Traditional methods of decorating buildings that have been used for centuries slowly but surely lose their relevance, because modern construction technologies are focused on the use of materials with high structural, operational and environmental properties. One of these materials is cement-bonded particleboard (DSP). On the domestic market, DSP panels for facade cladding appeared relatively recently, however, on the scale of housing construction, the prospects for its use seem quite substantial.
What is a DSP for a facade?
A cement-bonded particleboard is a monolithic sheet material with a thickness of up to 35 mm and a density of up to 1400 kg / m3. The top layer of such plates is very smooth, with a certain hardness. These products are especially in demand in building techniques that are gaining popularity, when all wet operations are excluded and “dry type installation” is performed. The quality of cement-bonded particleboards is regulated by GOST 26816-86, as well as the regulatory document EN 635-2EU adopted in the territorial space of the European community.
Before proceeding to the exterior decoration of the building with cement-bonded slabs, it is necessary to determine the size of the material. According to the current standard, the parameters of the sheets should be as follows:
- length: 3200-3600 millimeters;
- width: 1200-1250 millimeters.
When installing DSP, experts recommend that you adhere to the following sheet thicknesses:
- frame housing construction. 14-35 millimeters;
- window sills, canopies, slopes. 18-30 millimeters;
- fixed basement formwork. 14-20 millimeters;
- walls, partitions. 14-18 millimeters.
On the scale of frame construction, the walls of the premises are usually made of plates with a cross section of 12-40 millimeters, and sheets 16-28 millimeters thick are taken from the outside. such sheets will not break under acceptable exposure and will not create an excessive load on the frame of the building.
Also, DSPs are often used to finish the foundation. Particularly stylish homes look if you use panels under the brick. The properties of slabs of this type allow not additionally covering them with special compositions, which makes this type of finish even more convenient.
At its core, DSP is an indispensable material in the repair of old buildings and the construction of new mixed-use facilities. Sheets of cement-bonded particleboards do not give a load to the supporting structures and walls, but are used as a structural material to enhance the stiffness of the elements.
In addition, DSPs allow you to forget about such complex operations as preparing and mixing cement, plastering and leveling the walls. Due to the smoothness of the panels, the operations of preliminary puttying of the surface are also excluded from the technological process, so they can be immediately used for priming and painting.
Characteristics and device
The composition of the functional composite of cement-bonded particleboards includes:
- Portland cement grade not lower than M-500. 65%;
- wood shavings from industrial softwood waste. 24%;
- water. 6%;
- mineral additives (aluminum sulfate or chloride). 3%;
- liquid glass. 2%.
Attention: When buying a DSP for finishing the facade of a private house, preference should be given to materials that include liquid glass, since such sheets are more resistant to moisture, temperature extremes and precipitation.
The technology for the production of DSP panels is quite simple:
- a certain amount of wood chips of needle crushing is laid in the drum;
- add minerals;
- Portland cement, water and water glass are added;
- mix intensively until a homogeneous mass is obtained;
- form a plate from several decks (the inner layer contains a large fraction of chips, which determines the level of strength of the plate: the outer layers contain finely divided chips, which ensures a smooth surface for the material);
- process the workpiece in the press;
- using the conveyor belt serves the semi-finished product in the chamber for further solidification.
In the end result, the resulting material is a monolithic cement-bonded particleboard, not subject to delamination. A significant advantage of such a composite is the complete absence of harmful volatile substances, since there are no synthetic components in the composition of the plates.
In addition to the composition of cement-bonded particleboards, there are other technical characteristics for which finished products are mandatory checked:
- at a normal level of humidity, the density of the DSP should not be more than 1300 kg / m²;
- water absorption should not exceed 16%;
- with an air humidity of 6-12%, the plate should not swell by more than 2%;
- tensile strength of the finished product should not be less than 0.4 MPa;
- when bending, the following standards apply: for plates with a thickness of 10-16 mm. 12 MPa, 18-24 mm. 10 MPa, 26-40 mm. 9 MPa.
Reviews: advantages and disadvantages
As practice shows, cement-bonded particleboards have a number of undeniable advantages, including:
- functionality (it is possible to use DSP both for repair of old buildings, and for construction of new ones);
- strength (with deforming bending, the strength of the DSP changes no more than 10%);
- machinability (sheets can be cut, sawed, ground, drilled and milled);
- moisture resistance (when the DSP is immersed in water for 24 hours, the material swells only by 2%);
- environmental friendliness (sheets do not contain toxic components and do not accumulate electric charges);
- fire resistance (DSP boards are hardly flammable and slightly combustible, toxic substances are not released during smoke);
- resistance to low temperatures (the destruction of the composite occurs only after 50 cycles of flexion-extension);
- biostability (DSPs are not susceptible to decay, the negative effects of fungi or mold due to an antiseptic compound. calcium hydroxide, and a concentrated alkaline environment protects the plates from rodents).
Video: How to Cut DSP 10 mm
At the same time, a significant mass of slabs can be attributed to significant drawbacks of the DSP, as this greatly complicates the installation work. In addition, the material must be handled with extreme caution, since under its own weight it can simply break.
over, the slabs are cut only with the help of an angle grinder or a circular saw. at the same time, the cutting line should be carried out as carefully as possible, since the sheet may burst if the movement is incorrect.
Types of DSP slabs for facades: sizes and prices
To date, cement-bonded particleboards are of the following types:
- with a smooth rough surface;
- with a painted surface;
- with a milled surface;
- with stone chips.
