How to Get a Drill from a Screwdriver

How to pull a drill out of a drill

Greetings to all in the next article! When operating a particular device, the user sometimes encounters unpleasant moments. Today I will touch on one of them. In this text, I decided to give some tips on how to get the drill out of the drill, if you can’t do it. The reasons why it is not possible to do this seemingly simple thing can be very different. Here I described the main aspects on this topic and identified three main areas that I consider it necessary to disclose:

  • replacement of a drill in a normally working chuck;
  • pulling out a drill without a key;
  • Removing a drill that is stuck due to some kind of existing damage.

We consider each of these circumstances separately.

How to remove a drill with a working cartridge

If everything is working properly, then there shouldn’t be any problems with getting it. Therefore, this section is more likely devoted to completely ignorant users of a power tool, since the operation itself is elementary. But still there are a lot of people, so maybe someone will need this information.

In this situation, you will need a special key to unlock the key cartridge, or straight arms to relax its quick-tight analogue.

In the first case, you need to insert the key into one of the recesses on the cartridge, and begin to rotate it counterclockwise. Promotion is due to the existing teeth on both items.

In the second, the drill should be included in the reverse (reverse rotation) mode. With one hand we hold the external case of the cartridge, and with the other we press the start button. If your machine is not equipped with a reverse, then this is not very good. this generally should not be, since only key cartridges are put on such devices. But still, if this happened, then you need to somehow fix the axis of the drill (for example, with an open-end wrench) and rotate the outer case of the chuck counterclockwise. In general, here it would be better to remove such a cartridge and put the key.

How to change a drill without a key in a drill

As you can see from the subtitle, here we are talking about key cartridges.

The most common method is the use of a Phillips screwdriver or nail of a suitable diameter, which is inserted into any of the existing recesses on the cartridge, thereby fixing its first half. You can try to twist the other half by hand. Usually in this way it is quite easy to spin.

However, if this does not work out, then you can use a gas key or a vice instead of a hand. Using them, you will be able to create the necessary effort, which is likely to be enough to carry out the rotation.

If you still don’t succeed as a result of these steps, try what is described in the next section.

How to get a drill from a damaged cartridge

Here we will also talk about cases where the drill itself is damaged.

Damage is usually in the form of a broken cam or damaged thread. It also happens that the drill is damaged, for example, scrolling between the cams. As a result of this, shavings are formed that interfere with normal rotation, as it clogs into different slots, which prevents rotation.

So, for starters, you can try to relax the fists. This can be done again with the help of two gas keys or one in assistance with a vise.

In the first case, each part of the cartridge is clamped with its own key and rotation is performed on loosening. In the second, fixing one of the parts is no longer carried out with a key, but with a vise. Since this creates a fairly large effort, the unlocking is quite easy.

In addition, in the absence of a gas key, one part can be clamped in a vise, and the second one can be used to apply gentle blows with a hammer along the tangent. Relaxation is due to the generated vibration.

If the previous methods do not help, for example, due to the thread being broken on the cams, you will have to resort to the next point.

First you will need to twist the cartridge with an electric drill. How to accomplish this, I have already described on this page. Then we clamp it in a vice and knock out the drill from the inside with a punch of a suitable diameter, which is threaded through the hole into which the spindle is inserted.

That’s all. These are the main solutions that can be applied if you need to pull the drill out of the drill. As you can see, everything is very simple. Of course, in special cases, different devices may be required, although most of the home masters have the ones that I described. Hope my tips help you. I wish you no longer have such problems. See you soon!

How to change the drill in the drill so that the attempts are not in vain?

Today, drills are made from high speed, alloy or carbon steels. To work on durable materials, they are equipped with heavy-duty hardy solders. According to the design features, they are divided into feather, centering, with straight grooves and spiral (for deep penetration).

According to the processed material, they are distinguished as follows: for wood, for metal, for stone and concrete, for glass and ceramics, diamond and universal. Each of them is suitable for a certain type of work, this should be considered before inserting a drill into the drill.

With prolonged operation, situations arise when the drill is stuck in the drill, broken, dull or jammed chuck. In such cases, it needs to be removed, which is sometimes not so simple. We will try to carry out the operation with the least losses.

