Technical characteristics of the OSB board and harmfulness. for beginner builders
Oriented particle board has appeared on the construction market recently. it replaced the previously popular chipboard. The material has outstanding technical data due to its multilayer structure and special manufacturing technology. To understand the features of the material and the level of its safety will help information with specific numbers.
Accurate knowledge of the technical characteristics of the OSB board and the level of its harmfulness will help to understand how appropriate its use in construction is. The raw materials used in the manufacture of rough chipboard are large-sized wooden chips. It is glued with a waterproof phenol or formaldehyde resin under pressure and at high temperature.
OSB boards are made from large-sized wood shavings
The precursor of this material is particle board. Their main difference is the location of chips in the layers. OSB is characterized by a transverse direction in the inner part and a longitudinal one from the outside. Total layers are three or four with alternating particle directions. This allows you to achieve special strength parameters. As a result, chipboard is gradually replacing the more progressive counterpart.
The chips lying at the base of the oriented plate have a length of 7.5 to 15 cm. The norm of the width and thickness of the internal particles is 1-1.2 cm, 0.5-0.8 mm, respectively. Smaller chips are sifted out and go into the production of less durable chipboard. Pine or aspen are used as raw materials. Modern equipment and the latest technologies allow us to achieve maximum uniformity of the composition of the plate in all directions. High-quality material does not have cracks, voids and chips.
Depending on the strength, manufacturers divide the products into main classes:
- OSB 1. belong to the low class. The scope of their use is dry rooms and structures, which are not given a special load, for example, paneling or furniture.
- OSB 2 is a medium strength class. They can be used both as cladding and for load-bearing structures, but in dry rooms. For example, it can be partitions inside the room.
- OSB 3. high class. Operation under good load and high humidity is possible. Sheathing of the building outside.
- OSB 4. the plate has special strength characteristics: designed for a humid environment and constant intense mechanical stress. Sheathing houses without additional cladding.
In addition to the alphanumeric classification, there are distinguished certain types of oriented particle boards:
- Laminated. additionally treated with laminate components. The characteristics of the OSB board allow it to be successfully used for flooring and furniture manufacturing. Of these, you can make interior partitions, use for formwork several times.
- Grooved. notches and protrusions are applied to the ends of such plates. Driving them into each other, get a tight connection without gaps.
- Varnished. used in the furniture industry.
Video: Than Sawing a DSP Plate Without Chips
The tongue-and-groove plates have recesses and protrusions at the ends for tight connection with each other
The material can be produced both with and without coating. As a facial treatment, paint is used, compounds against moisture and fire, bioprotection.
Knowing the processes of manufacturing oriented particle boards will help to better understand how and where they can be used and what are the advantages of this material. Production Stages:
- 1. The selection of raw materials. At this stage, the trunks of thin-sized non-business tree are sorted.
- 2. Cut. Selected trees are cut into small pieces, which further serve as blanks.
- 3. Shredding. The blanks are placed in a special machine, which crumbles a tree into shavings. It crumbles onto a conveyor belt. The size of the chips can be adjusted depending on which plate you need to get.
- 4. Drying.
- 5. Sorting chips. Small chips are separated from large.
- 6. Bonding. A binder, phenol or isocyanate, is added to the selected chips of the required size. It gives the future building material moisture resistance and strength. Paraffin is added to the mixture, all this is mixed in a special drum.
- 7. Plate formation. The chips are laid in layers along and across. This makes the machine using scales and magnets.
- 8. Pressing. The resulting tape is pressured at 5N / mm2 at high temperature. Elements firmly adhere to each other, it turns out a single plate. After cooling, pieces of the desired size are cut from it.
The range of application of OSB is wide:
- OSB-4, due to its strength and moisture resistance, are used for the construction of frame houses and industrial buildings. From the material, inexpensive temporary housing is obtained.
- The arrangement of internal and external partitions is the best option for an oriented slab. She well holds shelves with heavy objects, shelving, heating radiators.
- Wall materials are sheathed with walls, ceilings and floors during the interior decoration of buildings. A perfectly flat, smooth surface is suitable for plastering, painting, wallpapering.
- A large scope is the furniture industry, the packaging industry. Strength, low price and low weight make oriented chip plates suitable for the manufacture of upholstered and cabinet furniture, shipping containers.
The material is used in combination with both wooden and metal structures.
This material is common in construction making it attractive from the point of view of the builder properties.
Thanks to the large chips in the composition, OSB boards perfectly hold any fasteners
- OSBs are easy to process. in order to work with them, it is enough to have at hand the standard set of tools of a joiner. The plate can be polished, cut, planed, sawed. It will not crumble or break if holes are punched or drilled in it.
- Large chips give a high holding capacity. Due to its content, it is possible to hammer nails into the plate at a distance of six millimeters from the edge. The plate holds well any fasteners without chips. As its fastening, you can use carpentry glue.
- The average density of the slab is 640 kg / m3. This also includes the strength of the material, which depends on the elasticity: