An angle grinder in inept hands can cause big trouble. When working, the angle grinder must not neglect the instructions and ignore the safety requirements. Be sure to use protective equipment. The master is obliged to work only with a working instrument, must remain in a collected and concentrated state with extremely concentrated attention. An angle grinder of any size is source of increased danger, it can cause injury to both the operator himself and people close to him. How to operate the tool?
Device and features angle grinder
The angle grinder is simple. An electric motor rotates a shaft at an enormous speed through a bevel gear onto which interchangeable nozzles are mounted.
The peculiarity of the angle grinder is that it is a multifunctional tool, and for each specific work and for each processed material its own disk is required. For example, a metal blank cannot be cut with a wood disc. Flexible abrasive disk for polishing stone is not intended for grinding wooden products.
But not only nozzles are diverse. The angle grinder also has several designs:
- without handles;
- with one or two handles;
- small, medium and high power.
Powerful models are powered by an industrial three-phase network with a voltage of 380 V. Low-power models. from a household outlet 220 V.
The main purpose of the angle grinder is to cut soft and durable products. from wood, plastic, metal, stone, concrete and other materials, as well as their grinding, grinding and grinding. If the angle grinder is fixed, it is possible to grind drills, cutters, knives and other cutting tools on it.
Angle grinder is indispensable in the production of construction work, in auto repair shops, utilities, in the conduct of rescue operations and in many other areas of human activity. In short. it is widely used in industrial production and in everyday life.
General security measures
Why is an angle grinder a dangerous tool? There are several reasons for this:
- the rotating disk has a large open working segment, which is not protected by a casing;
- often you have to work an angle grinder without a reliable fulcrum;
- abrasive discs tend to break into pieces of large and small sizes;
- the huge speed of rotation of the nozzles and the high power of heavy models contribute to the fragmentation of fragments over a long distance.
The danger of an angle grinder lies in the principle of operation. Cutting of the workpiece is carried out due to the contact of the rotating disk with the surface of the product. over, the contact zone is the only support, because the worker keeps the whole angle grinder on weight. This specificity requires the skill of stable maintenance of the tool in one plane. The slightest distortion leads to a sharp unexpected jerk. The novice user should learn the basics of working with an angle grinder on low-power models designed for a disk diameter of 115–125 mm.
Great danger comes from an abrasive cutting disc. The slightest defect can lead to unexpected destruction with pulling the angle grinder from the hands and unpredictable consequences. Therefore, before fixing, you should always carefully inspect the disk to identify chips (nicks) or breaks (can be detected during idle rotation). These defects can appear not only during operation, but also from careless handling of the tool: falling, shock and other external influences (for example, the tool was lying on the floor. it was accidentally stepped on with a foot).
How to avoid the danger of injury from a defective disc?
To prevent the disc from scattering during operation, the following measures will help:
- checking the abrasive wheel for defects before each installation;
- control inspection of the nozzle before each start-up;
- work with the use of personal protective equipment: gloves, goggles or a protective mask.
The operator of the angle grinder must approach the tool in a calm state, must be attentive and careful. A person with an unbalanced psyche who does not know how to focus at the right time. you can not even pick up this serious tool.
How not to work with a dangerous tool?
When handling a dangerous tool, it is prohibited:
- work without safety glasses;
- wear light clothing with short sleeves that does not cover the body from hot sparks;
- work without a protective cover;
- use the angle grinder in operation without checking the condition of the abrasive disk at idle;
- be in the zone of the cutting plane. should be on the side;
- push the tool hard with your hands. it cuts perfectly under the influence of its weight;
- constantly practice cutting the angle grinder on yourself, which can lead to damage from a broken disk;
- work without interruption, because the hands accumulate fatigue from weight and vibration of the angle grinder and cannot hold it firmly;
- work with loose workpiece. someone must hold it tight or securely fix the product in a yew, clamp, other device;
- grind the details with the side of the cutting disc. there are special nozzles for this;
- Cut workpieces with a thickness of more than half the radius of the circle. usually the workpiece should not exceed 1/6 of the diameter;
- allow outsiders to the work area.
How to use the angle grinder
If you well learn the principles of proper operation with an angle grinder, then you can not be afraid for your health. Important notes on preparing and working with angle grinders:
- the grinding wheel in diameter should not exceed the size for which the angle grinder is designed;
- during operation, the angle grinder is firmly held with both hands;
- the operator must stand firmly on his feet so that nothing can unbalance him;
- the power cable should be tilted away from the place of work in order to avoid falling under a rotating disk;
- to make all movements in the working area from one place to another with the angle grinder turned off;
- in case of an emergency power outage, it is necessary to turn off the device in order to avoid an unexpected start.
