Why a Hand Saw Leads to the Side

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Wiring for saws. How to spread the teeth of a hacksaw on a tree, wiring for a saw

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Wiring for saws. How to spread the teeth of a hacksaw on a tree, wiring for a saw

How to spread the teeth of a hacksaw on a tree, wiring for a saw

  • Why make a saw
  • Wiring Methods
  • Sharpening
  • Saw Care
  • Types of Band Saws
  • Sharpening and wiring the saw
  • Hacksaw teeth. Cloth hacksaw. Sharpening a hacksaw
  • Why is the saw, which was easy to work the day before, cut into wood with difficulty today, does the planer plan the surface of the board unevenly, and does the screwdriver slide off the screw slot? In the first case, the saw teeth were sharpened for longitudinal sawing, and they tried to saw the wood across the fibers with it, in the second the hand pressure on the planer was not correctly distributed, in the third, the thickness of the screwdriver blade exceeded the width of the slot. Admiring the perfectly made thing, they say that it is done with “golden hands”. this is the highest assessment of the quality of work. Such skill is given not only by great practice, it is inconceivable without knowledge of the features of the use of a tool, care for it, “tuning” to perform the corresponding work. This is a kind of alphabet of skill. Here for example
  • . If it is intended for sawing wood along the fibers, the teeth are made with an inclination towards sawing (Fig. 1b). For mixed sawing, the teeth are triangular in shape (Fig. 1c), and for the transverse. in the form of an isosceles triangle (Fig. 1a).
  • How to spread the teeth of a hacksaw on a tree
  • How to sharpen a hacksaw
  • How to sharpen and breed a saw

Band saws are often sold in unfinished condition. A professional tool must first be diluted and then sharpened. Once every two to three years, the wiring process is repeated. An improperly diluted and poorly sharpened saw can ruin all the work.

How to sharpen and breed the saw correctly? First you need to understand the essence of these processes. After all, the preparation of a hand tool is different from the preparation of an electric one. Hand saws have a completely different tooth shape and working technique.

Why make a saw

Why a Hand Saw Leads to the Side

Saw layout

Wiring is such a process, as a result of which the teeth of the band saw are bent in different directions. Even teeth bend in one direction, odd. in the other.

Before you breed a band saw, you need to understand why this is necessary. Meaningless processes usually do not bring a good result. It is known that during sawing, the width of the cut should be twice as large as the thickness of the saw blade. If there is already a cut, then the saw will start to get stuck in it. If the wiring is incorrect, the web may bend. As a result, the saw will go crooked, and a smooth cut will not work.

Wiring Methods

Ways One of the easiest ways to breed saw teeth is with pliers. You just need to take each clove and bend alternately in different directions.

The tooth must be clamped by two-thirds, then the bias will be correct.

As a result of this work, half of the teeth will be bent to the right, and half to the left. Another wiring method is carried out using a special tool.

Sharpening

After breeding, the saw must be sharpened. This is done using a special set of simple tools. You can sharpen a band saw using a regular trihedral file. During sharpening, moving the file away from you, it is pressed to the teeth. Moving in the opposite direction, it should be slightly rejected.

If you can sharpen a circular saw only with the help of a whole set of tools, the band saw can be brought into working condition with just one simple trihedral file.

The teeth of the band saw should be pointed from two vertices.

In the working process, you can also grind the teeth using a bar. When the saw is constantly sharpened, the wiring gradually disappears, the cloves are aligned. In order to return the instrument to its working form, the dilution is repeated again. Major wiring and sharpening is not required very often.

Saw Care

Care It is important for a saw to be able to not only breed and sharpen. You must also be able to store it. When the tool is not in use, it should be placed in a warm and dry place. If moisture gets on the saw, it will rust.

Even processed with special compounds, the saw will not be able to withstand all aggressive factors.

You need to be careful about the tool, and then it will serve for a very long time. A saw usually wrapped in material is stored. You can also provide a case for her. Leaving the tool for winter at BAL-KO is not recommended.

Types of Band Saws

Two-handed saw

Band saws vary in tooth size.

Sharpening and wiring the saw

You should also highlight:

Two-handed saws are sharpened and bred in the same way as ordinary single saws. The whole difference of such an instrument is that two people work with it at once.

Using band saws, wood and varieties of this material are most often sawn. The tree does not require too much impact, it is a soft material that is easily sawn and drilled. However, in the process, it is desirable to still secure the logs and boards. During sawing, be careful not to keep your hand too close to the groove of the saw. This could result in serious injury.

Saw preparation includes planing, breeding and sharpening teeth. The shape, size and inclination of the teeth affect the nature of the saw. Saws with isosceles teeth are recommended to be used only for transverse sawing, rectangular. for longitudinal and transverse, with inclined teeth. only for longitudinal.

Saw saw (Fig. 1) consists in aligning the tips of the teeth so that they are at the same height. To do this, a file is fixed in a vise and the tops of the teeth are moved along it. The quality of the joint is checked by attaching a ruler to the vertices; while between the tops of the teeth and the edges of the ruler should not be gaps.

Saw tooth wiring.

Hacksaw teeth. Cloth hacksaw. Sharpening a hacksaw

So that the saw blade is not clamped in the cut, the saw teeth are bred, that is, they are bent: even. in one direction, odd. in the other. In this case, not the entire tooth is bent, but only its upper part (1/3 from the top of the tooth). When breeding teeth, it is necessary to observe the symmetry of the bends on both sides. For sawing hard rocks, the teeth are bred by 0.25. 0.5 mm per side, soft breeds. by 0.5. 0.7 mm.

When sawing raw wood, the divorce should be maximum, and dry. 1.5 times the thickness of the saw blade. The width of the cut should not be more than double the thickness of the blade.

For breeding a saw, it is recommended that a beginner joiner use a special wiring (Fig. 2). The correctness of the saw’s divorce is checked with a template (Fig. 3), moving it along the blade. The saw is bred evenly, without applying much effort, since otherwise you can break the tooth.

Sharpening the teeth of the saw. The teeth are ground with rhombus or triangle-shaped files with double or single notch. Before sharpening the saw securely strengthened in a vise on a workbench. The file is pressed to the tooth when moving away from you; when you return it is slightly lifted so that it does not touch the saw. Do not press the file strongly against the tooth, since it will heat up, which will lead to a decrease in tooth strength.

The saw teeth for longitudinal cutting are sharpened on one side and the file is held perpendicular to the blade. For transverse cutting, the teeth are ground through one and the file is kept at an angle of 60. 70 °. Bow saws are sharpened with a trihedral file.

Saws with a large tooth are bred and sharpened, and with a small tooth. they are mainly sharpened, but not bred. This is explained by the fact that carpentry works use completely dry material, the blade hacksaw blade is thin (0.5. 0.8 mm), the cuts along the length are not particularly large, so that the danger of clamping is almost eliminated, and small teeth with a step of 2. 3 mm is very difficult to breed. The cleanliness of sharpened, but not bred saws with a stretched blade is much higher than one-handed hacksaw with a divorce, which is especially important when sawing spikes and eyes.

How to sharpen a saw, a hacksaw, a plane, a chisel, a chisel. knife.
And also how to use and maintain these and other tools. A file, a hammer, a screwdriver. How to solder with a soldering iron.

Why is the saw, which was easy to work the day before, cut into wood with difficulty today, does the planer plan the surface of the board unevenly, and does the screwdriver slide off the screw slot? In the first case, the saw teeth were sharpened for longitudinal sawing, and they tried to saw the wood across the fibers with it, in the second the hand pressure on the planer was not correctly distributed, in the third, the thickness of the screwdriver blade exceeded the width of the slot.
Admiring the perfectly made thing, they say that it is done with “golden hands”. this is the highest assessment of the quality of work. Such skill is given not only by great practice, it is inconceivable without knowledge of the features of the use of a tool, care for it, “tuning” to perform the corresponding work. This is a kind of alphabet of skill.
Here for example

. If it is intended for sawing wood along the fibers, the teeth are made with an inclination towards sawing (Fig. 1b). For mixed sawing, the teeth are triangular in shape (Fig. 1c), and for the transverse. in the form of an isosceles triangle (Fig. 1a).

The distance between the teeth affects the quality of the processing material. With a coarse saw (large distance between the teeth), saw the workpiece faster, but the cut will be rough. In contrast, the performance of a fine-toothed saw is lower, but the cleanliness of the cut is better. In practice apply

saws and hacksaws.

Despite the advantages of a bow saw (Fig. 2a). clean cuts, the possibility of sawing large boards and bars both in a straight line and on oval lines. it is recommended for beginners to use a hacksaw (Fig. 2 b) with a wide blade (even in inexperienced hands such the canvas goes straight). For cutting parts with rounding, it is convenient to use a narrow trigger hacksaw with interchangeable blades (Fig. 2c), which have a different tooth shape.
Saw must be divorced.

How to spread the teeth of a hacksaw on a tree

that is, the teeth are bent alternately in different directions (at a height of 2/3 from the base). The width of the divorce is considered normal if it is equal to one and a half thickness of the web. There is another approach: when sawing hardwood, the teeth are bred by 0.25.0.5mm, soft breeds by 0.5-1mm. Wider divorce does not facilitate or improve sawing.
The saw is bred with a special wiring or a home-made metal plate (Fig. 3a) with slots 1.5 mm wide and 5 mm deep. This saw cut grabs the saw tooth, sandwiched in a vise between the planks (Fig.3b), bends it (Fig.3c). First, the teeth are bred through one to one side, then to the other.
After a divorce, the teeth may have uneven limb: some more others less. Such teeth need to be straightened out, otherwise the cut will be uneven. To do this, it is enough to hold the saw several times between the cheeks of a vice, spaced 1.5 mm apart. Or hammer in a board or bar at a certain angle two nails at a distance of the desired width of the divorce, insert and draw a saw between them several times. In both cases, move the saw in the direction opposite to the inclination of the teeth.

