Thanks to improved production, Ni-Cd batteries are used today in most portable electronic devices. Reasonable cost and high performance made the presented variety of batteries popular. Such devices are now widely used in tools, cameras, players, etc. For the battery to last for a long time, you need to learn how to charge Ni-Cd batteries. Adhering to the rules of operation of such devices, you can significantly extend their service life.
To understand how to charge Ni-Cd batteries, you need to familiarize yourself with the features of such devices. They were invented by W. Jungner back in 1899. However, their production was then too costly. Technology has been improved. Today on sale are easy-to-use and relatively inexpensive batteries of nickel-cadmium type.
The presented devices require that the charge occurs quickly, and the discharge is slow. over, the empty capacity of the battery must be performed completely. Recharging is performed by pulse currents. These parameters should be followed throughout the life of the device. Knowing how to charge the Ni-Cd battery with current, you can extend its service life by several years. over, such batteries are operated even in the most difficult conditions. A feature of the presented batteries is the “memory effect". If the battery is not completely discharged periodically, large crystals will form on the plates of its cells. They reduce battery capacity.
To understand how to properly charge Ni-Cd batteries of a screwdriver, camera, camera and other portable devices, you need to familiarize yourself with the technology of this process. It is simple and does not require special knowledge and skills from the user. Even after long periods of storage, the battery can be recharged quickly again. This is one of the advantages of the presented devices, which make them popular.
Nickel-cadmium batteries have a large number of charge and discharge cycles. Depending on the manufacturer and operating conditions, this indicator can reach more than 1 thousand cycles. The advantage of a Ni-Cd battery is its endurance and the ability to work in busy conditions. Even when operating it in the cold, the equipment will work properly. Its capacity under such conditions does not change. At any degree of charge, the battery can be stored for a long time. An important advantage is its low cost.
One of the disadvantages of the presented devices is the fact that the user must learn how to properly charge Ni-Cd batteries. The presented batteries, as mentioned above, have a “memory effect". Therefore, the user should periodically carry out preventive measures to eliminate it.
The energy density of the presented batteries will be slightly lower than other types of autonomous power sources. In addition, in the manufacture of these devices, toxic materials are used that are unsafe for the environment and human health. Disposal of such substances requires additional costs. Therefore, in some countries the use of such batteries is limited.
After storing Ni- Cd batteries for a long time, they require a charge cycle. This is due to the high rate of self-discharge. This is also a disadvantage of their design. However, knowing how to properly charge Ni-Cd batteries, to operate them correctly, you can provide your equipment with an autonomous power source for many years.
Varieties of Chargers
To properly charge the nickel-cadmium type battery, you need to use special equipment. Most often, it comes complete with a battery. If for some reason there is no charger, you can purchase it separately. On sale today are automatic and reversible impulse varieties. Using the first type of device, the user does not need to know to what voltage to charge Ni-Cd batteries. The process is performed automatically. In this case, you can simultaneously charge or discharge up to 4 batteries.
Using a special switch, the device is set to discharge mode. In this case, the color indicator will glow yellow. When this procedure is completed, the device automatically switches to charging mode. The red indicator lights up. When the battery reaches the required capacity, the device will no longer supply current to the battery. In this case, the indicator lights up in green. Reversible chargers belong to the group of professional equipment. They are able to perform several charge and discharge cycles with different durations.
Video: How to Charge an Imax B6 Screwdriver Battery
Special and universal chargers
Many users are interested in the question of how to charge the battery of a Ni- Cd type screwdriver. In this case, a conventional device designed for finger batteries will not work. A special charger is most often supplied with a screwdriver. It should be used when servicing the battery. If there is no charger, you should purchase equipment for the batteries of this type. In this case, it will be possible to charge only the battery of a screwdriver. If in operation there are batteries of various types, it is worth purchasing universal equipment. It will allow serving autonomous energy sources for almost all devices (cameras, screwdrivers and even batteries). For example, it will be able to charge iMAX B6 Ni-Cd batteries. It is a simple and useful household appliance.
