Making an opening in a brick wall
The device of openings in the building is one of the stages of design. A number of parameters depend on how well this work will be done. It is important to correctly calculate the position of doors and windows, to strengthen the slabs over them, to determine the appearance and size. It is necessary to make a separate calculation of the area of light openings. This includes not only doors, but also windows, since under this concept we mean natural light from outside the building. In general, performing calculations and installation, you should take as a basis the ratio between the area of light openings and the floor of the room in the proportion from 1:5,5 to 1:8.
Deserves special attention. how to make an opening for a new door in the wall at home. In order to answer it, you should also refer to generally accepted standards GOST and SNIP. Today, despite the popularity of non-standard architectural and design solutions are still based on the basic parameters. Consider what you need to consider in the first place:
- Height. In normal apartments and houses usually cut openings for a door height of 2 meters.
- Width. The standard designation of the width of the door leaf is 70 and 80 cm. For living rooms it is customary to take just such doors, but for the bathroom and toilet you can reduce their width. Entrance doors can be 90 and 100 cm. Note that extra centimetres must be left for the installation of the frame.
- Strengthening. As the notch in the wall leads to a partial loss of its strength in this area, you need to compensate for this factor by redistributing the load from above. To do this you build a lintel or install a jamb. Below we will consider in detail how to perform this work with your own hands.
If you have high ceilings in the house, and you want to create a grand entrance, you can depart from the standards and perform the installation of a more spacious structure, in coordination with the overall design of the building.
Windows. the calling card of the house
There are no houses without windows. They are needed for natural light, ventilation. Outdoor windows are an architectural element and their shape can tell about the style and time of its creation. In the interior there are many ways to turn them into decor.
A warped or loose-fitting frame causes draughts and dampness in the house. Formed condensate creates conditions for appearance of black mold and fungus. It is necessary that the frame fit tightly to the wall, without warps and gaps. The dew created by temperature differences was removed without getting on the walls. The rain did not get inside the window.
Windows. a calling card of the house
There are no houses without windows. They are needed for natural light, ventilation. the outside of the window is an architectural element and the shape can tell you about the style and time of its creation. In the interior there are many ways to turn them into decor.
A warped or loose-fitting frame causes drafts and dampness in the home. The resulting condensation creates conditions for black spots of mold and mildew. It is necessary for the frame to fit tightly to the wall, without warps and gaps. Dew caused by temperature fluctuations can be removed without getting on the walls. The rain did not get inside the window.
The cost of works on
Separate window openings in the walls were not counted when assessing the builders’ work. This construction is considered part of the wall. The same applies to the extension of the window unit. Masonry walls of particleboard from professionals cost from 1200 /m3.
If you need to make the window wider, or a new one in the finished wall, you can order a separate service for cutting (for example, with a diamond wheel). If you have the equipment, it can be done by the builders. Price. from 800 p/m2.
How to cut through a window in a brick wall: preparation and installation
How clichéd it sounds, but people do have different tastes. Some people like to combine everything under a single high ceiling, and the boundaries of functionality to highlight only the color scheme, or limit the furniture, others prefer the walls between the rooms with mandatory doors and almost no locks on each.
Why all this, if we are talking about cutting a window in the wall, you ask? But the problem is that the need to cut through a new window or door arise most often when the new owners carry out redevelopment rooms.
And yet to the cutting
Although it’s easier to plan such things in advance.
The process itself, though seemingly simple, is not so simple. The thing is that many buildings have stood for many years, the components of which the building is built of have risen to a working position, stood. And any rude intervention can lead not only to the excavation of the material, but also to the collapse of the wall.
That is why everything will be done very carefully. First, let’s gather up the material, tools and equipment.