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Make sure that the tops of the saw teeth are at the same height, otherwise the saw will “gallop” through the tree during operation. The level of the teeth is leveled with a file with a fine notch inserted into a wooden block (Fig. 3d). Moving the file along the saw, the strongly protruding ends of the teeth are ground. Do the same after long work with a saw and repeated sharpening of teeth.
When sharpening a saw, its blade is clamped in a vise (Fig. 3d). The teeth of a longitudinal saw are ground at a right angle to the side surface of the blade (Fig. 3g). The teeth of the cross-cut saw are sharpened in the form of a knife-shaped blade, the tip of which is directed to the outside (Fig. 3e, and). A chamfer is removed from the edge of the tooth at an angle of 45-60 degrees to the side surface of the blade, a point is made through the tooth. first on one side along the entire length of the saw, then on the other. First sharpen one face, and then another, forming the front (the tip of the tooth) and side cutting edges. When burrs appear, they are removed with a file or file.

Having fixed the marked board on the workbench or pressing it with the left knee to the stool, start sawing from the upper edge of the board (Fig. 4). At the very beginning, support the canvas with the left finger of your left hand (higher from the teeth) lying on the board. Start with the middle of the saw, making short, smooth swings. When the blade enters the wood, release your finger and work on a full scale so that the entire canvas glides over the wood. If this is your first time picking up a saw, keep your finger safe and direct the saw with a small wooden block.
When finishing sawing, accelerate the movement of the saw while holding the sawn end of the board. otherwise it will break off and the edge of the cut will turn out uneven.

How to work with a saw.

How to sharpen a hacksaw

A hacksaw with large teeth saws faster, but the cut is rough, with uneven edges. The degree of sharpening can be checked by sliding the thumb over the tips of the teeth. The wiring is checked by eye: the teeth should be bent to the sides evenly, otherwise the saw will be brought to the side. At the same time check the evenness of the canvas. Even with a slight bend, the saw will jam. The saw blade should bend and straighten quickly. With a good saw, the teeth in the middle of the blade protrude slightly, forming a small arc.

How to sharpen and breed a saw

In this case, when engaging with the workpiece, fewer teeth are involved in the sawing process, while the pressure increases and the saw works better.

Figure 51 shows the sequence of preparing the hacksaw for work.

Fig. 51. Preparation of a hacksaw for work: a. alignment of teeth; b. sharpening.

Of great importance is the pen. It can be wooden or plastic, the main thing is to be comfortable to hold in your hand. An iron stamped handle is very inconvenient to work with. a hand gets tired of it faster, corns are formed.

When storing the saw, it is best to wear a piece of hose or PVC pipe cut along it along its teeth.

So that the saw does not get stuck in the wood, its teeth should be bred. bent through one left and right. Due to this, the width of the cut is obtained slightly more than the thickness of the saw blade, so that it does not get stuck in the cut.

For breeding a saw there is a special tool. wiring , by means of which the saw teeth are bent to the sides by about 0.5 mm (Fig. 52).

Fig. 52. Wiring and template for checking the correct breeding of the saw: a. wiring; b. template: 1. protrusion; 2. nut of the set screw; 3. saw blade; 4. plate; 5. spring.

In this case, the tooth bite on each side should be the same. If, after wiring, individual teeth are bent more than others, they are corrected. they are bent into one fishing line with the rest. If the teeth are different in height, then before sharpening they are leveled with a file (Fig. 52, b).

Divorce and sharpening of the hacksaw teeth can also be done with a vise, pliers and a trihedral file with a small notch (Fig. 53).

Fig. 53. Preparing a hacksaw for work: a. tooth bite; b. sharpening.

First, with the help of a wooden gasket, the blade is fixed in a vice and with the help of pliers, carefully begin to move the tops of the teeth alternately to one or the other side (Fig. 53, a), but not more than half the thickness of the blade. A wider divorce will only hurt, as the cut will turn out to be too wide and uneven. It is necessary to ensure that the divorce of all teeth is the same, otherwise, not all teeth will participate in the sawing process, but only the most bent and it will be difficult to work with such a saw. Bred teeth should be within the gasket, so the position of the blade is changed from time to time.

Sharpening of a saw is made by a trihedral file. The canvas is clamped in a vice and moved as the teeth are ground. There are two types of sharpening. oblique and straight.

If the saw is intended for mixed longitudinal-transverse sawing and its teeth are in the shape of a right-angled triangle, a simpler straight sharpening is used, during which the file is held perpendicular to the blade (Fig. 53, b).

Inserting it alternately in each gap between the teeth, with light pressure is carried out along their edges in the direction away from you. At the same time, the edges of the file should fit snugly against the edges. The reverse movement is performed by raising the file so that it does not touch the saw. It is not worth it to drive a file in the same place for a long time, it is enough to go through each tooth 3 times, and when re-sharpening, one is enough.

From the book: Korshever N.G. Wood and glass works

Similar articles

How to breed and sharpen a hand saw

When working with wood, a tool such as a hand saw or a hacksaw is often used. Over time, the blade wears out, making the sawing process more difficult. In this case, it is necessary to make a saw blade. This procedure consists in the fact that the teeth are bent in different directions manually or automatically.

Hand saw wiring methods

This is best done on special equipment. a movable machine. On it, using the indicator, you can determine the correct deviation of the tooth, so work can be done in a matter of minutes.

