How to choose a sander for wood What to look for when choosing a sander, their types and advantages.
The Bosch GEX 125150 AVE model has a power of 400 W, which will easily extend the sole up to 15 square meters. Cm.
The orbital or eccentric machine features a round sole, while the sanding element itself is attached with a special Velcro. The unit includes a counterweight and an eccentric that drive the sole in multiple directions.
The product can work in two ways:
- By orbiting;
- By rotating along the axis.
Axial movement in most models occurs by inertia, less often forced. As a result of its complex movement and high machine speed, a high quality surface is obtained without any single flaws. Dust is discharged to the outside through special holes on the grinding wheel, as well as on the sole itself. To collect it, containers or a vacuum cleaner are used.
- The power of the grinder can vary between 200-900 watts. The higher the value, the more productive the tool will be.
- The speed of the forward motion. Adjustable grinders can have this indicator in the range of 4000-14000 rpm, without adjustment up to 12000 rpm.
- Sole type. If a delicate sanding is required, then you should not choose a large sole, which also has a dead zone and an amplitude of up to 7 mm. For convex surfaces, it is advisable to use an elastic pad.
The compact outsole is capable of handling even hard-to-reach surfaces.
- Plate material. The best choice is a metal plate, which has high strength and reliability, conducts heat well, and is also particularly stable.
The orbital type is designed to carry out the polishing and grinding process at a high level.
The belt sander is ideal for professional use.
The belt-type design includes two rollers (leading and driven), which, in the course of their movement, actuate the belt attached to the tool sole. Depending on its pricing policy, this tape can be made of various materials.
An important technical characteristic of all grinders is their speed of operation, which depends directly on the power of a particular model. For LSM, this value can be in the range from 500 W to 1200 W at a speed of 75-500 m per minute. Most of the manufacturing companies equip their products with a special regulator to control the belt speed.
The dimensions and other features of this tape also depend on the capabilities of the tool. Therefore, in the selection process, the following factors must be taken into account:
- Lenght and width. The more their values, the more functional the model is. However, with the growth of these indicators, the weight of the machine, as well as its parameters, increases.
- Granularity. Usually, professionals recommend keeping in stock several of their varieties, which are designed for fine and rough grinding. Thus, you can count on the expected result of the work.
In general, LShM are industrial units with a sufficiently high power. With their help, large areas can be processed in a short period of time and, as a result, a perfectly smooth surface is obtained. It will be difficult for a person without experience to operate the grinder, which can lead to damage to the wooden surface.
The belt-type machines are ideal for rough and fast processing of wood, metal and plastic surfaces.
This type of sander is designed for processing surfaces not only made of wood, but also metal, plastic and stone. According to principle
Compact and versatile delta sander.
They work similar to vibration models. Their peculiarity is the shape of the plate, which makes it possible to perform high-quality grinding work even in hard-to-reach places.
The movements of the sole are carried out at high speed and have a reciprocating appearance. For both home and professional use, it is advisable to choose a powerful model with the ability to adjust the speed of its operation. Thus, it becomes possible to work with several types of surfaces.
A wide range of modern products allows you to choose models with special holes for removing dust, the ability to install additional attachments, rotating soles and other features of work.
The delta sander is designed for polishing and cleaning any surface, even in hard-to-reach places.
Grinder: vibrating or eccentric
To get a flat and perfectly smooth surface when sanding, I always recommend that craftsmen use two sanders. One for the primary, rough roughing, the other for the final cleaning.
If everything is clear with the primary processing. Here you need to take a belt sander, then when bringing the surface to perfection, you can use one of two types:
- Vibrating (another name is surface grinding, or abbreviated. PShM);
- Eccentric (ESM, another name for orbital).
Both are designed for sanding substrates at completion. Which of these machines is better in which situation. Vibration or eccentric sander? I’ll cover it today in this article.
You will find out what their main differences are, how their design determines the capabilities of each device, what are their strengths and weaknesses.
The information provided will give you the necessary knowledge on how to grind surfaces of different shapes using these aggregates, and which one is more suitable for you.
Structural difference between the two machines
Both machines are capable of delicately sanding the surface with emery cloths. In fact, they do the same job, but there is a difference between them. They differ in both form and principle of operation. The FSHM surface is often rectangular (but it can be deltoid and square). And the eccentric one. The sole is round. Therefore, depending on the complexity of the grinding work and the shape of the workpieces, you choose a machine with a comfortable sole shape. For example, steps or shelves are easily sanded with PSHM, thanks to the angular sole, you can reach any corner.
The eccentric machine is used for working with both flat surfaces and radii, as well as wood parts of various shapes. Orbital and eccentric sanders are used in construction workshops, in car services they perform not only finishing work for grinding wood, but are also convenient for all kinds of finishing work. But still, their main purpose is to ideally prepare the surface for painting or to give the details the required shape.