- All levels that are: a building simple and water (water is mandatory for houses of old construction, where due to shrinkage processes, the level of masonry may be far from horizontal), ideally laser level, plumb line;
- The entire mason’s kit (trowel, trowel, mixer attachment for preparing working mixes);
- Measuring tools (tape measure, large angle, folding meter);
- A hammer, chisels of several kinds, scraping if available;
- Peorator and angle grinder with a wheel on the stone (in this case, the angle grinder should be professional with a large wheel), drills for through drilling the wall with pobeditovye or diamond tips;
- Supports for fixing the studs, as well as the studs themselves and boards not less than 50 mm thick for single-level positioning of the supports.
For your information! So affectionately called studs are very far from what we imagine them to be in everyday life. In fact they are quite strong beams, the main purpose of which is to create a supporting structure for a wall in order to prevent collapse at the time of the excavation of the material for the window.
The preparation process is important
Cleaning the wall and marking out the water is the main thing at the preparatory stage.
There are several important steps in this process:
- Stage one is the complete cleaning of the brick wall area from wallpaper, plaster and other types of coating;
- The second step is to mark out the place for the window, the window slab, and the places for the studs to go out.
- Using a hammer and chisel, you must completely clear the brick wall of layers of plaster in the area of the proposed window with the calculation of an additional at least 15 cm around the perimeter from the proposed window, for convenience. You will also need to clear a place for the floor beam and the already mentioned studs.
Please note! At the stage of clearing the wall you will need to think about the size of the window in a brick house. Typically, the size of the windows in the brick houses of the private sector are ordered under the template, all the same, so in this case there will be no problems. Window sizes in a brick khrushchevka may be several types, but considering that the walls there load-bearing to get permission to install another window is quite difficult and almost unrealistic. Therefore, the question: the size of the windows in a brick khrushchevka can be considered only in the context of replacing wooden windows with plastic.
- In the second phase of preparatory work is the marking of places directly under the window, under the floor beam and studs. Here also takes place the inspection and transfer of electrical wiring, if necessary, as well as evaluating the possibility and necessity of summing up the heating radiators. Also, special attention is paid to the state of masonry bricks and if it has a beveled appearance, it may indicate that in this place the structure has the maximum shrinkage and arrange a void here for a window may not be appropriate.
Tip! When drawing a marking on the wall, take into account that if you open the sandwich system, you need to think about further insulation, or at least the sealing of the joint. In other words, it is necessary to calculate the increase of window opening by the width of insulation. And when planning the place under the lintel, you must remember that the structure itself should go in by at least 15.20 cm from the opening into the material.
Work with the wall
Now we proceed to work directly with the wall.
In this case, we carry out the following step by step:
- In a brick wall, through holes are drilled so that the bottom of the brickwork will be on a wooden beam (sometimes metal corners are put between the beam and the brick). The brick is carefully knocked out with a hammer and chisel, so that there are notches with a square cross-section. The work takes place both outside the building and inside, where there is a possibility, the brick is cut with an angle grinder, where this possibility is absent, the body of the brick is drilled, and then knocked out with a hammer and chisel the required size;
- The so-called stud bolts are then installed. The beams are inserted in the tunnels and pushed up by the studs, which are then resting on wooden platforms. When positioning this structure, take into account that the distance from the posts to the wall must be at least 60 cm, they are all levelled and only then are the posts to the posts and the posts to the platforms nailed in the special holes for fixing;
- Now it is necessary to prepare a place under the slab beam. In this case, two techniques are applicable:
- simple, using two channels;
- complicated, using a combined lintel.
