Some of the information that may be useful in the repair of the tiller, see the article Device tiller.
Engine does not start.
If we are talking about a gasoline engine when troubleshooting, you must consistently check all possible causes of problems, namely:
- Ignition on
- The presence of fuel in the tank.
- Opening the fuel valve.
- The condition of the carburetor air damper (it should be closed when starting a cold engine).
- The flow of fuel into the carburetor. To do this, fill the float chamber by drowning the floating button (fuel should start to pour out of the hole in the float chamber cover), or disconnect the fuel hose from the carburetor and check whether gasoline runs freely. If the fuel is running too thinly or not at all, this may indicate a dirty fuel filter in the tank or a clogged air valve in the tank cap. Repair of the tiller, in this case, will be reduced to cleaning the filter or valve.
The condition of the spark plug, which in any case needs to be checked when troubleshooting the ignition system, may indicate the flow of fuel into the engine cylinder. Candle unscrewed from the cylinder cover, after disconnecting the wire, and inspect. If it is dry, it means that the fuel mixture is not fed into the cylinder. And if before that it was found that gasoline enters the carburetor, it means that the reason for not starting the engine may be in the carburetor. contamination of its filter mesh, plugging of the jet or some other malfunction. Whatever it is, the carburetor needs to be removed, disassembled and cleaned, however, this device is very complicated and you should at least look at the diagram of the carburetor before repairing it.
Wet candle to say that the fuel enters the cylinder. Sometimes the tiller does not start up from an excess of the fuel mixture, so if there is too much gas on the spark plug, you need to dry the cylinder by properly pumping the engine with a manual starter with the twisted spark plug. Before that, you need to shut off the fuel supply.
If the candle is contaminated with soot, it should be cleaned with gasoline and fine leather. It is also necessary to check the size of the gap between the electrodes and, if necessary, adjust it following the requirements of the operating manual. Usually, the hole should be about 0.8 mm.
After that, it is necessary to check for the presence of a spark. attach a wire to the spark plug, press its metal part to the cylinder head and simulate engine start with a starter. If the candle is OK, there will be a spark between the electrodes. Sometimes it happens that a spark arises, but so weak that it is not enough to ignite the fuel. If there are doubts about the strength of the flash, you need to check the engine with a new candle.
The absence of a spark may indicate a malfunction of the spark plug, a lack of contact in the electrical circuit, a gap in the gap between the ignition coil and the magnetic core, a malfunction of the electronic ignition coil. All these items must be checked. A defective spark plug and ignition coil must be replaced.
If the tiller is equipped with an electric starter, the engine may not start due to the discharge of the battery, a fuse blown, or a starter malfunction. You need to check the battery charging, replace the fuse, repair or replace the starter.
The engine does not develop power.
If the engine of the tiller starts up but does not develop power (works intermittently, stalls or does not gain momentum under load), the following failures can be possible causes of unsatisfactory performance.
The air filter is polluted, as a result of which insufficient amount of air enters the carburetor, and the fuel mixture is over-enriched. Proper maintenance of the tiller involves periodic cleaning of the air filter, but with very dirty work may require more frequent cleaning. It is necessary to check the condition of the air filter and, depending on its material, clean it using one of the appropriate methods. The paper filter is cleaned by gently tapping something hard and vacuuming it, the foam rubber is washed in water with a detergent and dried, the screen is blown by a vacuum cleaner, etc. When developing the life of the filters must be changed.
Low-quality fuel. Bad fuel should be replaced with one recommended by the manufacturer.
Faulty ignition system. It is necessary to check it as described above. Clean the candle and adjust the gap between its electrodes, check that there is no damage to the electrical circuit and the difference between the coil and the magnetic core (if this is provided for the repair manual for the motor-block).
Sometimes the engine can not develop power due to clogged muffler products of combustion. In this case, you need to disassemble the silencer and check its condition, if necessary, rinse it in gasoline and clean it with a carbon sink using detergents. Disassembled muffler after washing is dried with a hairdryer. Remember that carbon deposits contain carcinogenic substances, and dry cleaning, due to which they may be inhaled, is unacceptable. When removing the muffler, the engine exhaust outlet is plugged with a clean cloth.
Contamination or incorrect adjustment of the carburetor of the motor block. It is necessary to remove and clean the carburetor, and then adjust it, if it is provided for by the instruction of the motor block.
A drop in engine power may be caused by a decrease in compression due to wear of the cylinder-piston group, scuffing and scratching of the cylinder and piston, “drooping” in the grooves or breakage of the piston rings. In this case, check the compression by connecting a compression gauge to the plug hole and turning the motor shaft with a starter. Typical compression is characterized by a value not lower than 8 atm (normal compression can be indicated in the engine characteristics). When measuring it, it is necessary to take into account that the presence of a decompressor in the engine may affect the readings of the pressure meter. The value of compression, in this case, is about 5 atm. will mean not a low degree of deterioration of the cylinder-piston group, but the actuation of the decompression valve.The diesel engine does not start. For most users, repairing and adjusting a diesel engine tiller is more difficult than repairing a gasoline tiller. Not so much, perhaps, because of the constructive complexity of the diesel engine, but because of a lack of experience, since household appliances are equipped, as a rule, with gasoline engines.