In fact, these are two identical instruments, however, there is some difference. The surface grinder (vibration) grinder will cope with any surface: wood, plastic, metal, walls (drywall). But she does it a little roughly, unlike ESM. In turn, the orbital sander will perform this entire list of work more delicately due to the fact that it has an additional rotation function, which helps to hide the traces of grinding.
Basic principles of grinding
These two types of grinders differ significantly in the principle of grinding. First, let’s review the vibrating tool. The mechanism of operation is quite simple, for cleaning the surface, reciprocating movements with an amplitude of 1-3 (low-power) to 5-8 mm (powerful) are used. This allows you to cope well with a metal surface or plastic, in contrast to ESM. However, PShM leaves traces on the tree and will not be suitable for opening with varnish, but only for coating with paint.
The principle of ESM operation is that with the help of a round sole, not only vibration occurs, but also rotation around its own axis. Thanks to this double movement, ESHM perfectly prepares the surface for varnishing. In the process of work does not leave traces of grinding at all. Models of this type ideally create the effect of abrasive grinding. It is widely used for furniture restoration or decoration.
A grinder of this type is a device in which an endless (looped) abrasive belt moves along two or more deflection rollers. Figuratively, the principle of operation of this machine can be represented on the basis of the movement of the track (caterpillar) of a tank or tractor.
Belt sanders are designed primarily for processing large enough surfaces, removing large enough layers of material or roughing rough, rough surfaces. Old paint or bark. In addition, some models have the ability to fix them in a stationary position. In this case, a wood belt sander can be used for sharpening and shaping flat carpentry tools (ax, planer, chisel, etc.), as well as for grinding and finishing the edges and edges of the product. For example, the edge of the striking part of a professional hockey stick and other sports equipment is often completely shaped in this way.
Grinder for wood. The choice depends on the purpose
Grinding machines are a whole class of power tools designed for processing. Fitting, grinding, polishing, etc. Faces and surfaces made of various materials. Plastic, metal, stone and, in particular, wood.
Grinding machines, depending on the design features, are divided into several types. And the choice when buying or using a grinder and consumables depends on the ultimate goal of the master, on the amount of work to be done, on the class and shape of the surface to be treated and some other factors.
This type of grinder has a round sole (plate), and grinding is performed as a result of combining small oscillatory (eccentric) movements with simultaneous (orbital) rotation of the plate. Due to the complex trajectory of the abrasive movement, the smoothest grinding is ensured. At the same time, in contrast to machines with a rectangular non-rotating sole, it is convenient to handle objects not only flat, but also curved, since some models of eccentric sanders are equipped with a plate made of flexible material.
Wood sander: application, varieties
A sander for wood is an indispensable tool for finishing work in a country house. The use of a grinding machine allows you to speed up the process of grinding and polishing wooden surfaces of wall cladding, flooring, furniture, and decorative elements. Grinding machines for wood are convenient and compact, they allow you to perform high-quality leveling of any wood surfaces.
There are several main types of grinders for household use, their different design and principle of operation determine their purpose. For construction and repair, joinery and carpentry works, the following types of grinders are used:
- Belt sanders (LSHM) a tool for aggressive and rough processing of wood, plastic, metal surfaces.
- Vibratory grinders (GSHM) allow for softer processing due to circular motions with a small amplitude. The grinding surface of the orbital sander is rectangular, making it easier to grind corners.
- A type of flat orbital sander is a delta sander, it has a triangular shape of the sole. The delta sander is handy for small and hard-to-reach areas, corners, recesses and depressions.
- An eccentric sander refers to a tool that allows you to grind a surface to a polished state due to the combination of rotational and oscillatory movements of the grinding pad. But the eccentric sander is not suitable for small surfaces and interior corners.
Application of orbital sanders
The principle of operation of these tools is similar: grinding is carried out due to light circular and oscillatory movements of the grinding surface with an amplitude of up to 5 mm. As an abrasive material, sheets of sandpaper with various grain sizes are used, fixed to the sole with clips or Velcro.
Oscillating sanders provide high quality processing and are used for sanding almost any material: wood, plastic, metal, plaster and putty, as well as for removing corrosion products and old paint coatings.
The degree of processing depends on the amplitude of vibrations: for rough processing, an amplitude of 4-5 mm is chosen, for fine grinding, 1.5-3 mm. In household models, the rotation speed is usually regulated in the range of 2000-5000 rpm, and the oscillation speed can be in the range of 25000 per minute. The ability to adjust the eccentric amplitude, rotational speed and oscillation are very useful options for GSOM.
An important parameter is the power of the VSHM, usually it is in the range of 150-600 W. The higher the power, the greater the productivity and uptime of the tool. Another important factor that determines the use of GSM is the shape and area of the sanding pad. It can be square, rectangular, or deltoid.