Before you pull out the drill from the drill, you should pay attention to the design of its cartridge. There are two types of cartridges: key and keyless. The key cartridge is more reliable, especially if you are working in shock mode. This cartridge is made of metal, therefore, less susceptible to mechanical damage.

Its disadvantage is that before you remove the drill from the drill, you need to release the chuck jaws with a special key.

Plastic keyless chucks are usually equipped with small drills. Replacement is done by hand. Keyless options are single-coupled and double-coupled. Replacement, of course, is different, but not fundamentally. Before changing a drill in a drill with a double-coupling quick-clamping chuck, you must switch your tool to reverse mode, fix the lower sleeve with one hand and unscrew the upper one with the other.

Replacing the nozzle in a one-foot cartridge is done with one hand, because it is placed only on drills with a self-locking shaft.

It happens that the working tool is wedged in the cartridge, and he does not want to be removed. The question arises: how to remove the drill from the drill? To pull it out, it is necessary to clamp its free part in a vice. Next, you need to hammer on the cams of the chuck with a hammer through a wooden tip until the shank of the drill comes out of the keyless chuck.

If this does not help, you need to remove the cartridge from the drill and soak it in gasoline, or spray it with WD-40 liquid or a foam cleaner. You just need to drip a little engine oil into the key cartridge.

Sometimes during operation, for example, with a reinforced concrete wall, an impact drill may get stuck. When you press the trigger, the drill buzzes, but nothing happens. This happens when the drill goes deep into the wall and is clamped between the reinforcement and concrete. In such cases, you must stop pressing the trigger or loosen the drill with the drill.

This will lead not only to breakage of the drill, some of which will remain in the wall, but also to failure of the entire tool. The first step is to pull it out of the cartridge. After that, another drill is inserted into the drill and the neat knocking out of concrete around the stuck element begins. In this case, avoid getting hit by a victim stuck in the wall. Having beaten off pieces of concrete around, you can easily remove it with your hands.

How to replace a drill in a Makita drill

How to replace a drill in a Makita drill? The question is not difficult, but it needs due attention, because if the drill is not fixed correctly, then problems can arise: a broken or uneven hole, the probability of the drill falling out of the tool with injury and other troubles. First, consider how to insert a drill into a drill.

For correct operation, the drill must be secured to the electric drill chuck with a shank. Most drills are equipped with a cam type chuck. This parts have a cylindrical body. A ring or sleeve rotates on their surface, and cams are placed inside the cylinder, which, when the ring rotates clockwise, come closer to each other, compressing the drill. Rotation counterclockwise moves the cams apart, thereby relaxing the drill press. This allows you to replace or remove it. It is necessary to relax the cams with a certain margin so that it is easy to insert a drill. The principle of the cams makes it possible to mount drills of any diameter. Ordinary household drills are produced with a standard gap of drill diameter. 0.8-10 millimeters, some models may have an interval of 1.5-13 millimeters.

There are two methods of clamping: keyless and key. In the first embodiment, the rotation of the sleeve occurs manually. In electric drills with such a clamp, blocking elements are often used to limit the pulling force. In the second embodiment, the adjustment sleeve moves due to the presence of a key. On the side of the cartridge there is a hole where a key with teeth is inserted. Sometimes there are several such holes (up to three), each of them must be loosened by turning the key counterclockwise one or two times. Then they start the counterclockwise rotation of the cartridge, thereby increasing the diameter of the nozzle hole. Now insert the drill and clamp first the chuck, and then the nests.

To change the drill, you must first pull it out. Consider how to get a drill out of a drill. This process is quite simple, but you should be careful, as you can damage the drill itself or the cartridge.

The procedure is as follows:

  1. First turn off the equipment.
  2. The drill must be carefully removed from the chuck using special keys. Pay attention to which cartridge is installed. If it is a key, the key itself must be installed in the hole designed for it. Then the key is turned counterclockwise until the clamps open. Then the drill can be easily pulled out and a new one can be installed in its place.
  3. If a keyless chuck is used, then you need to rotate the coupling with the keys until the drill comes out (while doing this, you need to make an effort, you need to hold the drill in your hand). Hit the chuck in a casual palm. If the drill is not tightly clamped, then it can easily be removed after such a movement.

If the drill is jammed, then use force to remove the drill. This must be done carefully, otherwise the tool may be damaged. The work is performed as follows:

  1. First turn off the equipment.
  2. Then you need to gently tap with a hammer on the cartridge so as not to damage it. Place a plank between the hammer and the chuck.
  3. Tap on the chuck until the drill shank comes out.

How to Get a Drill from a Screwdriver

If an electric drill drill works only with metal chucks, then in order to pull out a jammed drill, two gas keys are required. They are necessary to clamp the clutch, then the cartridge must be rotated counterclockwise. This method can be used for a plastic cartridge, however, there is a risk of damage. If not a single method helps, it is worth removing the cartridge from the equipment.

The drill blade may remain in the material that has been processed. You can determine that the drill is stuck by the characteristic sound. In such a situation, you must immediately turn off the tool, and then release the cartridge.

The drill may not come out. In this case, take a new cartridge, and then carefully break off with a drill a small area near the stuck element. The “affected” equipment is removed quite easily, for this it needs to be slightly rocked. If not a single measure helps, then contact the service center. Great efforts must not be made, as the equipment may break.

Replacing the drill with a Makita drill is not so difficult, even if it jammed during operation, you just need to choose the right models and cartridges. It is enough to do this work once, then to do it without errors.

How to use an electric drill, how to pull out and insert a drill, what to do if spark brushes of a drill, video instructions

The first electric motor was invented in 1834 by the Russian scientist B.S. Jacobi. In the next 30 years, working tools began to appear on the basis of an electric motor. The first drill began to work in 1868 in the office of the American dentist D. Green. The instrument acquired a modern look in 1916, when the mechanics of Black and Decker designed the case in the form of a pistol with a button in place of the trigger.

Today, a drill with nozzles has turned into a universal tool that is used in dozens of works. How to use a drill safely? How to install nozzles, insert and pull out the drill?

What is the drill used for?

The main purpose of the electric drill is to drill various materials. The calculation of technical indicators in the design of new models is carried out on the basis of this particular task.

During operation, the electric motor rotates the chuck with a drill clamped in it. The speed is controlled using a special rheostat controlled by a start button. The direction of movement can be changed by switching the reverse lever. The function of changing the direction of rotation will help if the drill jammed at the exit of the material. In addition, with special nozzles, the drill can be used as a screwdriver. to twist and unscrew the screws.

The versatility of the tool is provided by its design

Often drills have two or more speeds. This is achieved using a gearbox connecting the engine to the working shaft. A change in the gear ratio of the gears of the gearbox leads to a change in the rotation speed and power of the working tool.

Video: How to Get a Drill from a Screwdriver

Video: drill. inside view

Power tools in this category, as a rule, have two main operating modes. Normal drilling and hammer drilling. The regular mode is used during locksmith and carpentry. Hammer drilling is designed to make holes in stone walls, concrete and brick.

The impact mechanism of the drill consists of two coaxially located ratchets, which, when interacting, give the working shaft an additional translational movement. In this case, special drills with carbide taps at the end of the working part are used. The impact force of such a mechanism depends on the external pressure on the drill. In order for drilling to proceed quickly, a force of 10–15 kg must be applied to the casing.

Preparation for work

The readiness of the drill for work is determined by the following conditions:

  • the device is connected to a power outlet (for drills operating on the mains);
  • the battery is charged and installed in the compartment (for cordless tools);
  • a drill is installed in the chuck.

Attention! To make the hole smooth, the cutting edge of the drill must be sharpened sharply. Take a new drill or grind the old with a grindstone.

To check the power, you can press the start button. If the cartridge rotates quickly, then an electric current is supplied to the motor and the tool is ready for operation. If the cartridge of the cordless drill rotates slowly, the battery is discharged. it must be put on charge.

How to insert a drill?

To properly insert a drill into a chuck, you need to know the following. The hole intended for clamping the tool has a depth of no more than 2 cm. The deeper the drill is set, the more reliable it will be held in the chuck. The clamping mechanisms of the cartridges are of two types:

  • hand, tightened by the force of the hand;
  • key, wrapped with a key.

In recent years, household models of drills are equipped with a manual (quick-clamping) chuck. it is simpler to operate and faster to operate.

To install the drill in the chuck you need to follow these steps:

  1. Turn the cartridge counterclockwise. The sponges should extend a distance slightly larger than the diameter of the drill.
  2. Insert the drill between the jaws as far as it will go.
  3. Gently turn the chuck clockwise, making sure that the drill bit is clamped evenly on all sides.
  4. Tighten the jaws by hand or with a wrench.