If it’s hard to find a machine, you can manually hacksaw. However, it will take a lot of time and effort to complete the procedure, and here you can’t do without special tool wiring, which can be made on their own. It is a metal plate with a sawn groove 1.5 mm wide and 5 mm high. The saw is clamped in a vice and with this groove they grab the tooth of the instrument and take it in the right direction.

You need to do it in a certain order. First, the teeth are deflected through one to one side, then the rest to the other. In this case, there should be no distortions, and the teeth should be bent symmetrically. Not the entire tooth is bent, but only its tip (that is, its third part), otherwise it may break. The width of the wiring should be equal to twice the thickness of the blade, if the teeth are spread too wide, the hacksaw will go tight, and too much wood will go into the sawdust. In addition, with an incorrect divergence, the tool will “wedge” and a smooth cut will not work.

You can also raise the saw with a screwdriver or a chisel. The tool is placed between the teeth and rotated, the saw before this should also be clamped in a vice.

How to sharpen a hand saw

After divorce the saw must be sharpened. For this procedure, special equipment is not required, here you can do with the usual triangular file. The technique of sharpening with this tool is as follows. The file is taken with one hand by the handle, the other by the tip of the tool and moved away from you, pressing the teeth smoothly and evenly, then in the opposite direction, without touching the teeth. The teeth of a hand saw must be sharpened from two sides, from the top to the base.

Video: Why a Hand Saw Leads to the Side


After sharpening, burrs can form on the edges of the teeth, which will adversely affect the operation of the tool, crumbling and blunting the teeth. They must be removed using a file with a small notch.

During operation, the saw becomes dull, so sometimes the teeth are undermined by an emery bar. Constant sharpening aligns the wiring so that the saw is kept in working condition, tooth breeding must be repeated periodically. However, overhauling and grinding of teeth is not required too often.

Hand Saw Care

It is necessary to be able not only to make a divorce and sharpen the saw, its proper storage is equally important. When the saw is not used for a long time, it must be in a dry and warm room; otherwise, if moisture gets on it, it may rust. Even if the tool is treated with special tools, this will not guarantee that it will not be subject to corrosion.

How to sharpen a saw and breed its teeth correctly?

A hand saw is truly one of the most indispensable tools in the household, but even the best saw dulls over time. Sharpening it yourself is not at all difficult, you don’t need to have any special skills. you just need to strictly follow the recommendations. For sharpening you will need the following tools:

Sharpening a hand saw on wood.

  1. File (flat and round).
  2. Pliers.
  3. Sharpened.

If the saw is sharpened correctly, then there can be no doubt that it will function properly. However, saws that are designed to work on wood, not only become dull with time, but also go on sale often go dull. This situation is especially relevant for those tools that have large teeth. Thus, for those for whom the efficiency of the saw is an important issue, sharpening must be taken care of in advance.

How to sharpen a saw on a tree?

The shape of the teeth of a saw for cutting wood.

In order to sharpen a saw on a tree, it is necessary to stock up on a file that has 3 sides. A triangular file is necessary in order to be able to sharpen the teeth. The file should be at an angle in the cutting edge. As for the magnitude of such an angle, it should be from 45 to 60 degrees. To make it more convenient, it is highly recommended to sharpen the teeth on the one hand, and then proceed to similar actions on the other hand. If you do everything this way, then, thanks to the same type of movements, the whole process is carried out with greater ease.

When such a process is carried out, certain rules must be observed:

  1. It is best to do this alone, without communicating with other people. Any noise background should be excluded.
  2. All careless movements should be avoided, since any of them can not only cause damage to the instrument, but also cause significant harm to health.
  3. If the saw goes to the side when cutting, then this indicates that the tooth alignment is uneven. This can be corrected by increasing the deflection of the teeth from the side where the saw is pulled.

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How to sharpen a circular saw?

The scheme of sharpening circular saws.

If we are talking about a circular saw, then sharpening should start from the back surface. The whole process is as follows:

  1. Sharpening the disc can be carried out directly in the machine, or you can remove the disk from the machine.
  2. If sharpening is carried out by the first option, it is necessary to unplug the plug from the outlet in order to prevent the consequences of starting the machine, and this can always happen.
  3. The disk must be wedged, for this thin wooden bars are placed on both sides, they need to be pressed down to the teeth.
  4. The marker marks the lateral side of the tooth, from which sharpening should begin. Thus, there will be no errors during operation.
  5. A prerequisite for such a process should be extreme accuracy.

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Sharpening a chainsaw and hacksaw

If we are talking about sharpening a chainsaw, then for this you should use 2 files: one round and the other flat.

Read more:  How to sharpen a chain from a saw

To sharpen a hacksaw, you must do the following: you need to take a file of the appropriate size.

First, pass them on one side of the hacksaw, then draw the same number of times on each tooth. If necessary, the process should be repeated. Sharpening the saw so that it saws well is not difficult. You just need to use quality materials for this.

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The process of cutting teeth

Teething of band saws.

