How to cut a linoleum around the pipes and under the species
To cut the flooring, there is a huge selection of construction devices. special knives with a number of advantages:
- They work equally effectively with linoleum located either in a vertical or horizontal position;
- There are no difficulties with replacing blades;
- the possibility of obtaining the maximum even possible cut;
- high strength characteristics of the blade;
- high.quality system of fixing blades;
- There are devices with rubberized overlays on handles (preventing slipping).
It is best to cut linoleum at home by using one of the types of special tools:
- Construction knife. The model is a retractable design, where there is the possibility of quick replacement of the cutting canvas. Due to the ideal sharpening, work with linoleum is quite easy. In general, the device is very similar to the stationery knife, only more improved and adapted for cutting the flooring. It can be attributed to the category of universal ones, it is used to fit thin.layer material and thicker coating. The main thing is to monitor the course of the cutting canvas.
- Linoleum cutting knife. This version of the tool has a curved or hook.shaped blade shape. This feature of the cutting element makes it possible to cut any floor covering without much difficulty, including linoleum. It is good to use it not only for cutting a straight seam, but also for cutting curly parts in corner joints.
- Floor.coat. This special device in the market is presented in different design. The version with a disk cutting element is great for cutting linoleum. Fix the canvas in the frame with a handle. A model with a fixed cutting element is also suitable. Such a regular cut can easily make an even edge along the entire length of the material.
How to cut linoleum
Different tools can be used to work with linoleum, depending on the alleged actions. An ideal tool for cutting this material is a special knife in which the cutting surface is made in the form of a hook. With the help of such a knife, without much difficulties, you can cut linoleum of any thickness, as well as carpet coatings. The cut can be both curly or even, which depends on the shape of the room.
Also, for cutting the floor covering, you can use the mounting knife. It has a resemblance to an ordinary stationery knife, but has a thicker blade that allows you to cut linoleum of a large thickness. However, such a knife has a significant drawback. figured cuts are not easy for them to make.
To perform a smooth slice of linoleum, you can use the cutter designed for flooring. The tool allows you to quickly and easily cut large material.
Any of these tools can be easily purchased in construction stores.
In addition to special devices, you can also use improvised tools:
Varieties of linoleum and optimal choice for the balcony
To date, the market has many varieties of linoleum, which have some differences in their chemical formula, however, other operational qualities are quite similar. The main types and varieties of modern types of linoleum include:
- From natural components. A similar type of flooring can be safely laid in the children’s room without fear for its influence on the health of the child, but it is poorly suitable for a balcony or loggia;
- Made on the basis of rubber;
- Made on the basis of PVC.
How to lay linoleum on the balcony with your own hands
Before laying linoleum, you should take care of the flat surface of the base for this material. If the base is a concrete screed, then in this case you can perform high.quality priming the surface with special soils, which will provide high adhesion and the strength of the base. In the case of laying linoleum for a balcony on a wooden floor, it is necessary to first sheathe its base with a plywood or a wood-based slab, which will form a flat mounting site, where the subsequently can be laid out linoleum.
In order to efficiently and quickly lay linoleum on the balcony, you must take care of the presence of the following tools at hand:
- Construction or stationery knife (today in specialized stores you can find special knives for linoleum on sale);
- Roulette or rule with a measuring scale;
- A roller for applying a primer on the surface of the base;
- Construction marker;
- Painting brush or spatula;
- Shock drill.
At the first stage of work, the dismantling of the old flooring should be carried out. After that, construction debris and dust from the surface of the base is removed.
At the next stage, priming with special solutions of the working surface is carried out, for which the roller is used. If the base is uneven and there are significant deformation areas, it is necessary to equip an additional cement screed, after which the surface of the base is also supposed to dry. Most primers provide for the average durability of 1 to 2 days, it is after this time that you can lay linoleum.
The necessary segment of the coating is cut off using a construction knife. Also, metal scissors can be used for this operation, which do a great job with the task. The side of linoleum, which will be laid on the base, should be clean and low.fat.
The working surface of the base is carefully processed using a painting brush or spatula with a construction glue. A pre.prepared segment of the flooring is applied from above and is pressed to the base. For a reliable connection of linoleum with the base, you can take care of the presence of any cargo, however, it should be noted that the pressure should be on the entire area of the floor relatively uniformly.
Linoleum on the balcony is ready for operation after 3-4 days, during which the glue is completely dry, however, this period may vary depending on the brand and manufacturer.