Application of belt sanders
Belt sanders are used where it is necessary to quickly remove a fairly thick layer of material, for example, for sanding non-planed boards or removing old paint from surfaces. Also LShM is used for precise fitting of parts and processing of cut mowing line.
Material processing is carried out using an abrasive belt closed in a ring and stretched over rotating rollers. When moving, the tape removes a rather thick layer of material, comparable to the operation of an electric planer. The thickness of the layer to be removed depends on the grain of the abrasive belt.
When choosing an LSM, you need to pay attention to two parameters: the width and length of the abrasive belt used and the speed of its rotation. The area of the processed surface depends on the width, the aggressiveness and degree of processing depend on the speed. Standard tape dimensions for LShM are as follows: 76×457 mm, 76×533 mm, 76×610 mm. The width of the belt for semi-professional grinders can be more than 100 mm, but they are rarely used for domestic needs. The belt speed is usually in the range from 150 to 500 meters per minute, the power is from 400 to 1200 watts. Useful functions are smooth adjustment of the belt rotation speed and an automatic belt centering device that does not allow it to slide off the rollers even during rotational movements.
Abrasive belt for LShM is of two types, with an abrasive layer of aluminum oxide or zirconium. Zirconium tape provides a deeper, but more aggressive finish, contributes to the appearance of scratches that must be treated with a less grained tape. For processing metal surfaces, it is better to choose a zirconium tape, with its help you can sharpen the cutting surfaces.
Surface treatment with a belt sander is carried out as follows: the machine is installed on the surface to be treated without distortions, and, without exerting pressure on the machine, they make smooth longitudinal or circular movements along the surface of the material. If it is necessary to fine-tune the parts, grinding is carried out with short-term translational movements or using a bounding frame.
We often ask ourselves the question: Which grinder to choose ?, Which grinder is best for a particular job? Here we will try to explain to you what exactly this or that type and type of grinder is.
Grinding machines are a class of power tools for grinding and polishing surfaces made of various materials: wood, metal, plastic, stone and other types.
Grinders differ in their purpose and in the material to be processed. It is very simple to determine what a particular machine is for, the answer is already in the name: a universal grinder, for wood, for plastic (material), belt, straight grinder (function).
Many types of grinders have the ability to collect dust in special containers (dust collectors) or by connecting a construction vacuum cleaner.
LShM. Belt sander. Ideal for large areas and can remove any top layer from wood to metal. Grinding is carried out by a constant unidirectional movement of a sanding cloth in the form of a belt stretched over two (or more) rollers. Due to its high productivity, the main purpose of this machine is grinding of large surfaces. ЛШМ is in many ways universal; it can be used to process doorways, furniture and joinery panels, walls, wooden floors. To remove a large layer in one pass, you must first process the workpiece with an ELECTRIC CUTTER. In addition to wood, the BELT SANDER is also successfully used for grinding metal and plastic.
GSOM. Vibration sander Another name for surface sander. The working unit of this tool is a rectangular sole, on which a sheet of abrasive paper is fixed. Grinding and polishing is carried out by rapid reciprocating movements of the sole (about 20,000 vibrations per minute with an amplitude of about 2 mm). The vibration generated allows these grinders to be used for fine surface finishing. Various characteristics of the tool, adjustment of the engine speed, power, sanding sheets with different degrees of abrasiveness, replaceable sanding platforms are designed for processing and grinding products made of different materials (wood, plastic, metal, stone, etc.). There are two ways to attach sandpaper There are two ways to attach sandpaper:
By means of a pressure mechanism on both sides of the sole (clamp)
With the help of Velcro, the paper is simply applied with its base to the sole, which has this feature (Velcro)
Clips and Velcro, both types of fastening are used in models with a removable sole. The presence of a second sanding platform allows you to use both consumables that are attached with clamps and those intended for fastening with Velcro
The sanding sheet and sole have several holes to drain dust from the working area into a dust collector or vacuum cleaner. The main purpose is grinding and polishing.
Delta grinder or vario grinder. It is a kind of vibration sander. The delta sander features a delta-shaped (triangular, like an iron) sole that allows you to work in hard-to-reach places in corners, among protrusions and in other similar places.A variety of attachments and sanding sheets can be used to remove rust, old paint, polish, rub, matt varnishes and other types of finishing and finishing works. Some models provide quick and convenient replacement of sanding sheets without the use of additional tools. The sheets, unlike conventional vibrating machines, are attached only with Velcro.
ESHM. Eccentric sander. Another name is the orbital sander. The working unit of this tool is a round sole, on which the grinding wheel is fixed with Velcro. Grinding and polishing is carried out by two types of simultaneous movements of the sole:
- Orbital rotation.
