Hand drill and rotor. mechanical drilling devices
- Mechanical drill
A hand drill has the same functions as an electric drill. The article considers the pros and cons of samples.
Mummies: what is it and how to use it?
Drilling work is a necessary companion of all construction projects. For a long time, a drill has been used to get even holes, and various devices have been invented for ease of use. One of them is the rotor, the most common tool that looks like a bent in the form of a staple handle with a cartridge for fixing the drill.
The oldest drilling fixture is the prototype of a mechanical drill.
What it is?
The name of the instrument comes from the ancient Slavic words “kolo”, which means “circle” and “gate”, in translation into modern language. “rotate”, describing the principle of the action of kolovor: rotation around an axis in a circle. According to the principle of rotation, a land drill or ice drill is used, which is used by fishermen when drilling holes for ice fishing. But, although colloquially, these tools are called a rotor, in fact, only a drill can be called that.
The very first drills with a rotary layout were known in Old Egypt for 3000 years before our era.
A tool close to modern outlines was invented in the 15th century. Various craftsmen came up with different types of braids, most of which were never found to be practical, as they were awkward and ineffective to use.
Advantages and disadvantages
Like any instrument, the rotor has its advantages and disadvantages. The main advantage of this device is its simplicity of design, due to which its reliability and durability are created.
Independence from the power supply and a minimum of parts allow the tool to be used in any place and at any ambient temperature, since there is nothing to overheat or freeze there.
The low speed of rotation allows you to work extremely accurately and accurately, to receive recesses of the required depth with an accuracy of mm and to change the angle of drilling.
It also simplifies working with extremely thin drills, which quickly break due to side vibration on high-speed models.
Another advantage of the rotor is its cost, which is significantly lower than the price of a drill and a power tool.
Against the background of these advantages, there are not many shortcomings at all, and they are insignificant:
- a very outdated and low-speed device;
- it’s not always possible to change the cartridge for attaching a workpiece with an unusual shank. for this you need to have several tools with different types of clamps or have interchangeable clamping devices for a certain type of shank.
Device and principle of operation
The simplest rot is a solid bent iron rod with thread applied from the 1st edge to make holes.
In more complicated models, you can change the drill, as there is the possibility of fixing the shank of the cutting part in the hole of the hollow tube from which the tool is made with the help of a side screw. In improved models, the fixation of the working device is done with the help of a cartridge, a special block with an internal cavity of a square or rectangular section or Morse cone.
The modern rot consists of:
- a mushroom-shaped pressure handle mounted on a special bearing so that it remains stationary during operation;
- crankshaft with a handle on the curved part for ease of rotation;
- ratchets for a better distribution of efforts and the ability to work the rotor in places where it is impossible to make a full revolution of the shaft;
- cartridge for fastening the cutting tool.
The chuck used for attaching the cutting part may be a self-centering two-jaw or three-jaw chuck, and a grip is also installed from time to time.
All these clamps are suitable for cylindrical shanks of round, square and hexagonal cross-section. The Morse cone mount is used to clamp cone-shaped shanks. It’s important to keep in mind that if a collet is used for clamping, it will not work to use cutting parts with a shank of a huge diameter. Also, shanks of different diameters require different collets.
Tumblers come with non-replaceable heads and replaceable cartridges. For tools with interchangeable heads, there is a special GOST. 25602-83.
A circle made by a rotary knob around its own axis is called a reach or a swing.
The diameter of the swirl is determined across this range. Tools with a scale of 25 cm are produced, more needed by the craftsmen, but you can also find a device with a reach of 14.7 cm or 30 cm.
If the swing of the rotor does not allow you to make a full revolution, then in this case the ratchet installed in front of the cartridge will help. Having made a revolution as it can be, the handle is returned to its original position and the movement is repeated again and again, and the ratchet does not allow the drill to reverse movement during the return movement of the handle. In the event that a reverse stroke of the tool is required, there is a ring-switch for the direction of travel on the ratchet.
The principle of operation of the rotor is simple: the drill tip is attached to the selected drilling point and fixed with the help of a pressure head, located on a straight line with the cutting part.
After this, the crankshaft begins to rotate around the formed axis, constantly pressing on the push handle. Due to the physical efforts of the working drill during the drilling process, it deepens into the work surface. The speed of operation depends on the speed of the shaft. During operation, it is important to ensure that the rotational axis is a continuation of the drilling direction, so that the drilled channel does not go to the side.
If it is necessary to obtain a through hole in a large workpiece, it is better to create drilling from 2 sides, painstakingly marking the entrance and exit of the drill.
When drilling a part on one side, before exiting, it is worth loosening the pressure on the handle to avoid delamination and breaking off of the edges of the hole when the drill exits. Also, to get a flat edge of the hole for the workpiece, you can slip the board.