To put a linoleum with your own hands does not represent any difficulties, however, special attention should be paid to accurate calculations and comparing the cut-out segment of the coating with the perimeter of the balcony or loggia. The final stage of laying linoleum should be considered the installation of skirting boards around the perimeter of the room
To do this, with the help of a barcon, a mounting bar is attached to the walls or shock drill on an anchor, on which the decorative baseboard itself is subsequently applied
The final stage of laying linoleum should be considered the installation of skirting boards around the perimeter of the room. To do this, with the help of a barcon, a mounting bar is attached to the walls or shock drill on an anchor, on which the decorative baseboard itself is subsequently applied.
What linoleum is equipped with wooden floors
Any type of linoleum is distinguished from other materials used for finishing, the following positive characteristics. This type of coating is a rather strong, large durable service life, is not moody in care, is not afraid of water and has an acceptable price with a wide variety of colors and textures. And there are quite a lot of types of linoleum, among them it is easy to choose the type of coating that will become optimal in the ratio of price and quality.
|PVC linoleum||An artificially created polymer is used to manufacture this type of coating. The material can have several layers, a different basis or not to have it at all. The thickest version of such a linoleum usually has a foamed base and consists of four layers. Its thickness is at least 4 mm. The lower layer is represented by a foamed vinyl, then the layer strengthens from the fiberglass is coming. PVC layer sets the selected color of the material, and also protects the material from negative effects from the outside. This material is characterized by increased heat and sound insulation characteristics.|
|Rubber||Such linoleum is called “Relin”. This is a multi.layer material with a thickness of about 3 mm. It is made on the basis of bitumen, crushed rubber or rubber. The upper part is represented by thin colored rubber. The material is elastic, not afraid of water.|
|Alcidal||This type of coating can have a thickness of 2 to 5 mm. For manufacture, special pigments, fillers and alkyd resins are used. The material of the racks to abrasion can have different colors, is distinguished by excellent sound and thermal insulation indicators. But in general, this is a fairly fragile look, which can be easily damaged on a break.|
|Colloxilin||Non.base material. In the process of its production, nitrocellulose is used. The coating is characterized by a high degree of resistance to humidity, does not burn, very elastic.|
Of course, linoleum made of PVC is most often used. Compared to other species, it has a relatively low cost, but at the same time differs in high quality indicators.
Different types of polyvinyl chloride linoleum (PVC)
Any type of linoleum can be laid on wooden floors. But still it is recommended to take material with sufficient thickness. If you look at the classification of linoleum, then for use at home it is recommended to purchase a semi.commercial version.
The structure of household polyvinyl chloride linoleum (PVC): a) multi.layer; b) single.layer
When choosing the material, it is important to take into account the conditions of its operation. For example, in rooms with high patency in residential buildings, only a semi.commercial version is laid. everyday life will quickly lose its appearance. But in the bedroom or nursery, the first can be the best solution, especially if there is a desire to save money
In any case, it is not recommended to buy a coating with a thickness of less than 3 mm
But in the bedroom or nursery, the first can be the best solution, especially if there is a desire to save money. In any case, it is not recommended to buy a coating with a thickness of less than 3 mm.
“Good” and “bad” properties
Typically, such coatings are used in the design of residential parts of the house and in the remaining rooms that do not have a heating system lay materials of other types. However, this does not mean that it cannot be laid here. on the contrary, this of all options will be one of the best, not counting a natural tree. It has a lot of advantages:
- Serves for a very long time if it does not violate the conditions for its proper use.
- There is a huge selection of colors.
- Laying the material is very simple, not even having experience to a beginner.
- In addition, nothing will have to be finished.
- He is very durable.
- It is easy to remove the surface.
- Water is not a direct enemy of the coating, if it does not fall directly under it.
- Temperature drops are not afraid of the material and, moreover, there are frost.resistant types.
- The cost of registration will be low.
How to lay sheet vinyl flooring
There are disadvantages, but not particularly critical:
- The base for the floor will have to be prepared. to align.
- Water that falls under the material causes its warping and swelling.
- Heavy objects that have long stood on coating can be pushed by leaving unsteady dents.
All these disadvantages cannot be called too serious to abandon this type of finish. In addition, you can choose different types of linoleum, including the floor on the balcony, and some of them are shown in the photo below.
Frost.resistant linoleum on the balcony
Linoleum is one of the simplest and most universal options, moreover, it is worth noting that a rather economical. But do not forget that the cheapest linoleum is not always of high quality in its kind. Since the temperature constantly fluctuates on the balcony, and it is not rarely shows a negative degree of air, it is best to use frost.resistant linoleum, this will be an excellent option. The usual household here is not suitable for styling.