- Rotation around its axis.
ESM can have a wide variety of applications. Thus, by means of a rotary eccentric movement, a very fine, scratch-free grinding can be obtained with a sufficiently high removal rate. Convex and concave sanding can be carried out as some eccentric sanders have an elastic sanding pad (circular sander).
The grinding wheel and sole, like a vibratory grinder, have several holes for removing dust from the working area into a dust collector or vacuum cleaner. Main purpose grinding and high quality polishing
With the help of eccentric sanders, you can process different materials, therefore sanding sheets for them can have different grain sizes. In addition, special abrasive cloths are intended for structuring wood, cleaning metals from rust and matting varnishes, and woolen caps and polishing sponges for high-gloss polishing of sensitive surfaces. All sanding and polishing sheets are attached with Velcro. When buying consumables, you need to pay attention to the number of holes (if any).
Angle grinder, angle grinder or angle grinder. Grinding is carried out by a grinding wheel rotating around its axis. The spindle of this tool, on which the wheel is mounted, is located at right angles (90) to the longitudinal axis of the tool body. Despite its name, this tool, together with special equipment (cutting wheels), is also used for cutting metal, concrete and others. Materials. In general, angle grinders with small wheel diameters (115, 125, 150 mm) are intended for grinding and other similar work, and with large wheel diameters (180, 230 mm) for cutting. Types of equipment: cutting, grinding and roughing, flap and other types of circles for performing various works. The working tool of an angle grinder is most often an abrasive disc for cutting or grinding a certain type of material. Each specific disc is designed for a strictly specific type of material, otherwise you can lose the disc and get injured. Its diameter is the main characteristic of the machine, the larger it is, the deeper the cut can be made. The angle grinder is available with one hand or two hand. Both those and others can be equipped with an additional adjustable handle for ease of operation. For more accurate and comfortable cutting of stone, it is recommended to use special guide slides, and cutting tables are designed for precise processing of small workpieces. Many models of grinders, especially those related to professional ones, are equipped with systems for adjusting the speed, soft start, maintaining a constant speed.
PSHM. Polishing grinder. It is a specialized type of angle grinder, featuring high torque and relatively low speed. This combination allows you to process surfaces made of metals, wood, stone with a minimum degree of roughness. Polishing grinders are widely used in auto repair shops, instrument and mechanical engineering, stone and woodworking. Its main purpose is to polish metal and painted surfaces. The grinder sheet is fastened with Velcro. Velcro fastening of sanding sheets with Velcro. With such a fastening, changing sanding sheets is faster and more convenient, but such models are more expensive, and it is more difficult to select consumables for them. Velcro is the only type of fastening used in delta sanders.
Straight grinder. Unlike an angle grinder, the spindle of this tool, on which the working equipment is installed, is located along the longitudinal axis of the tool body. Such grinders are characterized by a circular movement of the working surface (grinding spindle), located parallel to the body. Such machines are used for grinding, cleaning, polishing and sharpening small surfaces (edges, lintels, strips, corners, welds, etc.) made of various materials (stone, metal, wood). Special attachments allow the use of straight grinders also for milling and drilling.
Brush grinder is a type of grinder similar in principle to angle and belt grinders.
Structurally similar to an angle grinder. During work, one brush is used.
Structurally similar to a belt sander. During work, two brushes are used simultaneously.
Instead of a tape, such devices use special metal brushes, which, as a rule, are used for structuring wood (grinding parquet, wooden floors, etc.) and removing rust and various coatings (paint, varnish, etc.) from metal.
Parquet grinder. Even non-professionals understand that laying parquet is only the first stage of work, followed by a series of measures to bring it to its proper appearance. And the first thing to do is to level the floor surface and sand it. In the language of builders, to carry out sanding and sanding of parquet flooring. Sanding and sanding of parquet. What is the difference? Let’s clarify the terminology. The expression machine for scraping parquet is not entirely correct. Parquet grinders do not cycle, but grind with varying degrees of accuracy, with different depths of processing and surface smoothness, depending on the settings and attachments used. But, since even among builders, it is customary to call the initial stage of parquet flooring processing by scraping, and further processing by grinding, we will not break this stereotype. Just make a reservation right away there is no separate machine for scraping parquet. Parquet processing is carried out with parquet grinders, some of which can be used for the initial processing of parquet flooring.
At the first stage, the stage of scraping, a rough, primary treatment of the surface of the parquet flooring is carried out with belt or drum-type grinding machines.
At the second stage, the floor is sanded with finer-grain abrasives using belt-type machines, and angle grinders are also used to process the floor area in hard-to-reach places.
At the third stage, when the parquet is brought to an ideal state, surface grinders are used, single-disc or three-disc.
At the fourth stage, after the parquet has been varnished, another grinding is performed with surface grinders.