Milled plates deserve special attention. This processing method allows you to give the panel a certain texture and thereby provide aesthetic appeal. Particularly popular are DSPs with stone or brick cladding. they are able to provide a presentable appearance not only to the facade, but also to the foundation of the building.
Conventional, standard cement bonded particleboards have an unattractive gray color. However, manufacturers are doing their best to correct this drawback with the help of priming and staining panels. Both methods of processing DSP provide the product with not only a presentable appearance, but also additional moisture protection, which is why some manufacturers apply a double coat of paint and thereby make the lining even more durable.
Standard gray tiles are not used in the cladding of buildings. Such products are used for the construction of partitions, rough sheathing of floors and walls, as well as for the manufacture of sandwich panels.
The technologies for manufacturing cement-bonded particleboards are constantly being improved. For example, advanced technologies in this industry have made it possible to produce ultra-thin plates with a cross-sectional size of up to 4 millimeters. The main advantage of such boards is the lack of need for grinding, which significantly reduces their market price.
The cost of cement-bonded particle boards per sheet at retail is determined depending on its size. In the production of such material, there is a standard plate size, which is 3200×12500 millimeters, while the thickness can be in the range of 10-40 millimeters.
For clarity, we present a small table:
Currently, average prices for DSPs are as follows:
- a plate 10 mm thick: 900-1000 rubles;
- a plate with a thickness of 20 millimeters: 1600-1900 rubles;
- a plate 30 mm thick and above: from 2000 rubles.
Facade decoration: DSP: installation
Preparation of cement-bonded particle boards for installation
In order to properly prepare the DSP for installation, you must first familiarize yourself with the features of this material. Since cement-bonded particleboards consist of cement and wood fiber, they have relatively low impact resistance. For this reason, they must be handled with extreme caution.
Plates are easy to saw. drilling holes of the right size in such panels is quite simple. This is exactly what you will need to do, preparing the DSP for installation, because the plates will need to be attached to the racks of the crate. In order to simplify this task, experts strongly recommend that you drill the required number of holes in advance.
In this case, it is necessary to remember the following nuances of work:
- to fix the panel you need screws or countersunk screws;
- the optimal diameter of the fasteners is 3-6 millimeters;
- the section of the hole in the panel should be equal to 1.2 screw diameters;
- fasteners should be placed at a distance of 2 centimeters from the edge of the plate;
- the optimal step between the fasteners is 20 centimeters, but if necessary, it can be adjusted;
- the maximum permissible pitch between the screws is 40 centimeters.
If there is no possibility to pre-drill holes in the plate, then during the installation process for fastening the panels you should use countersunk self-cutting screws with a thin and strong tip.
Attention: To fix the plates to metal or wooden racks, the laths of self-tapping screws designed for working with hot water and drywall cannot be used. To drill holes in the plates, you need to use drills designed to work with metal or with a victorious coating of the tip.
Also, at the stage of preparing the DSP for installation, plate cutting may be required. For sawing, you can use an angle grinder or a circular saw, while a diamond-coated segmented disk is mounted on the tool. Before starting sawing, it is necessary to take into account that cement dust will be formed during the performance of work, therefore, a device for collecting dust should be prepared for work in the room.
Finishing the facade of the DSP is carried out according to the following algorithm:
- Brackets are installed vertically and horizontally on the facade. The maximum step is 60 centimeters. The heavier the structure, the smaller the step.
- The insulation is laid, which is attached to the base with dowels (two for each plate). A windproof membrane is applied on top, and the rest of the dowel fungi are already attached through it.
- The supporting grid is being arranged. It is necessary to observe not only vertical / horizontal, but also the arrangement of elements in one plane. For convenience, it is recommended to use the building level. The thickness of the bars of the crate should be such that at least 2 centimeters remain from the outer border of the frame to the windproof membrane.
- DSP slabs are installed. They should be attached to the crate using self-tapping screws or countersunk screws. The gap between the plates should be within 3-5 millimeters.
- Seams close up. It is not necessary to use cement or putty for this purpose. they will crack due to thermal deformations. Sealant is recommended. On top of it are planks of wood or metal plates.
details about the technology of facing the facade of the CSP are available below:
How to paint DSP on the facade: what paint to choose?
As already mentioned, cement-bonded particleboards, in principle, do not need additional protection. their surface is already quite resistant to various negative influences and can last for many years. However, from an aesthetic point of view, gray is not suitable for every building, and there may be a need to update an existing coating. In this case, it is extremely important to choose the right composition.
According to experts, the most suitable paints for DSP are:
- Acrylic They are an excellent option for finishing such a surface. They interact well with cement substrates and have high adhesion. It is recommended to choose solvent-based formulations. water-based paints penetrate the structure of the material worse, which means they can survive on the surface much less.
- Latex. Resistant to alkaline effects, form a strong elastic film as they dry. They have high moisture protection and vapor permeability. Facades covered with latex paints can be washed.
- Silicate. They are distinguished by the highest degree of adhesion. the coating literally penetrates deep into the material. They have a high level of vapor permeability and resistance to weathering. Great for use even on wet surfaces.
It should be noted that staining DSP with alkyd compounds is not allowed. such paints react very poorly to alkali, so the coating may crack or even peel off in a short period of time.
Thus, it is not as difficult to perform facade cladding on the facade panels yourself as it might seem at first glance. Subject to all the rules and installation technology, the coating will last for many years, not only decorating the building, but also protecting it from the negative effects of external negative factors.