If you need to ensure the free movement of the teeth, it is necessary to proceed to their divorce. The teeth should be bent in different directions in turn. The distance should be the same, and the wiring should be used. The wiring of the tooth needs to be bent at the middle of its height. If there is no wiring at hand, then in this capacity you can use an adjustable wrench.

  1. If the saw is not well bred, then it must first be bred. If you use specialized wiring for this, then this is not difficult to do. However, such a wiring may not be available at all, so ordinary pliers can be used for this.
  2. The saw should be clamped so that its teeth are directed upwards, the entire process along the blade should be visible, that is how all actions should be carried out.
  3. Every second tooth of the saw should be bent in different directions, and with each movement the pliers should be tilted at an equal angle.
  4. If from the very beginning the wiring is already present to some extent, then the main task is to increase it. This is especially true for large saws. If the tool is small (such tools are most often used for those jobs where increased accuracy is needed), then the factory wiring in most cases is quite sufficient.

Now you know the basic nuances when sharpening a saw. Good luck to you!

Wiring For Saws How to Use AURAMM.RU

Sharpening and wiring the saw

The main cutting element of any hand saw. a series of teeth cut on the canvas and representing incisors in the form of wedges. Timber, in the process of manufacturing various products from it, is sawed lengthwise, transversely and at an angle Θ to its fibers, for this reason, cross-cutting, longitudinal sawing and sawing are distinguished at an angle to its fibers and, when used, they use the corresponding type of saw different from other forms teeth.

For cross-cutting, cross-cutting saws are used, cutting edges the teeth of which, when moving in wood, cut its fibers like a knife and form a cut. Longitudinal sawing differs from transverse in that the direction of movement of the saw is parallel to the wood fibers. The front edges of the teeth of the longitudinal saws plan the wood, like knives in planers, and, deepening, form a cut. When sawing wood at an angle Θ to its fibers, universal (mixed) saws with teeth are used, which are the intermediate form of the teeth of the transverse and longitudinal saws.

Sharpening a saw

Sharpening teeth saws. by its properties, art requiring fidelity of hands, a good eye and attention. Learning this matter is easy, you need to have a desire and adhere to the following rules:

  • The saw blade must be aggressively fixed in a special device made of wood, which can also be stably installed on a well-lit desktop. Sharpening the teeth of the saws on stools or on the knees does not give a satisfactory result.
  • You should use your personal rattle with the next cleaning of the sharpened edges of the teeth with velvet (with a small notch) or a file. It is better that the ratfil is new, sharp and with a handle mounted. If at the right time there is no such thing, then they also use a used one, alas, without fail, brushed with a metal brush and rubbed with charcoal, so that the rattle is not clogged or even dull. When sharpening a tooth, the ratfil must cling to its metal and remove its layer, depending on the pressure force. If it slides along the tooth without removing the metal, then the teeth of the saw are red-hot, as it is also called rattfil is worn. In this case, you need to repeat the sharpening with a new ratfile. If in this case it slides along the tooth, then it remains to take another saw.
  • The rattle handle is clamped with the right hand, and its end is held with the left hand and the rattle is directed to the saw teeth. Starting with rattle, starting from the type of saw is described below.
  • The rattle’s pressure on the teeth is expected to be smooth and uniform and exclusively to one side of itself. When rattle returns to its initial position, it should not touch the teeth.
  • It is necessary to try to grind metal from the edges of the teeth of little similar thickness, driving the rattle the same system the number of times with the same pressure, which allows you to save the angles, pitch and height of the teeth after grinding.
  • Burrs are formed on the edges of the tooth that are not familiar to the rattail exit, which reduce the sharpness of the tooth, if they are not removed, then when the saw is working, they will crumble and the teeth will become dull. To remove the burrs, the edges of the teeth are ground with a velvet cut rattle and the burrs are removed from the side faces with a wet donkey.
  • After sharpening the teeth you need to inspect their sharpness. Look at the point of the needle and the edge of the razor blade: they, sharpened, do not shine in the light. If they are dull, then rounded surfaces appear on the tip of the needle on the edge of the blade, which reflect light perfectly shine. On this matter, the principle is built checking the properties of sharpening the teeth of the saws. For this purpose, you put the saw in sight and examine its teeth along the blade. If their cutting edges and the tops do not shine, then the saw teeth are sharpened satisfactorily, if some of the teeth are glossy (this often happens), then they need to be sharpened with a velvet file with a velvet notch, remove the burrs and again check the reflection of light with their edges and tops.

Cross saws. The teeth of the transverse saws are sharpened using a trihedral rattil with a small notch with an angle at the apex of 60 °.

For tooth sharpening the saw is clamped into a special device that allows you to set its blade at an angle of 45-50 ° to the plane on the desktop of the local computer. Ratfil lead parallel to the worktable at an angle of 60-75 ° to the saw blade and with this macar in the first tooth sharpen the left side A1A2IN4IN1.

Sharpen the saw teeth in several steps. At first, a ratfile passes along the left sides of the odd teeth located in a distant row, adjusting the hands to the same movement device. Then they go rattle on the right sides of the same odd teeth, completing the sharpening of the main cutting edges with very sharpened tops. After sharpening the odd teeth, the saw blade in the grinding device is turned over and the even teeth sharpened in such a way are found in a distant row. When sharpening the teeth of the transverse saws, you must carefully look so that sharp teeth come out in each tooth major cutting edges with a dihedral angle φ = 60-75 °, a small edge is a cutting and a sharp tip.