- The first technique involves disassembling the bricks, taking into account the previous recommendations under the channels, which are installed on the ribs. And the brick is removed from both the inside and the outside. Holes are drilled in the channel itself, at least 5 for fixing the two fragments to each other with bolts, the same holes are drilled in the remaining layer of brick. And then the channel is bolted. This connection will be quite strong and durable. Fixation of channels in the wall can be made with cement mortar, which can build up the wall in the joints, you can fill with foam concrete, which will be somewhat easier. All further work can be carried out after the channels are fully prepared and the pour has hardened;
- The second technique is more complicated, as it involves the installation of a reinforced concrete structure and metal angle. Reinforced concrete construction can be both ready-made and made by their own hands with the use of reinforcement and cement. The only point to which you should pay attention is that the structure must be prepared in advance. Notch is prepared in the same way as under the channels, the cement beam is placed closer to the inner layer, and the metal corner is taken out, with the corner itself goes to the beam, forming a niche. Since the ceiling consists of different elements, on top of them put on a waterproofing barrier, and then the angle can be exposed insulation or decorative facing brick. But this combined beam can be packed in the same way as the channel. with cement mortar. Ready for further work is performed after the mortar hardens and the partition wall stands still.
When decorating a window opening with concrete lintels, you will encounter two possible options:
In the case of using a prefabricated product should simply close with its help the existing opening in the wall, and then continue masonry wall along its entire length.
Masonry over the opening
Unfortunately, it is not always possible to buy ready-made concrete lintel of the required size, which often happens with non-standard dimensions of a window.
On the other hand, the weight of the finished lintel is often more than 100 kg, so without attracting special lifting equipment you are unlikely to be able to lift it to the desired height. Most performers who do not want to get involved with the rental of lifting mechanisms, prefer the finished product of lintels, made by their own efforts.
In the case of a window opening of non-standard dimensions, the lintel must be made (filled) according to its location. To do this, you will need to do the following typical operations:
- First of all, the masonry surfaces on the sides of the window opening are cleaned of mortar residue;
- After that, their thorough priming is done;
- At the final stage of work on the location of the lintel is mounted formwork.
Taking into account the considerable weight of the ingressed workpiece, as the “bottom” of the formwork, usually fairly strong boards of at least 20mm thick are used. To ensure their reliable fixation in the opening, it is recommended to use special props supported by the bottom edge of the window opening.
Upon completion of these procedures, a thin layer of pre-prepared concrete mixture is poured into the formwork, after which the reinforcing grid is immediately placed there. After that, you can continue pouring the lintel with the subsequent placement of another reinforcement tab in the thickness of the concrete. When dismantling the formwork, keep in mind that it is not always possible to dismantle the lower part of it.
Supports for the formwork
When pouring the lintel yourself, please make sure that concrete does not seep through the formwork boards and that the supports do not sag. At the slightest deformation of its lower part, stop casting and start it again only after the “setting” of the already poured layer.
Installing the lintel
In the design of window openings made of facing brick (so-called facing brickwork) in order to preserve its decorative advantages allowed to use channels (wide metal corners). In this case, the visible part of the purlin will only be on the inside of the load-bearing wall.
Masonry window opening
In this case, on its facade surface should not remain even any visible traces of the presence of the lintel.
What you need to know?
The peculiarity of the window arrangement predetermines the operational purpose of the room. There is sunlight entering the room through the window, but also no barrier to cold and high humidity.
If the installation is carried out improperly, the room will quickly appear damp and mold.
When making the window openings, pay attention to the material used for the walls. For a brick stone or concrete block, the element is made according to the same parameters, but for a house made of logs there are other standards.
Existing restrictions on window opening areas are hardly taken into account by private housing developers. As a rule, owners define window shapes and parameters on the basis of their own wishes. This leads to a situation where the finished window is very small or unreasonably large, accompanied by warping frames, loose fit sashes, the appearance of condensation inside.
The most correct, when the aperture section for a window appears in the process of deriving masonry. This will provide:
- proper installation of the frame;
- reliable fixing of the entire window construction;
- moisture evacuation;
- insulation from extraneous noise;
- decorating the facade walls.
The frame should fit easily into the opening intended for installation of the window. Window sills inside and outside are attached not a thick layer of mortar, a niche is provided for cladding.
Most often PVC window units are installed. It follows that it is reasonable to determine such products under standard sizes, and masonry window aperture from facing brick to adjust to the proposed design simply.