One of the main positive qualities. it is very easy to lay it, the size of the balcony allows you to easily choose the desired width of the linoleum to lay it with a whole piece and without joints.
Linoleum is easy to care for, it is very easy to wash, and it is also a more profitable material in comparison with the same tiles, since it will be much warmer due to the low thermal conductivity of the material and almost soundless (does not creak and does not clatter).
How to Cut In and Install A Vinyl Floor
One of the disadvantages can be called damage to water, and as a result, bloating of linoleum, and the second. low wear resistance, with poor quality of this coating.
An important fact is that under it you can not put a warm floor spiral. Since Комментарии и мнения владельцев from people are not rare. Who nevertheless tried to put the warm floor under linoleum, and after a couple of months the linoleum was deformed.
Natural or polyvinyl chloride linoleum can be cut through such tools:
Construction knife. has a retractable design, the possibility of changing and hard fixing the cutting canvas. This, in fact, is an improved and adapted version of the retractable stationery knife, which is adapted to the needs of the builders. Great for cutting thick and thin.layer roller materials, but in the working process it is important to correctly follow the course of the knife.
- Linoleum knife for cutting. has a curved or hook.shaped shape of the cutting device. This makes it possible to cut out linoleum, carpet and other soft.type coatings efficiently and quickly. It is perfect to cut a straight seam, and also figured elements in the joints of the angular type.
- Cut for flooring of a floor type. is available in the form of different variations. For linoleum, a design with cutting disk elements is used, which is fixed in a special frame with a handle. You can use a simple cut with a fixed blade, which makes it possible to quickly and quickly cut off the even edge along the total linen length.
In addition, you can note such a tool as edge. It is used when laying natural material when it is required to cut the “broken” edges. In the case of polyvinyl chloride coating, it makes it possible to cut the edges with a fringe, if earlier, unforgivable errors were made during cutting. When selecting working tools, it is necessary to take into account a type of coating that you plan to mount. Household linoleum is characterized by low thickness and density. To cut it out, a simple construction knife is enough. It is better to cut a more expensive semi.total or even natural linoleum with a special knife. This makes it possible to cut a protective tight coating and get the perfect slice.
You will see the visual view of the device above. for a simple level of a simple level. For a finish specialist, it is better to buy better equipment, among manufacturers, you can note the products of Romus, Santul. For construction work, knives from Fit, Bieber and Dzhituls are quite suitable with your own hand.
How to correctly cut roller coatings
To perform work on cutting the linoleum canvas, in addition to the purchased knife, it will be necessary to prepare a square, roulette and a long ruler. To obtain a template, simple paper or cardboard with high density will be required. When working, try not to rush and hold all the measurements more than once. Cut it required by confident movements, making efforts. If necessary, you can draw up a scheme for placement of paintings, and after that they will begin to cut them out according to the calculated parameters. The technology of cutting floor material will be made from this personally:
If the room has the right shape, then the linoleum is pushed close to the wall with overlap and cut off at the place of conjugation.
At the end of the cutting, the material needs to be shifted to one half of the room and remove the working part from dust, abrasive particles and construction waste. After you can start fixing and joining it.
Doking two or more paintings
In order to join two or more paintings, cold welding will be required. You will already learn about how to cut linoleum during styling, and consider the features of fastening. Fixation can be performed by several methods. The adhesive composition, which is applied on the common surface of the floor, will be the most reliable solution.
Double.sided adhesive tape is used for rooms where the degree of fixing stiffness does not play a role or linoleum is a temporary coating for the floor. The adhesive mass is prepared for work according to the instructions on the package.
For application, a spatula is used, and first, fix the linoleum on the wall on a large linen width (from 60 to 70%). The composition needs to be applied to the final surface with wave.shaped movements, and without excess. After the canvas, it is required to gently lower it and ride it with a heavy roller. If there is no such tool, replace it with a simple building level, which is wrapped in a soft cloth.
The surface needs to be thoroughly smoothed through the total area. Similarly act with the second room half. To do with the paintings, it is necessary to glue the tape along the total length and remove the protective coating, and then adhesive mass is applied to the rest. After gluing, the seam is required to roll as best as possible.
If you plan to weld the seams, you need to cut out the groove under filling in.
Before welding, you need to carefully warm up the hair dryer for several minutes, put on the nozzle and insert the cord. You can watch a video above how to cut linoleum when laying a coating in a living room. Pay attention to the sequence of actions when laying a pair-three paintings.
How to choose a tool for cutting linoleum
To correctly cut linoleum into a corridor or any other room, you need to competently approach the choice of a tool. The knife should have:
- Reliable handle. It can be made of metal or wood. The cutting canvas should be made of high.quality and stainless steel.