To sharpen the teeth, the saw blade is mounted vertically in a clamping device, which, as a rule, is mounted on the desktop. Below are two methods for sharpening the teeth of longitudinal saws, differing only in the value of the angle of sharpening φ, i.e., the direction of the rattle relative to the saw blade.

Read the same

1st method. a straight line when ratfile or file is directed horizontally at an angle φ = 90 ° to the saw blade and a small metal layer is removed from the front and rear faces of the tooth, sharpening the cutting edges.

In such a way our teeth remain sharpened to our client, located in a distant row. Then the saw blade in the clamping device is turned over and the teeth of the other row are turned and ground in a distant row. This method is used by most modern joiners and hobbyists when sharpening the teeth of longitudinal saws.

2nd method. oblique, which differs from the first only in the direction of the ratfil relative to the saw blade, in other words, the sharpening angle, which is chosen during φ = 75-80 °.

Also sharpen the front and rear edges of the teeth, at first a number of textbooks, and in the end. of another. In this case, the side sharpening method results in side edges, and it is used by cabinet makers when sharpening beam swing saws.

Saws for mixed sawing. To restore the cutting properties of the teeth, they are sharpened like the teeth of longitudinal saws, using rhombic rattails with a little, in other words, files with a coarser notch. As well as when sharpening longitudinal saws, two methods are used: straight and oblique, differing from each other by the value of the angle of sharpening φ, which are 90 ° and 75-80 °.

Sharpening angle φ = 75-80 ° is used by cabinetmakers when sharpening the teeth of tenon and small-tooth bow saws. After sharpening the teeth, the burrs are removed from the cutting edges and the sharpness of the teeth is inspected under light.

Sharpening devices. For sharpening the teeth, the saw blade is installed in a clamping device, which, again, is mounted on the desktop. The figure below shows the clamping device used when sharpening the teeth of bow saws and hacksaws and allowing you to set them at an angle of 45 ° and 90 ° in relation to the desktop.

The device consists of a base measuring 550×200 mm, made of plywood with a width of about 20 mm. Based on set two guides of rectangular triangles with equal legs, welded from a metal strip with a cross section of 20×3 mm. To install the guide triangles in the base of the device, four M6 studs are screwed on with PVA glue. As a rule, supporting triangles with bolts M6 with wing nuts, strengthen the supporting and pressing strips connected to each other on hinges of 400×150 mm in size, made of plywood 15 mm wide. The saw for sharpening is laid between the planks with the teeth up. Its blade is set so that the teeth protrude 15-20 mm above the pressing bar. This clamping device allows you to set the sharpened saws at an angle of 45 ° (the figure shows this position) and at an angle of 90 °. For this purpose, you need to change the position of the guide triangles based on the device, which is clearly visible in the figure. When sharpening the teeth of the transverse saws, the support-clamping strips are set at an angle of 45 °, and when sharpening teeth longitudinal and mixed saws. at an angle of 90 °.

The device in the position of the strips at an angle of 90 ° is used to align the height of the teeth, and also for their divorce.

SO MAYBE Who Divorce and sharpen the saw (hacksaw on wood)

My method of divorcing and sharpening a hacksaw (wood)

Than course to breed a tooth saw

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THAN THERE IS AN OPTION TO BREED THE TEETH SAWS.

The figure below shows the fixture for tooth sharpening two-handed saws and large-sized hacksaws.

The device consists of 2 racks 1100 mm long with a section of 60×40 mm, 2 transverse rails about 550 mm long with a 40×30 mm cross section and 2 clamping rails 450×150 mm in size made of plywood 15 mm wide. Racks and the crossbar are connected to each other on self-tapping screws. The device is assembled in this order: the lower crossbar is screwed to the uprights at a small height from the floor, then the right foot is placed on its surface and the attachment point of the 2nd crossbar is marked so that the knee of the right foot rests on the second crossbar. For this reason, the hardness of the rack, leaning against the table or workbench, is ensured. Sharpening saws are placed between the clamping bars with the teeth up and clamped with M8 bolts with wing nuts. Having finished grinding, without removing the saw from the clamping bars, turn the device over and continue grinding at the same time.

Wiring saws

The wider the tooth bite, the wider the cut and, accordingly, the less likelihood of jamming the saw here. But a very wide cut due to the large amount of tooth divorce requires tremendous effort to advance the saw in wood.

When using an undiluted or slightly diluted saw, which happens after its repair, in other words, long work, when the tooth bite is very miniaturized, the width of the cut is close to the thickness of its blade, and the friction between the walls of the cut and the blade causes it to heat and expand and, in as a result, jamming of a saw in a cut, for advancement which one will be engaged, an outrageous effort will be needed. Who would not have dreamed, every modern person experienced this problem when sawing raw wood species with a sparse saw. And yet, if there is no free gap in the cut for the saw blade, then it is difficult to control and it leads away from the intended direction.

