Metal plasma cutting technology
Metal plasma cutting is widely used in the heavy and metallurgical industries. most enterprises that process metal products use this technology. Thanks to the latest devices for plasma cutting, it is possible to process products of various thicknesses.
Plasma cutting as a method of processing materials has a number of advantages.
Under the plasma harsh means the conduct of local heating of the metal with its subsequent separation and melting. High temperature is achieved thanks to the plasma stream, which is formed due to such consecutive processes:
- An electric arc is formed between the equipment of the equipment and the electrode or between the cut metal and the electrode. The temperature of the arc is 5000º.
- Gas is supplied to the nozzle nozzle. The arc heats up to 20,000 °.
- The incoming gas is ionized and becomes a stream whose temperature reaches 30,000º.
The plasma stream has a bright glow and high electrical conductivity. The flow rate of plasma emerging from the nozzle of the apparatus can reach 1.5 km/s. Thanks to the above technical characteristics, you can melt and cut parts from metal up to 0.2 m thick.
Various components can act as gas: hydrogen, nitrogen, technical oxygen, air or steam (from boiling water).
Equipment for cutting metal products can conditionally be divided into 3 categories:
The scope of the apparatus. the manual method of metal processing, installations and machines are used for automatic cutting and welding on an industrial scale. All types of equipment are characterized by the benefits of using plasma cutting:
- high quality processing (even cut and minimum seam thickness);
- the ability to create products of different geometric shapes;
- speed and accuracy of metal cutting;
- This is the most reliable and safe cutting process;
- The universality of technology (welding work can be carried out both in the open air and under water);
- minimum energy consumption;
- the ability to connect cut blanks using any welding technology without cutting edges and performing other preparatory work;
- simplicity of technology (does not require special training).
To use the plasma apparatus (plasmotrone), you need:
- source of electric power;
- hose and cables for connecting the device with an electric network and a gas source;
- compressor (provides air supply with a given speed and pressure).
Particular attention is paid to the power source, which is part. For the functioning of most sources, a network with variable voltage is used. over, this voltage can be converted into constant, but some devices only enhance the alternating voltage.
Higher efficiency have apparatus, which are based on constant voltage. The scope of use of alternating current devices is limited to sharp metals, which have a low melting point (for example, aluminum).
You can use the inverter for cutting sheet metal with your own hands. It provides stability of the working arc and has sufficient power for work at home.
The optimal power is possessed by transformer power supply. The main advantages of such models are versatility (used for manual and automated plasma cutting), resistance to voltage drops and uninterrupted operation. Disadvantage. a high level of electric energy consumption.
In industrial conditions, plasma cutting of pipes and other metal products is carried out using equipment with software control.
Plasma cutting machines with CNC Crystal
CNC plasma machine (numerical software control) is a more effective analogue of manual equipment. The main difference between the devices of plasma cutting of the metal is that they allow you to perform complex cutting of metal sheets with maximum performance and accuracy.
Popular and popular units for plasma cutting pipes with CNC are the Crystal machine. It is called a pipeline, because this machine can be used for cutting both round and rectangular pipes. Also, with this pipeline, curly cutting of pipes is performed.
Technical characteristics of the plasma cutting apparatus with CNC “Crystal”:
- the maximum length of the cut pipes is 12 m;
- pipes diameter-6-60 cm;
- The thickness of the walls of the pipes. up to 2 cm;
- The rotation module is equipped with a clamping cartridge and a smoke removal system;
- The program with software has a video surveillance system.
- a radial fan placed in a soundproofing casing;
- a bed with guides along the pipes;
- mobile carriage with a drive;
- Rails equipped with 3 roller supports (serve to adjust the location of the workpieces).
The principle of cutting products “Crystal” is as follows. Plasmotron is installed in the central part of the pipe. Software control is carried out in three directions: along the length of the pipe, the height of plasmotron and the angle of rotation of the workpiece around its axis. When carrying out figured cutting, the workpiece does not rotate. From this video you can understand the principle of the laser cutter:
Types of plasma cutting
There are several classifications of plasma cutting and welding. Depending on the equipment used, welding may be:
- manual, semi.automatic and fully mechanized;
- impulse and point;
- with filler wire and without it;
- using a penetrating or non.flowing arc.
Plasma welding is classified by current:
Depending on the variety of the material used to obtain a gas stream, plasma cutting occurs:
Simple metal cutting provides for the use of air (or nitrogen) and electric current. Due to the limited length of the electric arc, this technology is acceptable only for processing soft steel.