If you decide to order windows to existing openings that do not meet established standards, a custom order will cost you significantly more.
In existing GOST there is a concept. a quarter for a window opening and its presence is mandatory. It represents the ledge on the outside of the wall, made to certain sizes.
Provided a quarter will cover the outside of the gap created by the wall and the window frame, hide the insulation used during installation. The window will be reliably protected from blowing and moisture penetration, the construction will get an attractive.
The method of masonry in the wall of bricks
Let’s consider how the masonry of the window opening with facing brick.
When designing a house and determining the location of windows, the specialist calculates their location, taking into account the size of used brickwork.
The base for the window opening is prepared after the tenth row of brickwork, which guarantees the structure strength and rigidity. After that, arrange a kind of soleplate, laying the brick perpendicular to the centerline of the wall and extending it outward.
The entire perimeter of the side sections are made of a single stone. Inside of the opening section is arranged quarter. It is carried out by the corner of the brick for lining, extending a quarter of its own size. The window frame will receive a kind of support and a full guarantee that it will not fall down. The thermal insulation layer is formed at once and any gaps between the walls and window frames are covered. According to construction standards, such an overhang is maintained according to strict dimensions, otherwise there will be difficulties with the design of the side slopes.
Over the window opening, a metal corner slab is built, and then the brickwork continues again. The outer steel element is slightly sunk into the wall in order to later cover it with a decorative layer.
Install the angle at a distance corresponding to the parameter of the brick, the number of its rows is determined by the type and thickness of masonry. In the wall at the opening edge under the corner is arranged concrete cushion or laid full-bodied brick.
Reinforcements with a steel mesh are made in either variant.
As a slab for the window opening, arranged in the masonry, not only use a steel corner. It is allowed to use I-beam structures, reinforced concrete blocks, lintels made of brick. Each of the options provides for laying on a concrete base.
On each side of the popping-in section in the wall equals half the height of the structure, to which add another fifteen centimeters or more.
How to embed a window blankly
You can lay a window down tightly. In this case, use some appropriate wall material. You can use bricks or blocks of various types.
It is necessary to take into account the material of which the walls are built. If the facade of the house is made of bricks, then the outer layer should also be made of bricks. And it is better to choose a brick that will be as similar to the existing one as possible, in order to hide the place where there was a window before.
Subsequent layers of masonry can be made of other materials, such as foam blocks, which have low thermal conductivity. This is important because the area of the window is still quite large, so it makes sense to make the masonry warm.
How many bricks and materials are needed?
For the dismantling may need tools such as a hammer, trowel, crowbar. The necessary materials include foam plastic, ingredients for mortar (sand, cement), bricks.
The amount of bricks used depends on the size of the window opening and the thickness of the wall. It is better to use red (rough) building material. During the preparatory phase, you can calculate the necessary amount by estimating the dimensions of the space and knowing the area of one brick. Also the amount of material used may vary due to the type of laying.
Is it possible to make a breach in a load bearing wall?
When building a brick house, load-bearing, semi-bearing walls and partitions are built inside. If a load-bearing brick wall is built, the masonry is carried out in 2 rows. Thanks to this, the partition wall can withstand a heavy load and be a reliable support for the house. Therefore, if the decision is made to cut a new aisle in a load-bearing brick wall or increase the existing one, it is important to consider these features and agree on a construction plan with the licensing authority.
For this purpose, a declaration is submitted, after consideration of which a decision is made whether to allow or prohibit the dismantling. In addition to the declaration, you need to provide a copy of your passport, property documents and the original of the technical passport of the house or apartment. Planning is considered legal if the permitting authority issues a document stating that the construction work is not prohibited and that the proposed designs are justified.
How to punch openings in a brick wall?
What are the types?
Punching an opening in the brick wall may be necessary for a variety of reasons. If it is necessary to make an opening for a door, its size is taken into account, which can be standard and non-standard. Depending on the design, a doorway can be of these types:
Sometimes it is also necessary to make a new window in a brick house. In order to properly design and reduce the risk of damage to the brick wall, it is advisable to ask the relevant authorities to calculate the necessary parameters, thanks to which it will be possible to correctly move the opening under the window.