Read more:  How to Sharpen a Hand Saw Correctly

Saw teeth are bred using a special tool called wiring. Some of its designs allow you to choose the magnitude of the divorce on one side using the adjusting screw, because of this, a uniform bending of the teeth is provided.

The saw teeth are bent in a special wooden clamping device, in which the saw blade is installed so that only the teeth protrude slightly with its use, and the device itself is mounted on the desktop. The teeth are bent by the method of their successive bending in different directions along the right of way located at about half their height, but the tooth cannot be completely retracted. it will break at the base. Surely it turns out that during bending, some teeth appear on the side than simply than others, and when sawing, they will slow down, reduce the quality of the cut surface and will quickly become dull. To avoid this, the teeth are smoothed by pulling between the lips of a manual vice, revealed by the size of the divorce. And therefore, our client remains the teeth aligned, and their divorce becomes uniform.

The magnitude of the divorce of the teeth of the saws is determined by the elastic restoration of the tree species in the cut, which is not so simple, the softer and wetter it is. For such a tree species, divorce is not just expected than for hard and dry. The magnitude of the divorce of the teeth on one side and the amount of cut in the wood is determined by the formulas:

where a. saw blade thickness (mm), k. a coefficient depending on the state of the tree species, k = 0.25-0.4. for hard and dry and k

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How to sharpen and breed a saw

Band saws are often sold in unfinished condition. A professional tool must first be diluted and then sharpened. Once every two to three years, the wiring process is repeated. An improperly diluted and poorly sharpened saw can ruin all the work.

How to sharpen and breed the saw correctly? First you need to understand the essence of these processes. After all, the preparation of a hand tool is different from the preparation of an electric one. Hand saws have a completely different tooth shape and working technique.

Why make a saw

Saw layout

Wiring is such a process, as a result of which the teeth of the band saw are bent in different directions. Even teeth bend in one direction, odd. in the other.

Before you breed a band saw, you need to understand why this is necessary. Meaningless processes usually do not bring a good result. It is known that during sawing, the width of the cut should be twice as large as the thickness of the saw blade. If there is already a cut, then the saw will start to get stuck in it. If the wiring is incorrect, the web may bend. As a result, the saw will go crooked, and a smooth cut will not work.

Wiring Methods

Ways One of the easiest ways to breed saw teeth is with pliers. You just need to take each clove and bend alternately in different directions.

The tooth must be clamped by two-thirds, then the bias will be correct.

As a result of this work, half of the teeth will be bent to the right, and half to the left. Another wiring method is carried out using a special tool.

Sharpening

After breeding, the saw must be sharpened. This is done using a special set of simple tools. You can sharpen a band saw using a regular trihedral file. During sharpening, moving the file away from you, it is pressed to the teeth. Moving in the opposite direction, it should be slightly rejected.

If you can sharpen a circular saw only with the help of a whole set of tools, the band saw can be brought into working condition with just one simple trihedral file.

The teeth of the band saw should be pointed from two vertices.

In the working process, you can also grind the teeth using a bar. When the saw is constantly sharpened, the wiring gradually disappears, the cloves are aligned. In order to return the instrument to its working form, the dilution is repeated again. Major wiring and sharpening is not required very often.

Saw Care

Care It is important for a saw to be able to not only breed and sharpen. You must also be able to store it. When the tool is not in use, it should be placed in a warm and dry place. If moisture gets on the saw, it will rust.

Even processed with special compounds, the saw will not be able to withstand all aggressive factors.

You need to be careful about the tool, and then it will serve for a very long time. A saw usually wrapped in material is stored. You can also provide a case for her. Leaving the tool for winter at BAL-KO is not recommended.

Types of Band Saws

Two-handed saw

Band saws vary in tooth size. You should also highlight:

Two-handed saws are sharpened and bred in the same way as ordinary single saws. The whole difference of such an instrument is that two people work with it at once.

Using band saws, wood and varieties of this material are most often sawn. The tree does not require too much impact, it is a soft material that is easily sawn and drilled. However, in the process, it is desirable to still secure the logs and boards. During sawing, be careful not to keep your hand too close to the groove of the saw. This could result in serious injury.

How to make a hacksaw divorce?

It is precisely the question of “how” that can be answered in this way: using pliers, using a special adjustable comb, using a chisel, or in another way.

Why you need a divorce:

The spread of the teeth in different directions makes it possible to avoid jamming of the saw blade in the wood, which partially facilitates the work, but does not always speed up, however, if a thick log is cut, it is much wider than the saw, the divorce perfectly saves the situation and eliminates those moments when the saw doesn’t Logs can not be reached, because it jammed there.

Jam saw maybe due to the fact that iron tends to expand and heat up at the moment of hard work, expansion makes the advance tight, and hot metal melts the resin and turns it into a paste, which further slows down the movement of the saw.

So that the saw does not wedge, it does not stick to the wood, a divorce is made. However, the divorce must be consistent with the density of the wood. A wide groove is convenient in low-density wood; narrow wiring is needed in high-density wood.

Divorce is needed in order to provide a wider gap between the saw blade and the wood.