When cutting metal products using a mixture of two gases, the first is designed to obtain plasma, and the second acts as a protection from the effects of atmospheric phenomena.
Plasma cutting using water in the photo and in reality is similar to the previous technology. The only difference is that water is used instead of protective gas. Thanks to water, more high.quality cooling of the nozzle of plasmoron and metal occurs. This improves the quality of cutting.
Depending on the material that is subjected to processing, holes are made in different surface with plasma and cut:
Settlement technology is plasma cutting of sheet metal. With its help, you can cut any material (for example, bronze, brass, copper, titanium and their alloys). The peculiarity of the method is the need to take into account the thermal conductivity of the metal. With high thermal conductivity, a sheet with a minimum thickness is succumbing to the processing.
Plasma cutting using water
The cut of metal products with plasma using water is becoming increasingly popular. This is due to the following reasons:
- Sanitary and hygienic working conditions improve.
- The maximum quality of the edges of the processed surface is achieved.
- Thermal deformations of metal are reduced.
There are three ways to use water:
During underwater cutting around the plasma arc, a protective screen of water is created. The screen density is adjustable using a special nozzle, which is attached to plasmoron. Particles of metal and slag formed during cutting settled at the bottom of the container.
Plasma cutting under water eliminates the appearance of harmful secretions and smoke during the operation of plasmoron, reduces noise, does not require the use of a protective mask from bright radiation. The disadvantages of the method are low performance with high electricity consumption and difficult control over the process.
In the second method, the formation of the working arc of plasma is carried out using a water flow. To swirl water, a channel located between two nozzles is provided. Water is supplied to plasmotron without gas.
The advantages of this technology are the high quality of the edges and the preservation of the natural color of the metal. But there is also a significant drawback: a complex creation of an arc (only graphite electrodes are used for these purposes that wear out quickly).
The cutting of metal with a small amount of water into the air (or nitrogen) plasma has received wider use. At the same time, water should not in contact with gas, since this is fraught with the destruction of the nozzle and electrode. For this reason, water is supplied to the canal, and gas. into the cavity of the nozzle.
Under the influence of high temperature, the water in the channel evaporates and decomposes into oxygen and hydrogen. The sealing and lengthening of the electric arc occurs. As a result, the driving force increases for the transfer of energy to the cut point, and the molten surface is removed more efficiently.
Plasma cutting with water injection in a small amount reduces the bevel of edges and leads to a decrease in thermal deformation of the metal.
Plasma cutting stainless steel
This metal processing method is based on the melting of stainless steel due to the energy generated by a compressed arc, with the further removal of particles with a stream of plasma.
Plasma cutting stainless steel can be carried out using air, pure nitrogen or nitrogenous compounds. At home, air-plasma sharp. About installation for such cutting, look at
Metal cutting is carried out according to the following scheme:
With plasma cutting stainless steel, two types of energy can be used. The first type of energy comes from the plasma column with the occurrence of a torch. The second type of energy involves the use of electrode spots of one arc.
It is advisable to use nitrogen-hydrogen composition and pure nitrogen in the case of placing the processed edges of stainless steel in an aggressive environment or when exposed to high temperature metal.
Plasma cutting of cast iron
Plasma cutting of cast iron is the best option for large volumes of work and is used by heavy industry and metallurgy enterprises, where cast.iron scrap accumulates. This method is characterized by efficiency and speed in comparison with sharp cast iron using angular grinding or gas cutting.
Plasma cut in cast.iron blanks can be made up to 20 cm deep, and the remaining metal is used in the future without additional processing. In most cases, these works are performed on plasma cutting machines.
When cutting cast iron with plasma, a working arc is used, which has a direct current of direct polarity. The processed metal and electrode from tungsten are involved in its formation. Under the influence of the gas out of the nozzle, an electric arc is ignited, which penetrates into cast iron.
Plasma cutting of aluminum
Plasma cutting of aluminum is used in cases where it is necessary to make high.quality holes, curly cuts or process complex bends of parts. When cutting, the thin layer of metal from the aluminum surface occurs during. The resulting cut has a clear circuit and a flat fishing line for a trimmer.