Attention! Before drilling, turn on the drill and look at the drill. A correctly installed tool does not hit and looks like a smooth line.

Video: how to insert a drill and fix it

When fixing the drill in the cartridge, you can make significant efforts, especially if the drill has a large diameter. It should be remembered that then you will have to do the reverse operation to remove the drill or replace it with another. When clamping a drill, look for the “golden mean”: fasten the drill securely, but so that it can be easily removed from the chuck. The required effort is easily determined after a little practice. muscle memory is turned on.

How to pull a drill out of a chuck?

Before removing the drill, make sure that the drill is disconnected from the outlet; exclude accidental pressing of the start button of the cordless tool. Pull out the drill only after the rotation of the chuck is completely stopped.

Attention! Never brake the cartridge with your hands; this may result in personal injury.

If the drill is equipped with a quick chuck, the steps for removing the drill are as follows:

  1. Remove finger from start button.
  2. Wait until the cartridge stops turning completely.
  3. Take the cartridge by the base with one hand. With your other hand, turn it counterclockwise.
  4. When the cams of the chuck disperse a sufficient distance, remove the drill.
  5. Carefully place the drill on the table, making sure that it does not roll away.

If the drill is equipped with a key holder, do the following:

  1. Turn off the drill, wait for the cartridge to stop.
  2. Insert the key into the hole in the cartridge.
  3. Turn the key counterclockwise so that it moves the chuck.
  4. Unscrew the chuck by hand so that the jaws release the drill.
  5. Remove drill bit from chuck.
  6. Put the key in the hole on the wire so as not to get lost.

Video: how to change the drill

How to use a drill?

Drill is a powerful electric tool that is source of danger. The basic rules for safe work with the drill are as follows:

  • Before starting work, securely fasten the workpiece in a vise or clamps. Do not hold the part in your hands.
  • Firmly fasten the drill or tool in the chuck. Tighten the cartridge by hand or tighten with a wrench. Be sure to remove the key from the hole in the cartridge.
  • When working with hard and massive materials, hold the power tool with both hands.
  • Do not press hard on the drill body so that the drill does not jam. Reduce the pressure at the drill exit from the workpiece.
  • Use personal protective equipment: goggles, respirator, gloves.
  • Switch modes and change the tool only after the cartridge stops completely.
  • Sweep away chips with a brush only.

How to make a vertical or horizontal hole

To make a vertical or horizontal hole, you must perform the following steps:

  1. Mark the location for the hole.
  2. Install a drill of the required diameter in the chuck.
  3. Hold the tool and set the drill to the mark.
  4. Gently start the engine and press on the drill body.
  5. When the hole is ready to take out the drill without turning off the motor.
  6. Release the start button, wait for the cartridge to stop.
  7. Put the drill on a flat surface.

Attention! Do not be distracted from work until the hole is completely ready.

How to make a hole perpendicular to the surface or at an angle

If you need to make a hole perpendicular to the surface, you can use a protractor or a square. Home craftsmen figured out how to drill a hole at an angle of 90 degrees to the surface without a goniometer. An old CD is placed on the surface of the workpiece. The drill is aligned so that the visible part of the drill coincides with its reflection in the “mirror” of the disk. In this case, the hole will be made strictly perpendicular to the surface.

When the drill is perpendicular to the surface, the line of the drill matches its reflection in the CD

If you want the hole to go at an angle to the surface, you must fix the workpiece at this angle. The most accurate holes will come out if you use a special stand-clamp for a drill.

Corner post secures the drill tilted

How to drill metal

Drilling metal surfaces has its own characteristics. First of all, you need to choose a drill designed for these purposes. A wood or stone drill is not suitable for metal, stainless steel or cast iron. These drills differ not only in the grade of steel, but also in the angle of sharpening of the cutting edge.

When working, there is no need to rotate the drill at high speed, the drill will slip on the surface without clinging to the material. The optimal speed when drilling metal is low, when you can see how thin chips are formed with the naked eye. The pressure on the drill can be significant, but within reasonable limits, so that the drill does not break. When drilling steel and cast iron, it is recommended to lubricate the drill with engine oil for cooling.

In order for the drill to catch on solid material, it is recommended to make a recess at the drilling point with a core drill. The drill will not lead away.