For the safety of work, it is important to use only high-quality drills without cracks. If stupid and incorrectly sharpened drills are used, the surface of the hole comes out torn.
An incorrectly fixed drill will result in a hole of another diameter due to the beating of the cutting part.
Also, for safety purposes, it is impossible to hold the rotor with a drill in the direction of the worker, and pressing the push handle is done only by hand.
When working with inventory, there are no troubles with direct and reverse stroke due to the simplicity of the design, it does not depend on the availability of electricity. Due to the low speed of the movement, the ComForten device for clear work.
Where is it used?
Initially, the rotor was used for drilling only on wood, but in the course of technological progress there was a need to obtain even holes in iron and plastic products or parts from other modern c.
At the moment, using a low-speed tool, you can drill an alloy or plastic, getting careful holes without chips or dents along the edge, which sometimes leads to the use of high-speed electric drills. Also, using the rotor, you can get even holes of a huge diameter in products from sheet steel, without violating the shape of the workpiece.
Depending on the nozzle used, the following works can be created with the help of a scoop:
- surface drilling, for which drills of the required diameter are used;
- screwing and unscrewing screws, screws or screws with a bit of a suitable configuration;
- threading with a tap;
- obtaining an external thread on the details of a small diameter using a die;
- making holes for a countersunk bolt (countersink) or raising holes in a part (countersinking);
- the use of locksmith heads complete with an adapter. cardanchik;
- grinding the valves to the seats in the heads of the motor of the car.
This is a list of the main functions of the modern rotor, but with a certain approach, you can pick up some more ideas for using this tool in everyday life in the absence of electricity.
Kolovorot. a tool from the history of electric drill!
Having rummaged in the workshops of our grandfathers, you can still find a special carpentry tool, which can rightly be considered the dad of all electric drills. a rotor.
In order not to confuse it with other types of drills, we will understand together how it looks and what functions it performs.
Kolovorot. a tool of a past era
Like virtually any hand tool replaced by a person invented an electrical analog, the rotor is outdated. But do not rush to throw it away, if you dig out such a relic in your own workshop. the tool has not changed its relevance. The most basic advantage of this drill is work from muscular "traction". He does not need electricity, a battery, but only strong hands.
In appearance, it is the simplest device of 2 parts. a frame and a drill chuck. The frame is bent in 4 places, forming an incomplete square or rectangle. the curved part is a handle, due to which professionals can quite easily rotate the entire structure around their own axis under force.
For convenience, a handle is attached to the top of the frame, which remains stationary when the frame rotates in the hand. Quite often, a drill for the earth in the awareness of users also bears the name rot, but, in fact, only one tool is called that, namely a drill.
There is even a special GOST. 25602-83, dedicated to rotations with interchangeable heads.
If the service life of the device’s frame is virtually unlimited, then the cartridge when it is used intensively becomes unusable quite quickly. The cartridge is a double-sided mount, in which a drill is attached from the 1st edge, and the frame is fixed on the other side.
In more conventional constructions, this tool does not even have a cartridge. instead of it there is an iron cavity adapted to hold the drill shank. All you need to do to get started is to clamp the drill with an ordinary bolt, which is screwed into the socket on the side. If necessary, you can even make a disposable tool by bending a piece of reinforcement or an iron rod in the form of a bracket, one end of which is sharpened like a drill, and the second rests against a wood die with a small depression.
Video: What is the difference between a drill and a rotor
By the way, this tool can be used not only as a drill, but also as a powerful screwdriver.
All that is needed is to do it by pressing with the corresponding configuration under the head of one or another screw. For this option, it’s not a pity to sacrifice an old screwdriver and make an extremely multifunctional tool out of 2 “old men”.
Advantages and disadvantages. throw or leave?
With the flaws, everything seems to be clear. the tool is outdated, it works slowly, you need to apply a lot of forces, while an electric drill will cope with the task in a matter of seconds. But what advantages can a rotor have in front of all punchers, drills and screwdrivers? As was already written above, the most basic advantage of a product is its independence from electricity.
Only your muscles and desire are needed to work.
The second advantage is the ability to drill with extremely small drills and achieve the highest accuracy of work.
In an electric drill, it is extremely simple to break a thin drill due to high revolutions, and it is extremely difficult to brake at the right moment. The hand of professionals in this regard is able to achieve even the most clear results. The low speed of rotation of the drill is not only a drawback, but also a virtue. In electric drills, even the slowest speed can be very fast for your option, when you need to work extremely slowly.
Tool reliability. there is such an unwritten rule that the more difficult the device, the more unreliable it is.
By and large, then, by and large, there’s nothing to do with it, except perhaps a drill. But this will happen even less frequently than when working with an electric drill. The advantages include a very low cost. The combination of all these advantages allows the tool and in our time to find their own fans.