Basic techniques of woodwork
Since the angle grinder was originally invented for grinding and polishing materials, it can easily cope with similar operations on wooden surfaces.
For these purposes, the following types of interchangeable nozzles are used:
- Sanding plates are a multilayer construction in which layers of rubber or plastic are adjacent to layers of foam rubber of emery paper (less often. a woolen flannel). Such plates are used to polish wood products and polish painted wooden surfaces.
- Petal discs are a rigid base on which sandpaper petals are glued. Such disks can be used for preliminary rough grinding of wooden products.
- Wire brushes. used to quickly remove old paint from painted wood. they have a wire bristle attached to a steel bowl.
The operation of grinding soft materials, including wooden surfaces, is one of the safest types of work with an angle grinder. During operation, it will not jam, will not catch, will not wrap.
Special disks for cutting industrial wood are produced in only one form. This is a disc with lateral teeth that increase the width of the cut. You need to use it very carefully, sawing boards with a thickness of not more than 40 mm.
Cutting discs from the circular can not be used, so they are designed for a speed of no more than 3000 rpm (the angle grinder has a speed of 2–4 times higher). Cutting discs are made of hard but brittle steel, which can collapse when the disc is jammed.
Video: Grinding wood
Work with ceramic tiles
Ceramic angle grinder is cut using a steel blade with fine-grained diamond spraying. This is the so-called dry cutting method.
Dry cutting discs come in two types: segmented and solid. They can cut ceramic floor tiles without coolant for 1–1.5 minutes. After that, the disk is cooled by idle rotation. A segmented disk cuts well not only porcelain, but also natural stone: marble, granite, shungite, malachite and other types. Its slots serve to cool the disk during operation, but they also contribute to the formation of chips.
With a dry cutting continuous disk, paving ceramic tiles can be cut almost without chips, and the edge part of the section can also be processed with a side working face.
Straight line ceramic cutting
The most effective ceramic tile is cut with a solid disk with a diameter of 115 mm, at a speed of 6-8 thousand revolutions per minute. The procedure is as follows:
- The tile is laid on a flat surface and secured with a clamp. Alternatively, you can hold with your foot, protected by a special construction boot.
- With a soft pencil or a sharp object, a cut line is outlined along the line.
- An incision is made exactly along the line, the depth of the cut. within 1–1.5 mm. depends on the ceramic material and the thickness of the tile;
- The gash is done carefully, at a low speed of movement, then the movement of the angle grinder along the line speeds up (it is easier to make an even cut);
- Then the tile is moved with an incision to the edge of the table or a thick nail is placed under the incision, after which it is broken along the incision line.
Video: How to Work a Wood Angle Grinder
Cutting angle grinder of large holes: round, rectangular
An angle grinder is able to cut round holes in a tile.
To make a hole, proceed as follows:
- First, the center of the future hole is marked on the ceramic tile.
- A hole with a small diameter (3-5 mm) is drilled with a carbide-tipped drill.
- A circle of the desired diameter is drawn on both sides of the ceramic.
- angle grinder with a solid disk cuts are made around the circumference on both sides to a depth of 1-2 mm.
- Inside the contour, angle grinders are made through long cuts and pieces of ceramics break out with pliers.
- The inner surface of the cut hole is manually cleaned with an emery cloth or a file.
If you drill holes with a diameter of 5–8 mm at a certain distance from each other with a drill near the contour line, and then make angle cuts between them along the contour line and cut the inner part with them, you can make holes of a rectangular and other arbitrary shape.
Video: overview of diamond discs and bowls
Metal is the material for which this tool was originally created. With its help, reinforcement, round timber, pipes and all sections of long products are easily cut. For this work, special cutting discs are used. Any work with metal is prohibited without removing the protective cover, tarpaulin gloves and goggles. When cutting metal, many sparks, pieces of abrasive disc and metal dust are released, which pose a serious threat to the operator and the environment. Metal cutting requires accuracy, thoughtfulness, leisurelyness. To clean the welds, clean the surface from rust, scale, grinding and polishing, special disks made of hard wire, abrasive, foam rubber and other materials are produced.