- Suitable blade. In order to avoid problems when cutting flooring, it is recommended to use a cutting canvas with a thickness of 0.6-1 mm.
- The ability to resist serious loads.
For a quick and convenient passage of the work process, you should understand the whole variety of tools presented on the market. There are products for removing the chamfer, for the cord, various scissors, incisors. For the correct selection of a knife, it is necessary to take into account both the structure and the thickness of a particular material, its individual characteristics.
Linoleum laying should only be carried out on a perfectly even base.
How to put linoleum and prepare the surface for it, not everyone knows. First of all, it needs to be leveled and cleaned of all kinds of pollution. Any cracks or dents need to be thrown and stroke. It is necessary to start laying the material from the wall without batteries, pipes and other elements that complicate the styling. Roll the canvas on the selected wall. Ultimately, you should get 1 or 2 walls with even edges, and there will remain bends on the walls on the other. When laying, it is necessary to leave a gap of 7-10 mm between the canvas and the wall. Free space will allow you to qualitatively align the coating. If there is no such gap, then the linoleum can rise, and the “bubble” will form.
It is best to cut the material on your own using a special construction knife, but you can use the stationery, you will also need a metal ruler to make the strip even. Before you put linoleum and cut it off, it is necessary to check the correctness of its location. The canvas should be laid clearly along the wall, the gap between it and the wall should be no more than 1 cm, otherwise the baseboard may not close it.
Lay out linoleum in the room and leave for a day.
It is most carefully necessary to perform incisions in the places of pipes, on folds and in other problem areas. Proper cutting of the canvas is the main component of the work on the flooring of linoleum.
After cutting, you should have a sheet of material lagging behind the walls by about 5 mm and corresponding to the shape of the room. This needs to take a break in work for 1-2 days, so that the canvas decreases and leve over the floor. If even after this the canvas remains wavy, then it can be leveled with a roller and an industrial hairdryer.
Warm up the bending place evenly and carefully roll the roller. This is a rather complicated job. It is much easier not to allow waves than to remove them.
Next, you can proceed to the installation of skirting boards. They must be attached to the wall, this will allow linoleum to be adjusted. Use screws for fastening.
For fastening, you can use various adhesive compounds, for example, liquid nails. To do this, roll the canvas into a roll to the middle, smear the opened floor surface with glue and glue the material to it. Then the second half of the canvas is glued in the same way. In this case, the flooring must be pressed well, use a spatula or roller for this. However, most experts recommend laying linoleum without additional fixation. This is due to the fact that if it is necessary to dismantle the flooring, it will be easier to perform it. The service life of domestic linoleum is not too long, so there is a high probability that you will have to put linoleum again after a short period of time.
This is interesting: how to make wet styling 2021
Now you know how to properly put linoleum with your own hands in order to achieve the best result. Perform this simple procedure carefully and accurately, and your gender will delight you with its appearance and quality. In the next article. what gaps to leave when laying linoleum between it and the wall.
Linoleum, especially modern, is cut quite simply familiar and inexpensive tools. However, for successful work, you will need knowledge of the simple rules listed above, and there should be no problems at all. In the presented video in this article you will find additional information on this topic.”Width =” 640 ″ Height = “360 ″ Frameborder =” 0 ″ AllowFullScreen = “AllowFullScreen”
As a result of the edge of the sheets, in addition, the drawing on the front side continues smoothly and the transition is practically not visible. This is the best suited to the requirements of cold welding, which is used to glue the locations of the rolls and linoleum sheets.
How many linoleum to buy?
Before purchasing linoleum, it is necessary to measure the room, make sure that the opposite walls have the same length (otherwise, focus on the size of a larger wall and add another 5-7 cm to them), in the presence of niches (see. Also an article by a niche for the TV with your own hands) Take a measured from the deepest point of the niche. If the room has a complex shape, it is sometimes more profitable to put linoleum on a concrete floor not with a whole piece, but to join a few. In this case, you need to first fulfill the plan for cutting linoleum with your own hands and it is better to choose a plain or abstract pattern so that there are no problems with its combination.
Linoleum is produced in rolls of different widths, up to 5 m, in a half meter step, you need to choose a width most close to the width of the room, but not less. The length can correspond to the length of the room with an accuracy of a centimeter (taking into account the niches), but it is better to add 5-7 cm to a cut. Thus, for a room with a width of 3.3 m and a length of 5 m, you need to buy and lay linoleum with a width of 3.5 m, 5.05 m long.