Dividing with pliers is detrimental to the teeth of the saw, they quickly break off, the bend is not even, the pliers move out often.

Tooth bite with a special comb is convenient to use, does not break the teeth, but the angle of bite is different, the teeth stick out to the sides not evenly, and this position does not accelerate, but slows down the work, there will be constant jamming of the saw blade in the wood. The divorce curve on dense wood is especially badly reflected, the saw cannot make a groove, it jerks from one jam to the next. Jamming also occurs in softwood, but jerking the saw blade out of the log is easier, but when jerking it is possible to saw not only the log, but also part of yourself, since the saw breaks from the groove with a sudden movement and falls out of it without control.

It is best to carry out a saw blade chisel. It is inserted between the teeth and is slowly tapped with a hammer from above, gradually moving along the line of all the teeth. The angle of the chisel is directed either one way or the other, it is necessary to change the direction after each passage of the tooth line, the angle of the tooth extraction with the help of a chisel is also changed. This method is suitable for a work saw where a primary divorce has already been and needs to be expanded, on the new saw this option does not fit.

Determine the width of the cut according to the formula

Hacksaw teeth divorce: technological process

Among the masters, there is an opinion that 90% in any business a tool works, not a master. A correctly made hacksaw is pleasant to use, significantly reduces the applied effort and the time spent for cutting. The design of the hacksaw has many components that provide ease of use. Not the last place among the elements of preparation for work is the separation of the teeth of a hacksaw. In any hacksaw, the cutting parts must be divorced. An exception is a hacksaw with a cross section of the cutting blade in the form of a trapezoid, the base of which is in the location of the teeth. Such a saw tooth bore is not required.

A saw, with a correctly made tooth bite, significantly reduces the applied effort and the time spent for cutting.

The influence of tooth divorce on the work of a hacksaw

The more tooth divisions are made, the wider the sawed space. If the spread of the teeth is not wide enough, then in the process, the upper part of the blade will heat up as a result of friction against the edges of the cut. The saw expands from this, which can lead to jamming. To avoid this phenomenon, the hacksaw teeth are bred and constantly control the width of the divorce. The presence of diluted teeth creates a gap between the hacksaw blade and the cut surface. The saw moves easily, without friction and, accordingly, without heating. In the absence of a gap, the hacksaw begins to involuntarily deviate to the side from the desired direction of cut.

To carry out this work, various tools and devices are used: from pliers to devices using a dial gauge. With such a device, the deviation of the cutting element can be controlled with an accuracy of 0.01 mm. An experienced craftsman will undoubtedly ensure the quality of the wiring with pliers, clamping the hacksaw between the knees. Even a conventional screwdriver with a sharpened blade and a wishbone is used to ensure proper force. A screwdriver is used with smaller teeth.

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Tooth divorce process

Drinking routines.

In order to make a divorce on a hacksaw, it is better to use special devices for work. The essence of a saw’s divorce is to bend the teeth from the center of the blade to the sides. The simplest device for this purpose is wiring. It is made of a piece of steel plate, across which slots are made. The width of the slot corresponds to the cross section of the tooth, and the depth should be in the range from 1/3 to half the height of the tooth. You can make the wiring yourself by sawing the necessary recess in the steel plate with a hacksaw for metal. If the width of the hacksaw blade is not sufficient, then a double blade is used.

To work to establish the correct deviation of the cutting parts, the saw blade is clamped in a bench or joiner’s vice. In this case, plywood gaskets are used. Install the saw blade so that only the teeth protrude above the edge of the jaws. The wiring with its cut is put on the cutting part. The necessary deviation is made. The teeth bend through one at a time.

The total deviation is equal to the size of the cut. Sawing, width exceeding the thickness of the blade, greatly facilitates the work of the sawmill. But cutting too wide requires turning more wood and more energy into sawdust. It has been established that the optimal cut width depends on the moisture content of the wood. With a dry board, a narrower cut is beneficial. With a wet board, the cut edge has an elastic recovery, so the tooth bite should be larger. To work with wood of various humidity it is more convenient to use different hacksaws.

With dry wood, a deviation of the cut line from 1/4 to 1/2 mm of each side from the axis of the blade is required. With wet wood, this size is 0.5. 1.0 mm. It should be remembered that you can not bend the tooth at the base. This may cause a malfunction.

When looking at the teeth of the saw along the cutting edge, the tops of the teeth should be in line.

Such control will ensure a sufficient quality of work. If the control shows the deviation of the tooth from the line, then additional editing is done.

In addition to conventional wiring, special devices are used that have adjustable deviation limiters. The levers of such devices have control devices in the form of a screw with a lock nut. There are elements with a scale on them indicating the size of the deviation. With such tools, the same deviation of the teeth to a certain stop is ensured.

For complete alignment, you can make several movements with a saw between the jaws of a bench vise, spaced by the size of the required wiring width. A special template is also used for these purposes. When the cutting elements are in the same plane and on the same line, a clean and high quality cut is obtained. A properly divorced and sharpened hacksaw causes satisfaction and pride in the tool of any master. Those who work a lot and often use a hacksaw will immediately appreciate all the advantages of the tool.