Press battery discharge
Pressed Ni-Cd batteries are characterized by their special design. How to charge and discharge the presented devices depends on their internal resistance. This indicator is affected by some design features. For long-term operation of the equipment, disk-type batteries are used. They have flat electrodes of sufficient thickness. During the discharge process, their voltage slowly drops to 1.1 V. This can be checked by plotting the curve.
If the battery continues to be discharged to a value of 1 V, its discharge capacity will be 5-10% of the initial value. If the current is increased to 0.2 C, the voltage decreases significantly. This also applies to battery capacity. This is due to the inability to discharge the mass over the entire surface of the electrode evenly. Therefore, today their thickness is reduced. At the same time, 4 electrodes are present in the design of the disk battery. In this case, they can be discharged with a current of 0.6 C.
Today batteries with cermet electrodes are widely used. They have low resistance and provide high energy performance of the device. The voltage of a charged Ni-Cd battery of this type is held at 1.2 V until 90% of the specified capacity is lost. About 3% of it is lost during a subsequent discharge from 1.1 to 1 V. The presented type of batteries can be discharged with a current of 3-5 C.
Roll type electrodes are installed in cylindrical batteries. They can be discharged with current with higher rates, which is at the level of 7-10 C. The capacity indicator will be maximum at a temperature of 20 ºС. With its increase, this value changes insignificantly. If the temperature drops to 0 ºС and lower, the discharge capacity decreases in direct proportion to the increase in the discharge current. How to charge Ni-Cd batteries, the varieties of which are commercially available, need to be considered in detail.
General charging rules
When charging a nickel-cadmium battery, it is extremely important to limit the excess current flowing to the electrodes. This is necessary due to the growth inside the device at such a pressure process. When charging, oxygen will be released. This affects the current utilization factor, which will decrease. There are certain requirements that explain how to charge Ni-Cd batteries. Process parameters are considered by manufacturers of special equipment. Chargers in the course of their work tell the battery 160% of the nominal capacity value. The temperature range throughout the process should remain in the range from 0 to 40 ºС.
Standard charge mode
Manufacturers must indicate in the instructions how much to charge a Ni-Cd battery and how much current it needs to be done. Most often, the execution mode of this process is standard for most varieties of batteries. If the battery has a voltage of 1 V, it should be charged within 14-16 hours. In this case, the current should be 0.1 C.
In some cases, process characteristics may vary slightly. This is influenced by the design features of the device, as well as the increased active mass tab. This is necessary to increase the battery capacity.
The user may also be interested in how to charge the Ni-Cd battery. In this case, there are two options. In the first case, the current will be constant throughout the process. The second option allows you to charge the battery for a long time without the risk of damage. The scheme involves the use of stepwise or smooth reduction of current. In the first stage, it will significantly exceed the rate of 0.1 C.
There are other methods that accept Ni-Cd batteries. How to charge this type of battery in accelerated mode? There is a whole system. Manufacturers increase the speed of this process through the release of special devices. They can be charged at high current rates. In this case, the device has a special control system. It prevents a strong recharge of the battery. Such a system can have either the battery itself or its charger.
Cylindrical types of devices are charged with a constant current type, the value of which is 0.2 C. The process will last only 6-7 hours. In some cases, it is allowed to charge the battery with a current of 0.3 C for 3-4 hours. In this case, process control is essential. When the procedure is accelerated, the overcharge indicator should be no more than 120-140% of the capacity. There are even batteries that can be fully charged in just 1 hour.
Studying how to charge Ni-Cd batteries, you need to consider the completion of the process. After the current stops flowing to the electrodes, the pressure inside the battery still continues to rise. This process occurs due to the oxidation of hydroxyl ions on the electrodes.
To properly charge a Ni-Cd battery, you must know the rules for setting up the equipment (if provided by the manufacturer). The nominal capacity of the battery must have a charge current of up to 2 C. It is necessary to choose the type of pulse. It can be Normal, Re-Flex or Flex. The sensitivity threshold (pressure reduction) should be 7-10 mV. It is also called Delta Peak. It is best set to a minimum. The swap current must be set in the range of 50-100 mAh. In order to be able to fully use the battery power, you need to perform high current charging. If its maximum power is required, the battery is charged with low current in normal mode. Having considered how to charge Ni-Cd batteries, each user will be able to carry out this process correctly.