Basic rules for cutting metal products
When cutting metal, the following rules must be observed:
- The durability of the cutting discs and the angle grinder itself largely depends on the duration of continuous operation. Therefore, work should be paused after 5-7 minutes of cutting. This is especially true for household tools, which are not intended for intensive work.
- All workpieces must be securely fixed with a vice or clamp.
- When cutting thick metal, it is recommended to cool it. To do this, pour cold water over the cutting area.
- When cutting ductile aluminum to reduce friction and better cooling of the disk, kerosene can be dripped into the cut, not forgetting about fire safety.
- The main attention when cutting metal should be given to the cutting disc. It is necessary to ensure that it does not get pinched by the edges of the metal workpiece. Therefore, we must strive to ensure that the cut piece hangs freely in the air. This primarily applies to long profiles: pipes, corners, round logs, fittings and other length meters.
- Cutting metal profiles: corners, brands, rails, channels should be carried out not in one step, but separately cut each shelf.
- In massive workpieces having a large thickness, all cuts are made straight. If you want to cut a curved contour, then first, straight-line segmented through cuts are performed, with the removal of unnecessary sectors.
- You do not need to press the angle grinder while cutting. For its effective work, its own weight is enough. Excessive force can break or jam the cutting disc. Such loads will cause overheating of the angle grinder. If cutting is not fast enough, you need to change the worn disk to a new one.
- The cutting disc should not process the edge of the cut. For these purposes, other types of disks are used.
- Before starting work with metal billets, you must definitely think about protecting plastic, glass, and wood products. Sparks consisting of molten metal mixed with abrasive dust can stick to them, then it will be difficult to get rid of defects.
Features of cutting different types of metal
Different types of metal. high-alloy stainless steel, cast iron, non-ferrous metals are cut with special circles, made separately for each type of material.
All information is given in the marking, which is applied to the side of the abrasive disc. It is strongly not recommended to cut stainless steel with conventional disks, as they contain substances that can destroy the protective film. Over time, the location of such an incision will begin to corrode.
There are types of cutting discs for hard steels and cast iron, for soft aluminum, copper, brass and other non-ferrous metals. Their main difference among themselves is in the composition of the fillers. Extra strong material is added to some discs, able to overcome the resistance of alloy steels. In others, a soft ligament that does not form a salting. This important quality is needed when cutting viscous materials. aluminum and other non-ferrous metals.
The same goes for steel sheets. They are cut with special disks designed for different thicknesses of rolled products. Thin sheets (profiled sheet, tin, etc.) are cut with very thin steel disks with a small tooth, and thick metal (reinforcement, corner, channel) is cut with thicker abrasive disks.
Deburring, welding seams
This work is carried out using special grinding wheels, the thickness of which is 5–10 mm. In this case, a tilt angle grinder to the work surface is used at an angle of 30–40 degrees. This position of the angle grinder is attached using the side handle.
They cope with this task with the help of a special brush disk made of hard wire. For effective work, methods are used to tilt the brush disk to the work surface at different angles. Angle grinder with side handle.
Grinding and polishing
There are special discs for grinding and polishing. These works are carried out with the protective cover removed, but with safety glasses. Grinding is carried out in smooth movements over the entire machined surface.
Video: angle grinder UShM-125. cutting, cleaning and flap disc
How to sharpen a chainsaw chainsaw angle grinder
This work can only be done by an experienced user of an angle grinder who knows the rules for sharpening chains for gasoline and electric saws. In his strong hands should be a lightweight compact model of an angle grinder with a protective casing. The chain is sharpened directly on the boom of the chainsaw. Be sure to note the beginning of the sharpening of the first tooth. A 2.5 mm thick grinding wheel is placed on the angle grinder for these purposes. Need a sharp eye and precise hand movements with an angle grinder, so as not to damage the chain link. A competent, neatly executed sharpening of the chain with the help of an angle grinder will allow it to serve for 4-7 sharpening.
Video: how to sharpen a chain of a saw angle grinder
Cutting angle grinder glass products
Before cutting glass, you need to understand the properties of this fragile transparent material. Glass has excellent strength characteristics. It has good strength, stiffness, hardness, thermal stability, excellent optical properties. At home, glass is not easy to handle. We need a special tool and specific conditions to, for example: saw a thick mirror, drill a hole in it, cut a curved surface.