When working with aluminum, it should be borne in mind that this metal in a molten state is able to actively absorb hydrogen. For this reason, thinner material (up to 2 cm thick) is cut using nitrogen. For processing using plasma cutting products more than 2 cm thick, you need to use the nitrogen-hydrogen mixture. With insufficient hydrogen content, the cut surface is additionally saturated with this substance.
The specifics of the production process
The cutting of the aluminum sheet is carried out by a plasma stream. For its formation, working gas and electric arc mixes. When setting up equipment, it is important to know which gas should be supplied, otherwise it will not be possible to avoid defects. When interacting with aluminum, it is advisable to use argon, hydrogen or nitrogen, an air environment or oxygen is suitable for ferrous metals.
The maximum thickness of the processed sheet is 120 mm, the minimum is 0.5 mm. Effective interaction with large blanks is due to the possibility of a significant heating of the site.
Plasma cutter creates a temperature of 5,000 to 30,000 degrees.
During the cutting, there is a mowing of the edges at an angle of 3. 10 degrees. This leads to the difference in the diameters of the input and output holes formed by the device. On blanks with a thickness of 20 or more millimeters, the inconsistency of the input and output diameter can be noted in the range of 1. 1.5 mm.
Additional parameters taken into account when working with equipment
The use of plasma installation for cutting aluminum requires special attention to the nuances of the production process.
- Selection of temperature regime. There is an oxide film on the surface of aluminum sheets. The temperature of its destruction is 2055 degrees, while the metal itself melts at 660. Incorrect temperature setting can lead to excess fusion and leaf damage.
- The accuracy of operations. The device cuts with an error of ± 0.1. 0.5 mm. This should be taken into account with art plasma cutting aimed at obtaining products with complex geometry.
- Angles parameters. The specifics of the equipment does not allow you to cut out the contours with perfectly even angles. The ends of the details will have small, smooth roundings.
- The width of the cut. The plasma apparatus forms the slots with a width of 0.8 to 1.5 mm. Achieving maximum limit is possible when working with thick leaves.
- Planning Operations to remove scale. Ugalin is almost always present, regardless of the conditions of work. To give the preparation of the required parameters, it is recommended to provide procedures for cleaning targeted areas from third.party elements.
- The struggle against the fuss. In some cases, fusion forms on the surface of the products. Their elimination is carried out mechanically.
Plasmical equipment demonstrates high speed of work with blanks of small and medium thicknesses. In the case of interaction with thick metals, a significant decrease in productivity is observed.
Aluminium cutting using plazma
The quality of our plasma cutting
The quality of the cut in all cases is high. The edge of the cut of the thin sheet does not require any additional processing. The blanks can immediately be sent to subsequent technological operations. But, as with any other type of heat treatment, regardless of which cutting modes are used, it is not possible to avoid small melting of the metal edges.
The advantages of our company
Equipped with the CNC module, plasma cutting machines provide the possibility of computer modeling of the operation and allow the most efficient use of raw materials, reducing the percentage of waste. As a result, the total cost of the final product regarding the use of cutting by traditional ways is significantly reduced.
Plasma cutting of the metal at our factory allows you to cut products of complex geometric shape and cutting any metals. ferrous, non.ferrous, refractory alloys, etc.D. In addition, this type of metal processing allows us to optimize production. cut with minimal offs quickly, accurately and efficiently.
Plasma cutting of metal
In terms of accuracy of cutting, there is only one alternative in plasma cutting of metal. laser processing of sheet rolling. In contrast, the plasma cutting technology is indispensable with a larger metal thickness, this method of processing retains the accuracy of cutting along a given contour.
- High speed during cutting. from 50 to 12,000 mm per minute (depending on the characteristics of the metal);
- The thickness of the sheets for cutting. up to 200 mm (standard);
- Metal cutting error. up to 0.25 mm (for curved segments);
- Software control. automated tracking of plasmoton position heights.
The company “Torgf-Group” carries out orders for plasma cutting of metal, manufacturing parts for provided drawings and sketches, also designers of our own design bureau will develop a project for your tasks from zero. For plasma cutting in production, a modern Pierce Rur 3000 installation with digital synchronization and High Definition function is used.
The technical characteristics of such a machine for plasma cutting with equally high quality allow you to cut stainless, carbon and low.alloy steels, stainless steel, copper, brass, duralumin group. When cutting metals, there is no deformation of their surface, which makes it possible to work with fragile alloys, blanks of small thickness. It is recommended to use plasma cutting of metal for processing blanks with a combination circuit: openwork cutting, artistic processing, production of parts with cuts of different sizes and quantities. tasks that require high accuracy.
Examples of details made by plasma harsh
- Mounted elements
- Metizes of wide and industrial purpose
- Fasting diligents threaded
- Anchor slabs
- Furniture fittings, bloodsters, etc.D.
Using the plasma cutting of the metal, you can get parts with a complex contour, the presence of holes, while the appearance of scale is excluded, even with the thickness of the raw materials of 30 mm.
We carry out orders for cutting metals and their processing in other ways: provide 18 types of services.
over, if you are faced with a choice. laser or plasma cutting, then the price of the latter wins a little less. Having ordered the services of plasma cutting of metal in our company, you are guaranteed to get all the advantages of this type of cut and the ability to solve your problem comprehensively.
Have questions? Set them to our manager and get the best price!
Market for services
Due to the wide distribution of equipment for plasma cutting, the cost of this work is quite low and affordable.
It is influenced by the thickness of the processed material, the type of metal, which will be cut, as well as the complexity of the parts manufactured.
Offer such services a sufficient number of different enterprises, so finding a contractor to perform this work is not difficult. So, per linear meter.
In case the cutting of non.ferrous metals is required, the minimum
Plasma cutting of metal with your own hands can also be carried out, even at home.
This will need to purchase the appropriate equipment, which can be transferred and the weight of which is in the range of 5-8 kilograms.
To carry out manual plasma cutting, you need to connect the device to the electric network.
With manual operation, the price of plasma cutting services will be slightly higher than with automatic.
But at the same time, it can be carried out in a wide range of conditions and has much greater autonomy compared to industrial equipment.
The most popular is the air plasma CNC cutting metal.
In this method of processing, inert gases are not used, so it is suitable only for working with steel and other iron alloys, and the price of plasma cutting of the metal in this way is very low.
The main advantage of this method is the high speed of cutting, as well as the ability to program the machine for the manufacture of even very complex products in automatic mode.
In recent years, many companies have appeared that offer metal plasma cutting services.
This created high competition in this market and led to the fact that the price of metal cutting with plasma has significantly decreased and has become available to a wide circle of consumers.
The price of metal plasma cutting services includes the cost of consumables (electricity and gases), the cost of equipment, as well as the complexity of products that need to be cut out.
Using various saws
For cutting aluminum, tape and disk saws are suitable. The advantages of the first:
CNC PLASMA CUTTING ALUMINIUM. BATTERY BOX FOR THE MONGREL
If the user regularly faces the need to cut aluminum, he can find a home.made installation version that is characterized by small dimensions.
The design of modern devices includes useful devices, including a rotating saw frame, a thread tension meter (tape), a variator for a smooth change of cutting speeds, a built.in system of cleaning a saw canvas. The quality of the equipment is comparable to laser and plasma, only the master will save a lot (with money, work and space).
Ribbon saws allow you to cut an aluminum profile with a diameter of up to 300 mm with an error of less than 0.5 mm. Therefore, they are used even at home.
The second type of saws used in aluminum cutting is disk. They are divided into front and cutting down, they may look like a floor or desktop, have one or two working heads. In devices of the middle price range there are clamps for fixing the workpiece at an angle. Active element. a disk with a diameter of up to 550 mm. should have diamond spraying on the teeth and indication that it is suitable for cutting aluminum.
Advantages of work with disc saws:
- Modern installations guarantee the security of the operator during operation;
- automatic cutting is possible;
- smooth supply of the cutting element;
- The presence of waste compartments.
Disk material. high.speed steel (with hSS marking). Some installations allow turning the workpiece to an angle up to 45 degrees for ease of work.
“Classics of the genre” in production. The user’s greatest interest is caused by manual devices, since they are compact, easily cut thin aluminum sheets due to the operation of the lever-spring mechanism and can be used at home.
Guillotine installations are limited functionally, since they make only a straightforward cut. advantages; Among them are the speed of processing, ease of service, durability.
In modern industry, different equipment for cutting aluminum is used. This metal can be processed with a regular hacksaw and a super.powerful laser.
However, most processing lines or machines work on the basis of technologies such as:
- Mechanical cutting (abrasive, milling, turning, drilling, sawing, and so on).
- Laser cutting (cutting sheet metal, cutting out complex contours and so on).
- Plasma cutting (cutting thick.walled and thin.walled parts).