Widening a window opening
Most of Moscow’s housing stock is represented by apartment buildings, which were built back in the last century according to typical designs. Over time, the idea of owners of apartments to what it should meet have changed, but the apartment did not become better from this. The fact is that the standard projects of houses were developed in order to quickly accommodate a huge number of Soviet citizens, and the convenience of housing (and especially architectural extravagances) were not in first place. This is the reason that with the appearance of new opportunities, owners began to arrange remodeling in their apartments en masse.
Expanding a window opening, example of a redevelopment project:
The most popular remodeling measures are the device of a combined bathroom from the bathroom and toilet, combining the kitchen and room into a kitchen-living room and remodeling partitions, but there are also much more interesting remodeling options, one of which we will talk about in this article. expansion of the window opening in the apartment.
To expand the window opening is resorted to in two cases: if the room objectively does not have enough light and the banal desire to have a larger window, for example, to improve the view from the apartment. Since the expansion of the window opening is clearly a redevelopment, it must necessarily be coordinated. Below we will talk about how to do it.
Coordinate the expansion of the window opening
Coordination of redevelopment (including with the expansion of a window opening) in most cases begins with the collection of documents that need to be submitted to the Moscow City Housing Inspectorate to obtain permission to begin repair work. The main documents you will need to submit in any case are the technical passport of the apartment BTE, redevelopment project, certificate of ownership of the apartment and the application.
Documents for redevelopment:
You can try the refusal in court if you believe that it was obtained as a result of an error, the permission for redevelopment will be valid for one year from the date of issuance. If for some reason you do not have time to perform all the work within this period, you can apply for an extension of the permission for redevelopment. You can extend the permit an unlimited number of times, but no more than one month.
In some cases the enlarged window opening can be reinforced by means of steel structures. Since you can not verify the correctness of the reinforcement after finishing the opening, you need to draw up an act of certification of hidden work. These acts are filled out by a representative of the construction company, after which they are signed by a representative of the design organization. The design and construction organizations must have the necessary SRO approvals to complete these documents. In addition, the completion of acts of hidden works should be indicated in the log of the execution of repair work.
Certificate of hidden work:
Once all the work is complete, you will need to report this to the Moscow Housing Inspectorate, which will send an employee to your apartment to participate in the acceptance committee. Also the acceptance of the apartment after the alterations will be attended by the representatives of the construction and design organization (if the communal property was affected, the representative of the building administration).
If all works were performed in accordance with the approved redevelopment project, the owner of the apartment receives a report on the completed redevelopment on the basis of which the changes to the Technical passport of the apartment are made. By the way, an employee of the Technical Inventory Bureau will also visit your apartment for measuring, and only after that the remodeling can be considered completed
An Act of Completed Remodeling:
The expansion of a window opening in houses of various types
This section of our article is more for builders, but the owners of the apartments will not be superfluous to read it for better understanding of what is happening during the repair. As you may have guessed, different types of houses have certain nuances when enlarging a window opening.
For example, in some panel houses, the outer walls are included in the power scheme of the building, so extending the opening unauthorized you risk damaging the reinforcement, which is located in the panel on the perimeter of the window. This is why it is necessary to reinforce a window opening with a metal frame. One of the most popular variants of window opening enlargement is the dismantling of under sill block. But be careful. if your panel house was built after 2006, you can not widen the opening, because the design of these buildings is not designed for such a.
In monolithic houses, very rarely are the outer walls as bearing ones (as well as most of the inner walls), so there is usually no need to reinforce them.
In a brick house, however, the top of the window opening is represented by a concrete lintel that keeps the construction from crumbling. When enlarging a window opening in a brickwork house (for example, if you connect two windows into one) you should first replace the old sill block with a new one and only after that perform the disassembly work.