Angle grinder glass can only be sawed, and the work is fast enough. To do this, you need to have a steel disk with diamond coating for cutting granite, concrete and other types of building materials. When sawing, you need to continuously water the cutting area with cold water. Since the glass is very strong, a lot of heat is generated in the cutting area. High temperature adversely affects the edges of the cut and the cutting disc. Cooling will help the cut to be smoother and will not allow diamond spraying to wear off quickly. In this way, you can cut almost all types of household glasses: ordinary, crystal, borosilicate (heat-resistant), bottle.
Work angle grinder with natural and artificial stone
Granite, marble, concrete, brick and other types of stones have increased strength, which even a powerful angle grinder can handle can be difficult.
For cutting stones you will need a special cutting tool. cutting discs with diamond spraying. The basis of this disk is a steel plate, on the outer side of which there are segments. Their serrated ends are covered with durable diamond chips. In the work, diamond wheels heat up a lot, so there are special slots (perforations) to cool them. When rotating through these slots into the cutting zone, cold air is captured, cooling both the material and the disk itself.
The strongest natural finishing stones are sawed with diamond disks:
But artificial stone formations. concrete, brick and others are also cut with a diamond tool. The age of the concrete is extremely important. the older it is, the stronger it is. and aggregates (sand, gravel, reinforced frames). Concrete can be handled only by a powerful, professional angle grinder equipped with Turbo diamond abrasive discs and having several speed modes.
A diamond abrasive wheel consists of abrasive particles and a filler of a binder. Abrasive chips for different discs are prepared from electrocorundum, elbor and silicon carbide. Grain sizes of abrasive materials are classified according to the international FEPA system and are indicated by the letter "F". In the Russian Federation, the properties and composition of abrasives must comply with GOST R52381–2005. Cut-off wheels for working on a stone angle grinder contain abrasives from F220. grain size 50–63 μm. to F16. grain size 1250–1600 μm.
As a bundle, the following materials are used:
- Bakelite and its derivatives (hardened, graphite);
To make the disk strong, durable, wear-resistant. it is reinforced with a fiberglass mesh or other synthetic material. Thin discs are reinforced with two layers on the outside. Circles with a thickness of more than 3 mm are reinforced with additional grids, which are located in the thickness of the disk. Stones are cut in flat circles.
Stone cutting technology
There are two technologies for cutting stone products of natural and artificial origin:
Dry cutting produces a lot of dust. When wet. a lot of dirt. The method is selected based on the amount of work. If this is a one-time event, then you can do it in a dry way. If there is a lot of work, use the wet method (water cooling). When using water, there is no dust, cutting conditions are better, the diamond blade wears less.
Video: how to cut brick and concrete. dry and wet cutting
How to grind an angle grinder
A compact angle grinder and a diamond blade make it easy to make cuts in hard plaster for a groove for electrical wiring.
The markup is done in advance. Material is removed from the slotted strobes using a hammer or chisel. The use of an angle grinder greatly accelerates the process of mounting wires to sockets, switches and fixtures. over, the strobe turns out to be even, of the required width, with smooth walls. The only drawback is a lot of dust and dirt. Neither a gauze bandage nor a respirator can save them. True, craftsmen make a device in the form of a sealed casing for suctioning dust from the cutting zone. The design is rather bulky and a little interferes with productive work.
Curious features of angle grinder
The skillful hands of a professional using an angle grinder can demonstrate real miracles.
Angle grinder is able to cut a tin can or cut teeth on a rail; tool cut automobile tires or level the surface of the anvil. The versatility of the angle grinder is literally amazing.
Such opportunities give her three factors:
- a huge number of interchangeable nozzles of various types, purposes, made of various materials;
- the ability to change the mode of operation: speed adjustment, the presence of additional handles;
- the possibility of fixing to a stationary position using various devices.
An angle grinder is a high-speed tool because its design was developed to work with metal grinding wheels. Its speed capabilities allow you to cut very durable materials: stainless steel, cast iron, concrete, natural stone. But in some cases, it would not hurt to have a range of low speeds, for example, for cutting wood and other soft materials. And work is going on in this direction.
Some models of grinders are equipped with an electric drive, which is controlled by high-frequency converters. By changing the frequency of the electric current, they are able to adjust the rotation speed from zero to tens of thousands of revolutions per minute.
Such a wide control of the rotation speed. one of the most important parameters of an angle grinder. will give it additional applications.
It is always nice to watch the work of a true professional. In our country there are many men who know how to use jewelry from an angle grinder to perform jewelry, difficult work, and life-threatening work. But in the household it is also needed, so many people are happy to buy household models for their needs. People with a stable psyche, normal physical development, there are no barriers to using this tool.