How to drill concrete

When drilling concrete, stone or brick, a lot of dust is emitted, small fragments can fly out from under the drill. You must use a respirator to protect your respiratory system and goggles to protect your eyes.

Tip. You can reduce the amount of dust by wetting the workpiece or the drilling site with water.

If you need to drill concrete, then the best option would be to use drills equipped with a victorious solder at the end. Such drills do the job best and can be sharpened periodically as needed.

The shock mode is incorporated in the design of the drill for drilling stone objects. Use the shock mode carefully. If the tile is drilled, it is not worth turning it on, as a blow will inevitably lead to the breaking of ceramics. The same can be said about hollow brick. it is dense, but fragile.

Recommended drill speed is medium. Adjust the pressure on the drill body, based on the material properties. But in any case, the movement should be smooth and measured.

Attention! When drilling stone and concrete, the drill gets very hot. Before replacing the tool, wait for it to cool so as not to get a burn.

How to drill a tree

Wood is a soft and comfortable material for drilling; it is perfectly processed and polished. When drilling wooden products, it is recommended to use special drills for wood.

It is best to start work with marking, marking with a pencil a place for the hole. Then, resting the end of the drill at the intended point, turn on the maximum revolutions of rotation and smoothly immerse the drill in the wood. If the hole is deep. from time to time you need to pull the rotating drill to the surface so that it can be freed from chips.

Often in modern life, one may encounter the need to make a hole in plastic. In general, plastic is drilled in the same way as wood, as it is a soft material. Some synthetic materials (for example, ebonite, textolite, caprolon) have high hardness. For processing such plastics, it is better to use drills designed for metal.

How to make a groove in a wooden board

If you need to make a groove in a wooden board, this can be done with an electric drill.

The groove in the board is made with an electric drill

To make a groove, you must do the following steps:

  1. Take a drill on wood, the diameter of which corresponds to the width of the future groove.
  2. Mark the holes along the groove so that their centers are at a distance of half the diameter of the drill.
  3. Drill all holes to a depth of 2-3 mm. so the drill will not lead away.
  4. Drill all holes to the end.
  5. Using a file, remove the jumpers (if any) and smooth out irregularities.

How to drill a brick

Brick is a rather soft material, so its drilling is possible by the power of a conventional electric drill with a shock function.

A simple drill can drill a brick

A brick wall is drilled as follows:

  1. Mark with a pencil or marker the location of the future hole.
  2. Mark the core or old drill.
  3. To apply 2-3 blows with a hammer so that a recess remains on the brick. then the drill will not lead away.
  4. Install a drill in the drill, turn on impact mode.
  5. Drill a hole by gently pressing the tool.

Note. If the finished hole should be more than 10 mm, it is recommended that you first drill a hole with a drill of a smaller diameter. 6-8 mm, and then drill it to the desired diameter.

Video: drilling a brick wall

The main malfunctions of the drill and how to solve them

No matter how perfect the technique, sooner or later, there comes a time when the technological resource has been exhausted, and this or that part requires replacement.

Electric drill is no exception. Here is a list of possible, most common problems:

  1. Malfunction of the electric motor (power supply is correct, but the motor does not rotate).
  2. Wear or burning of carbon brushes (during operation of the device, brushes will sparkle strongly).
  3. Failure of the bearings of the engine mount (the hum of the motor is heard, but there is no rotation, or the cartridge rotates intermittently, with a rattle).

In addition, the causes of unstable operation of the electric drill can be associated with the integrity of the power cord or the release of the start button. Such problems are solved by replacing the cable and preventive cleaning of the button from debris and dust.

To fix the drill at home, you will need many special tools, including electrical ones. If they are not, it is cheaper to give the drill for repair to a service center. Replacing carbon brushes is quite within the power of a home master. In all new models of drills, designers have provided quick access to the place of attachment of the brushes and their easy replacement.

Brushes are hidden under the cover above the engine manifold

Nozzles for a drill and their installation

In addition to drilling holes, an electric drill is capable of performing many other diverse operations. For this, various nozzles have been developed and are made with the help of which you can grind, polish, cut or sharpen. All nozzles are mounted in the drill chuck, as well as a conventional drill.

Polishing nozzle

Designed for polishing surfaces using abrasive materials. It can be sandpaper or a felt base on which GOI paste is applied. The nozzle is a rotating flat surface, which is processed grinded material.

Replaceable sheets of sandpaper are attached with Velcro

Coarse nozzles

For cleaning metal surfaces (for example, pipes), wire nozzles (brushes) are used. They are a cylinder, on the surface of which are stiff bristles made of metal wire. Available with bristles of different stiffness ranging from thin wire, and ending with pieces of cables.

Brush pile made of galvanized wire

Cricket Nozzle

A nozzle called “cricket” turns the drill into nibblers for metal.

The nozzle is clamped into the drill chuck. metal scissors are ready

Using the “cricket” you can cut holes in metal sheets up to 1.6 mm thick. The nozzle has proven itself very well in roofing works when it is necessary to adjust and cut metal sheets of a given shape.

Video: scissors attachment for metal “Cricket”

Nozzle. file

The nozzle made of abrasive material makes it possible to significantly facilitate labor when performing work on sharpening parts, fitting grooves and holes. They are represented by a wide range of grinding stones of various shapes and sizes. Among the nozzles there are conical, cylindrical, flat, spherical stones.

Despite their small size, the nozzles are very effective in operation.

Milling nozzles

Nozzles on a drill designed to perform milling work on wood or plastic are also called cones. With their help, you can make a groove, a groove, a notch of a given size.

Cones are available in various shapes and sizes.

In form and purpose, cones are divided into:

  • cylindrical;
  • disk
  • end and end;
  • shaped.

The type of cutter is selected for a specific task in accordance with the density of the material and the power of the electric drill.

Other nozzles

For cutting materials

There is a nozzle with which you can make sawing wood, metal or plastic. The principle of operation of its mechanism is similar to the device of an electric jigsaw. The set includes a set of files with various shapes and number of teeth. Such a nozzle can easily cope with cutting a wooden board up to 20 mm thick, as well as chipboard or plywood. For cutting more massive workpieces, it is still better to use a jigsaw.

For drilling large holes

For drilling large-diameter holes, special devices and tools are available that can be used as accessories for electric drills. For the manufacture of large holes use:

  • crowns. steel cylinders with teeth or spraying. for wood, stone or tile;
  • feather drills. metal plates with a center and two blades. for wood and plywood;
  • beam drills. long pins with spiral grooves. for drilling thick wooden beams;
  • Forstner drills. a special tool with numerous cutting edges. for precise and clean holes in wood.
Photo Gallery: Drills for Large Holes
To tighten fasteners

Drill nozzles designed for screwing in screws, bolts and nuts are widely used and used. Their diversity is comparable only with that huge range of products that exists in the world of fasteners. With these nozzles, provided that the speed range of the drill includes low-speed modes, the electric drill turns into a full-fledged screwdriver or wrench.

Screwdriver and nut set

Drill mixer

One cannot also ignore such a useful practical function of an electric drill as its use as a mixer when mixing paints, gypsum and other mixtures.

Using a special whisk for kneading, you can successfully give the right shade to the paint at home or stir glue for the sticker on the wallpaper. In addition, lightweight building mixtures, such as plaster or putty, can also be kneaded with a drill.

It should be remembered that excessive overload on the drill can damage the main mechanism of the tool. an electric motor. It is not recommended to use a drill as a mixer when mixing heavy concrete mixtures. For this, there are special concrete mixers and mixers.

Attention! If the drill body has warmed up and the motor is buzzing hard, you should stop and allow the machine to cool down.

Drill Drilling Machine

Drill stand turns a household tool into a drilling machine

Electric drill can be made with your own hands. Such a machine consists of a bed, a vertical stand, a rotational mechanism and a feeding device. Despite the simplicity of design, the machine significantly improves the accuracy of machining parts.

Video: DIY drill from a drill

Among the many nozzles for electric drills produced by industry, there are also such "exotic" specimens, such as a pump nozzle for pumping liquids or a special nozzle for plucking feathers of poultry. In everyday life, they are not so often in demand as carpentry and locksmith tools, which are used in almost every home.

An electric drill can save money and save power. For home and one-time work, you do not need to buy several professional machines. Special nozzles will make the tool universal: drilling and cutting, grinding and turning, kneading and chiselling. this is not a complete list of operations available for a drill. To work was a joy, you must comply with safety rules.

  • Author: Angel of Fertility
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