If you are planning to expand the window opening you will in any case need to develop a project of re-planning which is more than ten years our company specializes in. If you do not have enough time to coordinate redevelopment, then we can offer our services, in addition, we perform physical work on the device new and expansion of existing openings in the bearing walls and partitions. For consultations you can call us or write to us by e-mail.
Every customer cares about the price. How much does our work, you can find out on the site. You can calculate the cost by using a special calculator, here on the site. For all questions concerning the rates and stages of work carried out by our specialists, please contact us by phone listed on the Internet portal “Diam Service.
You can leave a request through the online form and our experts will contact you to clarify the details within an hour!
How to enlarge a window in a brick house
When permission to enlarge window openings is obtained, the question arises as to how to do it.
Increase the window opening, if the technical characteristics allow, you can both in width and height.
If you wish, you can combine two windows, making a panoramic window and thereby increase the view.
In the past they built houses with small window apertures, in order to save heat in the room.
And now the fashion for big windows, sometimes occupying almost the entire area of the wall. You can give your home a modern look by enlarging the windows. Where the size of the new opening will depend on the new layout of the room, the size of the window profile.
And also from where the heating system, heating radiators and so on are located. Most often the batteries are located under the window, so you should consider moving them in advance.
Technical ways to enlarge window openings
There are several ways to enlarge window openings in a brick wall:
- Shock Dynamic Cutting. To punch out the necessary hole using different materials such as a hammermill, an electric hammer and so on. This method is not suitable for everyone, because you need to have great physical stamina to work with these tools. Besides, this method of enlarging a window opening generates a lot of dust, brick chips, and other construction waste. Another important factor indicating the disadvantages of this method is the creation of a lot of noise when using tools. If the house is an apartment building, the neighbors might not like it.
- The most effective tool for enlarging window openings in a brick wall is a modern cutting tool with diamond blades. This method has less noise, dust, and debris than a jackhammer. And the edges of the opening, when using diamond cutting, are more even and accurate.
Whatever tool to expand window openings in the brickwork you do not use, do not forget about personal safety.
When cutting bricks, small splinters fly off and can injure people. Use personal protective equipment to protect you from injury and scratches.
That is, it is desirable to cover the open areas of the body, to avoid injury.
Sequence of steps
- Remove furniture, things that can not be taken out. hermetically packed.
- Also, if possible, cover the walls and floors with foil, this will protect them from dust and dirt.
- Dismantle the old window frame.
- Mark the boundaries of the new opening.
Reinforce the top of the opening before widening the brick wall. This will prevent the collapse of the wall.
For example, you need to expand the opening by half a meter to the left, just take, and cut that piece of wall can not. Because in this case the existing lintel will fall down.
Accordingly, the masonry will collapse and the floor slab will sag. In order to expand the window opening in the brick wall correctly, you should build a new, wider lintel, above the existing.
To install the new lintel, knock out a row of bricks at the top of the opening, a width greater than the size of the proposed opening, about thirty centimeters.
After that, the wall above the opening is reinforced with a special beam, on which all the rows of bricks above the window will be supported.
Thus, we remove the load from the old beam and transfer it further to the brickwork. Then you can already remove the old lintel, and remove the unnecessary part of the wall.
To do this, you can start to widen the opening with the first, or with the second method.
Another important point when working with solid walls. the contractor who will perform the work must have the necessary permits. And also, its specialized shaitan machines.
Execution of the work
Expand the opening by yourself, according to your project, with an angle grinder or a rebounder is categorically not recommended.
Also, you can not hire private professionals who can do the job, probably not worse.
The thing is that when you will coordinate the final layout, you will need to provide admissions contractor, that is, without them you will not agree in the end.
I would like to say that the expansion of the window in a brick wall is best left to professionals.
Do not skimp on your safety. And although, at first glance it seems that increasing the window opening in a brick wall. the case is not difficult, not really so.