Hand drill. mechanical embodiment of the tool
The second step in the evolution of drills was the emergence of a manual mechanical drill. The design of such a product is extremely simple. a housing with gears that increase the speed of the drill, a handle for gripping and a rotation handle, an emphasis from above and a chuck into which the drill is inserted.
The main difference from its predecessor is the highest speed compared to it.
Mechanical hand drills are even available in both single and dual speeds. In the extreme, it is possible to switch between drilling modes by moving the handle from the 1st drive shaft to another. The lower shaft allows you to work at low speed, and the far shaft provides a very decent higher drilling speed. Single speed hand drills have only one shaft.
The main purpose of this tool is to make holes in wood, plastic, alloy and the rest x, but it can also be used as a screwdriver by inserting a suitable bit into the cartridge.
over, the use of a hand drill is even better than an electric screwdriver in those cases when it is necessary to screw the screws into a soft one
A hand-held power drill is virtually an endless tool. Again, the simplicity of the design is “to blame”. Reliability, low cost and autonomy are another aspect thanks to which almost all buyers choose specifically hand drills for their own home.
Today such an irreplaceable tool of the times of the USSR, like a hand drill, is more likely to be forgotten. This is explained by its substitution with electric drills, which have a number of undeniable advantages.
But, despite the fact that the hand drill has long since moved to the 2nd and even 3rd plan, almost all masters can still find it in the arsenal. For what we need a hand drill, as well as its advantages over a power tool, we will examine further.
Hand drills are also called rotor or mechanical drills. In Soviet times, such a device was an irreplaceable inventory not only during repair work, but also in the household as a whole.
Previously, such a drill was called a rotor, since it was structurally a curved frame with a cartridge for fixing drills.
Improvement of the rotor led to the fact that a hand drill was constructed, structurally consisting of a cartridge, a handle, as well as a gear with gears. The use of such devices in Soviet times was carried out to conduct a number of different works. Now electric tools are used for such work, but nevertheless there are areas where hand-held devices still continue to be popular.
A hand drill allows you to drill holes in wood, concrete, alloy and other x.
The only drawback is the need to rotate the cartridge by hand manually, through the gearbox. Now such products have found their application in screwdriving. Electric screwdrivers are able to cope with this task quickly and simply, but very often there are times when the power of the power tool is simply not enough to screw the screw to the end. A hand drill comes to the rescue, the screwing force of which directly depends on the physical condition of the person.
As before, in modern days, in medicine, a hand drill is the most necessary tool that is used for drilling bones, which is done for the ability to install spokes in them for splicing.
In addition, a mechanical tool has found its application for marking. For marking, different tools can be used, and the rotor, including. In addition, the drilling of existing holes, countersinking and even reaming is carried out with the help of a mechanical tool, so do not rush to throw away the desired type of tool.
Pros and cons of such a drill
Like a power tool, a hand drill also has its advantages and disadvantages. First, you should list the benefits:
Simplicity of design. The simple design of the tool allows you to reduce the cost of the tool, as well as increase reliability.
Modern manual units are made of not so high quality in, as in the days of the USSR. But nevertheless, such a product is difficult to break, and even if some kind of breakdown occurs, it is eliminated quite simply, quickly and independently.
With regards to the shortcomings, the device in question also has them.
- The need to apply physical strength. From time to time, this property is extremely useful, as it allows you to build muscle.
- Large dimensions of the product. Despite the simplicity of the design, the product has a huge size than power tools, which complicates its transportation.
- The big weight of some models. The weight of the tool depends on in, from which the parts of the device are made. If cast iron is used, the mass of the tool reaches 2-3 kg.
What is a
Hand drill and rotor have a slightly different design, but the result is monotonous.
The moment of rotation of the cartridge rotor directly depends on the number of rotational movements by a person. Hand drills, however, are single-speed, and two-speed.
A two-speed manual drill is equipped with 4 gears, the means of which increase the torque when a force of the same magnitude is applied. This property allows you to adjust the drilling speed of the holes, increasing it by 2-4 times in comparison with the rotor. To control the speed, you just need to change the drive shaft, on which the handle is fixed.
Single-speed drills are a simplified version, as they have 2 gears, one of which (large diameter) is the lead, and the second driven.
In such tools, the speed of rotation of the cartridge can only be adjusted manually.
Structurally, a hand tool is:
- from 2 to 4 gears depending on the type of tool;
- a handle that connects to the drive gear shaft;
- cartridge, presented in the form of a collet mechanism;
- additional handle for holding the device;
The working principle of a hand drill is quite simple.
The driving gear, which is several times larger in size than the driven one, is driven by the handle. A different number of teeth on the drive and driven gears allows you to change the torque. The gear torque provides the rotation of the driven gear, which aggressively connects to the tool holder.