The most common problems or conditions due to which diesel engines may not start are listed in the table below. A detailed list of malfunctions of diesel engines and how to eliminate them are set out in the operating instructions for specific diesel power tractor units.
- Cylinder head nuts are loose or cylinder head gasket is damaged.
- Worn piston, cylinder liner or piston rings.
- Piston rings jammed or broken.
- Violated the correct valve clearance.
- Valve stem jammed in guide.
- Tighten the cylinder head nuts evenly in a diagonal pattern. Replace cylinder head gasket.
- Replace worn parts.
- Check piston rings, flush or replace.
- Adjust clearance.
- Remove the valve, flush it and the fuel rail.
Malfunction of the clutch itself depends on its type. If the walk-behind tractor has a belt drive that acts as a clutch, slippage may occur if there is oil contamination on the drive belt or pulley, the belt is not tensioned or is too worn. Ways to correct these problems are obvious. clean the transmission elements from dirt, tighten or replace the belt.
In a dry clutch disc, slippage can be caused by oil contamination on the driven and driving discs. It should be removed by washing the disks with gasoline and drying.
Regardless of the type of clutch (dry or oil), slippage of the friction layer of the discs, weakening of the compression spring, absence of a gap between the pressure element and the release bearing can lead to slippage. The nature of the fault determines the method of correction. Worn discs and springs are changed, in case of violation of the gaps in the coupling, the corresponding adjustment of the tiller is carried out.
Clutch does not shut off completely.
In this case, you should also start by checking the tension of the cable from the control stick to the clutch.
The deformation of the friction discs, sticking them on the splines, the inconsistency of the characteristics of the oil poured into the clutch housing with the required parameters can also lead to incomplete clutch disengagement. The latter refers to couplings operating in an oil bath. It is necessary to replace the deformed discs, eliminate the causes of their jamming at the splines, change the oil.
Increased noise in the gearbox.
Noise in the gearbox may occur due to lack of oil in it or inconsistency of its quality with the required parameters. by brand and purity. It is necessary to add oil to the reducer of the motor-block or replace it.
Transmission components may make noise due to the banal not tightening fasteners. Need to view and tighten them.
Most often, noise occurs due to wear of gears and bearings. In this case, they are harbingers of more severe damage. To avoid their help timely repair gearbox tiller, which consists of replacing worn parts.
Not turning on, unplanned shutdown or difficulty switching speeds. These malfunctions can occur for some reasons:
- Due to the deterioration of parts involved in the switching speeds. Usually, there is wear (rolling) of the ends of the gears that turn on, which leads to incomplete switching on and self-switching off of speeds. In this case, it is necessary to disassemble the gearbox of the motor-block and straighten the gear teeth by grinding or, if the wear is too great, replace them.
- Due to the abrasion of the shaft splines, as well as the axial displacement of the shafts due to wear of the bearings and retaining rings. The axial position of the shafts can be adjusted by installing additional stop rings. Excessively worn bearings and rings must be replaced.
- Due to improper adjustment of the clutch, which can lead to difficulty shifting. The clutch is not squeezed (off) to the end. This can also be caused by the inexperience of the operator, releasing the clutch lever when changing gears too early. You need to adjust the clutch and learn how to shift gears correctly.
The gearbox is a rather complicated knot. If the work and the device of the tiller is a complete secret for the user, you should not start repairing it yourself. It is better to entrust this work to those for whom the maintenance and repair of machines is a professional matter.
Transmission nodes are heated.
Among the main causes of this malfunction is the wear of the bearings, an insufficient level of transmission oil in the crankcases, the inconsistency of its condition with the required parameters. Corrective action: replace bearings, add or replace oil.
Oil leaking from gearbox.
This occurs when worn or improperly installed seals of bearing assemblies, loose covers or damaged gaskets under them, clogging of the air valve (breather) oil fill cap, pouring oil into the crankcase above the norm. The leak is eliminated, respectively, by replacing and properly installing the glands, replacing the gaskets and tightening the cap mounting bolts, clearing the breather, and bringing the oil level back to normal.
The instability of the tiller when moving (yaw).
Different pressure in the right and left wheels, uneven tread wear of the tires, improper adjustment of the attachment devices, in particular, the plow, leads to this type of movement of the tiller. In this case, the modification of the tiller should be reduced to equalizing the pressure in the wheels and adjusting the trailing devices. It is also necessary to use tires of the same degree of wear.
The increased vibration of the tiller.
Increased vibration is usually the case with improper adjustment or loosening of attachments (cutters, rotary mowers, etc.). In the event of vibrations, immediately stop the tiller and fix the attachments. fasten the milling cutters or cutting segments of the rotary mower, replace them if they are worn or broken.
The article lists only the most common faults. The practice of operating the tillers abounds with a much broader list of faults. both atypical ones, which are sometimes very difficult to diagnose, and those whose nature and place are beyond doubt.
If it is impossible to eliminate faults of the tiller by yourself, the only option left is to contact the service center for the maintenance and repair of the tillers.