- Hydroabraseic processing (high.precision cutting and grinding).
And further in the text we will consider these technologies.
Cutting aluminum with a laser
Laser cutting occurs due to the evaporation of the metal in the cutting zone, so the high layout of aluminum does not complicate the processing process (there is no mechanical effect on the part). But refractory oxide crust (melting temperature of 2000 degrees Celsius) forces to use powerful lasers in processing complexes that can break through to the main layer of metal.
Most often, pulsed lasers are used for cutting aluminum, with a capacity of 100 to 300 watts. over, at the peak power, the laser acts only in the first seconds of cutting, when the destruction of refractory oxide occurs. Further, cutting is at lower power, because the aluminum melting temperature is less than 800 degrees Celsius.
However, direct contact of the cutting zone with oxygen provokes the appearance of a new oxide film, so the cutting zone must be protected with a gaseous flux. Using an argon or carbon dioxide, or nitrogen, you can reduce the energy intensity of the process. In addition, inert gases for cutting aluminum are also useful because they guarantee high quality cut.
Therefore, ultra.precision processing, cutting of thin sheets, the formation of decorative pederation occurs only in the gas environment.
Plasma and laser machines
The best way in terms of quality and speed, but not suitable for home conditions. Plasmoresis and laser machine are considered professional equipment and are found at metallurgical enterprises. If there is an installation and cutting of an aluminum profile nearby on it, it is possible to use this.
- Profile cutting takes a couple of minutes;
- The user only sets up the equipment, the rest does the machine;
- Reza quality is the best of all ways.
It is important that this equipment is configured by the operator specifically for aluminum work. This is due to the softness and plasticity of the metal. It is also important to choose small speeds of the milling device (from 5,000 to 9000 per minute) and first drip kerosene to the cut area. The feed is smooth, neat, so as not to damage the cutter. Advantages and disadvantages are similar to plasma cutter and laser, but the quality of the processing of the part is slightly worse.
A circular saw
An analogue of a hand saw, but more powerful. It has the following capabilities:
- performs a longitudinal, transverse, inclined cut;
- can be sawed from any place of the workpiece (not only from the end);
- Modern devices prevent overheating, turning off in a timely manner or applying a signal to the operator;
- The user can choose the speed of work based on the thickness of the workpiece.
- The durability of the equipment is a disk for working on metal (better. in aluminum);
- speed of work;
- the ability to cut at an angle up to 45 degrees;
- The cost comparable to more suitable analogues (end saws for aluminum).
- As a rule, the equipment is bulky and weighs a lot than complicates the work;
- The price will seem high if the tool is bought for one.time work;
For example, the Yilmaz Ky 305 desktop saw. This is a special device for cutting small metal profiles with a small wall thickness. The mechanical clamp fixes the workpiece, the cutting angle is set up to 45 degrees (in any direction), it is possible to choose a fixed angle (0, 15 degrees., 30 degrees and t.D.).
- allows you to cut larger blanks (up to 130×65 mm);
- the possibility of angular cutting;
- high speed and accuracy of work;
- Availability of equipment (300 mm saw).
End (pendulum) saw
Structurally resembles previously described, only the working body is not a whole metal, but an abrasive disk, as for an angular grinder. It is considered the best solution for cutting aluminum profiles at home for the following reasons:
- cut straight, along and under inclination;
- When working, the user only needs to lower the curtain (pendulum) to the workpiece, and without much effort;
- reliable fixation of the workpiece in the clamps;
- the ability to work with long aluminum profiles;
- there are models similar to disk price range, but more functional.
In confirmation of the latter approval, the Makita LF 1000 end saw was considered. Her characteristics:
The maximum depth of cut. 68 (at 90 degrees.) and 50 mm (at 45 degrees.);
Such a ending will cost the user 60 thousand, but subject to constant work. Otherwise, the investment will not pay off.
- If the cutting of an aluminum profile is carried out irregularly, a manual tool is enough. hacksaws, corner grinders and even scissors.
- With constant work, it makes sense to purchase a portable saw, preferably end, since it is multifunctional. Investments will pay off after 2-3 months.
- For the work of an enterprise engaged in serial production of metal profiles, plasma cutters or laser installations will be required.
Setting up machine fixing profile performance of profile cutting
In short, this is all you need to know about the cutting of aluminum profiles. If you have something to supplement, share knowledge in the discussion to this article.