Work with a hand drill
When working with a mechanical hand drill, it is important to observe the safety rules when working. Such a tool is the least unsafe, if electrical analogues, but, nevertheless, it is possible to cause irreparable harm to health. When working with the device in question, it is essential to observe the following recommendations:
- A part that is drilled, or into which a fastener is screwed, must be firmly fixed, otherwise you can cause damage to yourself.
- The drill, like on electric tools, tends to bask when drilling, therefore you should not rush to pick it up after finishing work.
- During drilling, it is important to allow the drill to cool, as its excessive overheating can lead to blunting and damage.
- When working with equipment, it is important to wear safety glasses and gloves.
Compliance with simple safety rules when working with a hand drill will eliminate the possibility of severe injuries and damage.
The device and principle of action
There are quite a number of different options for implementing the tool in question.
Rotary hammers mechanical hand drills are characterized by ease of use. The principle of action is as follows:
- Drilling is carried out only in the vertical and less in the horizontal plane.
- In the upper part there is a handle that rotates. In this case, a force is applied in the direction of processing.
- The main working part is made of alloy, represented by a spiral shape.
The design is characterized by universality in application. A manual embodiment with a cartridge has the following device:
- The pressure head is located at the top of the handle, allowing you to apply force in the direction of movement of the tool.
- There is also a central handle, due to which the mechanism is fixed in the required position.
It rotates in its own place, due to which convenient working conditions are provided.
Due to this, it is possible to choose the most suitable position, to carry out the formation of complex surfaces on when using the appropriate nozzle.
It is possible to significantly expand the field of implementation due to a ratchet, which is practically irreplaceable in the case of threading and other similar work.
The electric rotor can be equipped with a two-jaw self-centering cartridge. In some cases, a three-jaw chuck is installed, which allows you to change the diameter depending on the selected nozzle.
A drill differs from a hand-type rotator in that the first tool does not have a reverse function. This point describes the complexity of the work when using a tap and a die, as well as some other nozzles.
When choosing a manual rotor, attention should also be paid to its field of application.
It should be noted that the main value is complete control over the action. The main features are the following:
- If you associate a manual rotting on a tree with a rattle, you should pay attention to the fact that there is an opportunity at any time to stop working. Due to this, it is possible to control the depth with the highest accuracy. This requirement is taken into account when it is necessary to maintain the highest accuracy during operation.
- The main purpose is to form holes in different wood blanks. In addition, it is possible to screw in and out the fastening parts.
A manual drill is also used for this, but its characteristics are somewhat different.
The countersinking process provides for the removal of a small amount from the surface at a certain angle, which approaches the cap of the fasteners.
The above information indicates that manual rotting is very common. An example of its use can be called the creation of holes during winter fishing and some other cases.
Holes are indentations in detail. They can be cross-cutting and deaf. Through holes pass through the entire part (Fig. 33, a). Blind holes do not go outside, but only run to a certain depth (Fig. 33, b)It is generally believed that the openings in the cross section are round. But holes are considered to be recesses of any shape in cross section: round, oval, square, rectangular, hexagonal, etc.
Round holes are simply and accurately drilled by drills.
The most common spiral drill (Fig. 34, a). They are used for drilling various in: metals, wood, plastics. To drill holes in the wood, also use center drills with cutters (Fig. 34, b), screw, auger, spoon, etc. The diameter of the drill (in millimeters) is indicated on its core.
Each drill on its own end part has two cutting edges.
When cutting, wood fibers are cut during cutting, and its particles in the form of shavings come out through the spiked grooves. The tail part of the drill is used for fastening in the chuck of a rotor or a hand drill (Fig. 35). These tools are provided for rotating the drill.
Kolovorot (Fig. 35, a) consists of a stop 1, a rotation knob 2, a Chuck 4, in which the drill 5 is attached.
A drill (Fig. 35, b) consists of a stop 1, a rotation handle 2, a gripping handle 3, a chuck 4, a drill 5. The drill has a gear mechanism that transfers rotation from the handle 2 to the chuck 4, The direction of rotation of the drill must be such, so that its cutting edges cut into the machined and cut the chips.
Before drilling on the plane of the workpiece with a pencil or awl mark the center of the upcoming hole.
Then the drill, attached in the rotor or drill, put at the marked point at right angles to the surface of the workpiece. The palm of the left hand is pressed against the stop of the rotor or drill, and the right hand is rotated the handle clockwise (Fig. 36). Reaping should not be extremely strong, so as not to break the drill. When drilling through holes at the end of drilling, the pressure on the stop is weakened to prevent chipping of the wood at the drill exit from the hole.
A board is traditionally placed under the blank and a clamp is pressed against the workbench.
This allows you to get even edges of the hole at the outlet of the drill and protect the bench cover from damage.