficult to start, idling is unstable, transient stalls, increased fuel consumption. Signs are present, as well as when there is a breach of tightness between the cylinder and the crankcase. There is leakage under the starter flywheel.
If the assembly is inaccurate, the coupling bolts are loose, heat distortion breaks the seal between the cylinder and the engine muffler. When the engine is running, the noise level increases. The engine ‘roars’. Oily drips are noticeable at the joint. Fuel consumption increases slightly.
California Hair Stylist Sets Client’s Hair on Fire to Get Rid of Split Ends
The recommended petrol for the respective engine must be mixed with oil that provides good lubrication for the cylinder bore, piston with compression rings, crankshaft, connecting rod with bearings and piston pin. At the same time, oil must not coking on combustion. Excessive sooting will lead to rapid engine wear, and worse, to engine seizure.
Carbon deposits form under the rings. When the engine is new, the excessive amount of oil in the gasoline forms a fouling which pushes the rings outward, increasing the wear on the mirror surface of the cylinder, i.e. ‘writes the band’. Longitudinal scratches are visible on the cylinder wall from piston rings that have been squeezed out by the soot.
Diesel engine is smoking: Possible causes
On Russian roads quite often it is possible to observe how a diesel truck overcoming a long rise literally spews puffs of black smoke, resembling the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull at the height of its eruption. Unfortunately, this is found not only in trucks, but also in cars, under the hood of which you can hear the typical diesel rumble. It is a disease often found in engines which run on diesel.
What is it: constructional peculiarities of a diesel engine or its wrong exploitation and why the diesel engine is fuming?? We bring to your attention the analysis of the most widespread manifestations of the disease and the reasons it causes.
Where does the smoke at the diesel exhaust come from?
The principle of operation of internal combustion engines (ICE) is clear from their name. That is, the mechanical energy in them is received from the thermal energy in the process of combustion of fuel inside the cylinders. Everyday experience tells us that dry wood placed in a burning fire practically gives no smoke. The diesel engine behaves in the same way.
A fine-tuned engine that is in good working order does not give off any noticeable smoke. Conversely, if blue clouds or thick black puffs are coming out of the exhaust system, this indicates that either the fuel is bad, or it is not fully burned. Or possibly something else, such as lubricating oil or heating oil, gets into the cylinders.
Why is there more smoke coming out of the muffler in diesel engines? The thing is that the diesel fuel (diesel fuel) is ignited by the air heated to 750. 800 ° C, and not from the spark plug, like in gasoline engines. For the diesel cycle to be successful, the intake system, fuel system, cylinder-piston group (CPG) must be in good working order.
Gasoline has a higher flash point than gasoline. In addition, the fuel-air mixture in a diesel engine is formed in a shorter time, which leads to its heterogeneity.
Ideally, the exhaust of a diesel engine should be transparent. If the diesel engine is smoking, it indicates a malfunction or failure of one or more engine systems. And the culprit of increased haze gives out the color of smoke. Getting ahead of ourselves, we can say:
- gray or black smoke indicates incomplete combustion of fuel;
- bluish-blue or bluish color of the exhaust indicates oil burnout and some other causes;
- fluffy white clouds, reminiscent of bulb blowing (in the expression of hookah lovers), in fact. coolant penetration into the combustion chambers.
So the preliminary diagnosis is determined by the color of the exhaust. To define the cause of smoking more precisely, experts at a service station (HUNDRED), using diagnostic equipment and a gas analyzer. Some figures are given in the table, regulating the maximum amount of harmful substances emitted into the atmosphere. Possible faults in the engine systems are also indicated.
|Chemical element||The norm for a diesel engine||The cause of non-compliance with the norm|
|Nitrogen (N2)||76. 78%||Depleted fuel mixture, overheated engine|
|Oxygen (O2)||0.5% max.||Leaky exhaust manifold|
|Carbon monoxide (CO)||0,01. 0,5%||Clogged filters, excessive fuel pressure in the fuel system, overcharged mixture|
|Carbon dioxide (CO2)||1,0. 10%||Strainers clogged, excessive fuel pressure, overcharged mixture|
|Hydrocarbons (CH)||50 PPM max.||Missed ignition (faulty glow plugs), rich mixture|
Black smoke behind the chimney.
Black smoke is most characteristic of diesel. Smoke can vary from light gray to toxic black, like from burning car tires. Monochromatic color due to the presence of soot particles in the exhaust gases remaining after incomplete combustion.
The explanation is two-fold: the mixture is over-enriched, and does not have time to complete combustion in the cylinder and burns down at a low temperature in the exhaust system. Such a mixture is caused by a lack of air or excessive fuel. There are also other abnormalities. Let’s list some of the causes of black smoke:
- Improper fuel quality.
- Contamination of the air filter or inlet ducts.
- Insufficient compression in cylinders.
- Faulty injectors. Smoke appears when you suddenly press the gas, or when the diesel engine is running under load. An additional confirmation of this malfunction is a shaking of the engine at idle speed.
- Early fuel injection, which causes delayed ignition and excessive soot buildup.
- The EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) valve becomes soiled, which causes the mechanism to jam in the open position and increases the flow of exhaust gases into the intake manifold.
- Failure of the oxygen sensor, causing the engine control unit (ECU) to operate blindly.
- A clogged particulate filter.
Top Reasons String Trimmer Not Starting — String Trimmer Troubleshooting
The most dangerous are faulty injectors and prolonged driving with high injection advance. Results: burnout of the pre-chamber, piston and jumper damage, which is fraught with costly repairs. In other cases, driving with black smoke is not so dangerous for the engine.
Recipes for curing a smoky engine
It was stated earlier that the fuel-air mixture in a diesel engine before ignition has greater heterogeneity in comparison with gasoline engines. Gasoline mixture has a homogeneous character, which cannot be said about the atomized cloud of diesel. Therefore, even a modern diesel engine in good working order is still more inclined to be smoky.
What measures can help to reduce the smokiness of black diesel engine exhaust:
Causes of lack of draft in the furnace
As mentioned above, the draft in the Russian stove can be absent for various reasons. It is very important to find out correctly, when the draught deficiency occurred: at the first tests of the heating device or in the process of its operation, when the furnace was heating quite normally before.
No draught when testing a new sauna heater
The newly-built stove must be dried before it can be put to the test. Not only can there be no draught in a damp building, but the mortar can also crack, and sometimes the brickwork itself can even deform and crack.
A newly built classical Russian stove. After a good drying period, you can go on to a test run.
the clay mass used as a mortar must be dried at natural temperatures, without sudden upward or downward shifts.
Priesting the sauna heater in natural conditions for 5-7 days with all doors and sliders open. During this first drying phase it is possible to speed up the drying process by installing a powerful light bulb in the furnace chamber, for example a 200 W incandescent lamp. It must be kept switched on during the whole kiln drying period. The lamp would not give a strong heat, it would slightly warm up the walls and create an upward flow of warm air.
Another option, acceptable for acceleration of the process of moisture evaporation is the installation of a heat fan or infrared heater directed into the open door of the furnace chamber.
Next, proceed to drying with light heating. This stage takes 7÷14 days, depending on the volume of the stove structure.
For this purpose the heater is heated three to four times a day for about an hour and a half. Paper, thin wood chips or brushwood can be used, in the amount of two to three kilograms per one charge. This fuel will not give a lot of heat, but will accelerate drying of masonry.
Instead of wood chips and brushwood, you can use a few (5÷6 pcs.).) Well-dried small logs.
If, during the second stage of drying with heating, smoke went into the room, it may be due to several reasons:
- Violation of the layout of the chimney or its ducts. For example, if the length of horizontally placed channels exceeds the allowable dimensions of 1500÷2000 mm. Another incorrect variant is when the gas channels are not wide enough for the carrying capacity. Smoke does not have time to go to the chimney, it has nowhere to go, and it begins to seep into the room. Another “side of the coin”. when the channels are too wide, it creates too much draft, and therefore the efficiency of the furnace is significantly reduced (and it is already not very high in the Russian classic stoves).
In order to balance the process, the masonry of the furnace should be carried out exclusively according to the drawing developed and tested in practice. In this case, the parameters of the channels are calculated depending on the volume of the main hearth, as well as the purpose of the furnace and the presence of additional firing chambers.
- Improperly arranged outlet to the chimney well. The size of this section of the furnace should exceed the cross-section of the gas duct or, at the very least, they should be the same. Besides the upper edge of the draw-off to the well must be situated higher than the upper edge of the furnace chamber door. Otherwise, when this door is opened, smoke will go into the room.
When masonry furnaces, if the outlet hole is not possible to arrange above for some reason, then along the rear wall of the furnace is built additional partition, which forms a channel that connects to the outlet to the chimney. This space will also be an obstacle to the penetration of unburned solid particles of combustion products of wood into the chimney.
- If the chimney is lined with a metal pipe, its diameter throughout the chimney must be the same. Thus, in the joints of pipes will not accumulate a large amount of soot deposits, which can also interfere with the creation of a normal draught.
- An ash door at the bottom of the stove, under the furnace or under the pole, has to have certain parameters, which are determined by the dimensions of the firing compartments. Otherwise, the air flow will not be enough to create normal traction.
- There is no protective cap on the chimney cap, which prevents moisture from precipitation, as well as dust and other debris from getting into the chimney hole. This factor can also cause back draft.
- Building the furnace masonry joints between bricks or around metal elements have not been sufficiently sealed. In other words, outside air enters the furnace chamber and the smoke has the possibility to find an exit besides the chimney.
The height of the chimney above the roof surface and relative to its ridge.
- The chimney has an insufficient height relative to the roof ridge. In this regard, there may be whirls in the chimney, creating an obstacle to the formation of normal draught. As can be seen in the diagram above, the height of the chimney depends on the distance (in horizontal projection) between the ridge and the location of the pipe:
- Improperly arranged ventilation of the room or even its absence can also lead to back draft. If it is not possible to make a proper air supply system, it is necessary to create an air supply for the time of heating by opening the ventilation slots or doors. But here, too, there can be negative nuances. Thus, violation of the normal draught can be noted in the following cases:
- In case the Russian stove has several compartments, that is, there are several furnace chambers in its design. Their dividing wall may not be built correctly, or the cross-section of the chimney is insufficient, so he low flow rate. these two factors also contribute to a decrease in traction.