We advise you to read the article about the leveling of the floor for laying the laminate. Article
Rules of cutting
When laying floor coverings from PVC and not only use a different tool for cutting linoleum. It can be a simple stationery or kitchen knife, a construction knife, a carpet knife, a special cut for flooring and other devices.
Advice! If you are not a professional installer of floor materials and not a gap at a construction site, you should not buy expensive cutting devices, just purchase a good construction knife or knife for linoleum, since the efficiency and cost of special tools are justified only for large volumes of work and constant use.
Of course, what is better to cut linoleum, determines each installer based on specific conditions and features of work, material and its skills, preferences and experience, but knowledge of the assortment of available means and methods of cutting has not yet interfered with anyone.
Long.line straight cutting
If you have to cut off a piece of the roll along the entire length or width, then the instructions for such work are very simple: you note on the wrong or front side a fishing line for a trimmer along which you need to make a cut, apply a ruler to it and cut the material using a knife or other Carrier suitable for such work.
Using a curve knife for linoleum, you can do without a ruler, cutting right on weight. But for this it is better to have a full hand and some experience. In any case, be as attentive and careful as possible, rush and neglect may cost you extra money and labor.
Advice! If you have a right shape (square or rectangle) and are not very large, you may not suffer and order linoleum in a cut. Such a service is in most building supermarkets, often its cost is small or even zero at all.
If your room contains elements of irregular shapes, roundness, biases, columns, pipes, bends, etc.D., Then you have a complex pattern of material for the floor.
The contours of such lines are transferred to coating using a pattern, stencil or “by eye”, and then along this line they cut with scissors or knife, but in our opinion it is still more convenient to use scissors, especially for inexperienced installers.
Advice! Before cutting linoleum under the columns and bends, you should carefully measure these elements and accurately transfer their contours to the material or plywood pattern, so that after the cut the sheet will repeat all the bends as accurately as possible. Then the floor in the room will look especially impressive and harmonious.
Ugan, the most sore topic: docking of sheets among themselves. The general type of coating and the beauty of your gender directly depends on the quality of the seams and joints, so it is better to take this issue with special attention.
In fact, everything is very simple. The joined sheets are placed on the floor with a pattern up, the coincidences of patterns are achieved by shifting the sheets relative to each other, then make a small overlap (1. 2 cm), press the place of overlap with a ruler and cut both layers of material under the ruler, as shown in the photo above.
Linoleum, especially modern, is cut quite simply familiar and inexpensive tools. However, for successful work, you will need knowledge of the simple rules listed above, and there should be no problems at all. In the presented video in this article you will find additional information on this topic.”Width =” 640 “Height =” 360 “Frameborder =” 0 “AllowFullScreen =” AllowFullScreen “
As a result of the edge of the sheets, in addition, the drawing on the front side continues smoothly and the transition is practically not visible. This is the best suited to the requirements of cold welding, which is used to glue the locations of the rolls and linoleum sheets.
How to cut linoleum when laying in a room.
Linoleum trimming is perhaps the most difficult moment when laying it in the apartment. We have to lay linoleum in Donetsk in almost every object, only in different volumes. Somewhere we steel it only on loggia or balcony, and in some cases we cover the whole apartment. What is important to remember when laying linoleum.
When you roll the linoleum roll, it is necessary to ensure that sharp corners and fractures do not form, in order not to get deformations or, especially dangerous, cracks. The most susceptible to such risks linoleum, the thickness of which does not exceed 2.5 mm., and a layer of protective coating is less than 0.2 mm.
After you spread the roll in the room and leveled it along the walls, you need to cut off the extra overlap with such a calculation that there are about 10 cm left.(possible and less). Then it is necessary to cut the linoleum in the corners, pre.pressing the linoleum in the corner to the floor. Next, linoleum must be pressed to the wall as tightly and cut off with a painting knife, after each cut, checking the done. After you cut the linoleum around the entire perimeter of the room, you need to carefully view everything and cut off the overlap on the walls with ordinary scissors. The distance between the wall and the edge of the linoleum should be approximately 3. 5 mm.
How to cut it correctly?
To correctly cut linoleum, you need to follow certain rules that will help to achieve an excellent result.
Linoleum preparation for work. After buying the material, the roll should be left in a detailed form for 24 hours. The temperature in the apartment should be at least 10 degrees so that the product does not deform. The width of standard rolls consists of 150. 400 cm, so when buying it is recommended to choose an option with a width with a room and an additional margin of 8 cm. To make linoleum laying, tools such as: a ruler or a square, a pencil, a spatula with Zazubins and a knife. Cut off each side is carried out with a allowance of 6-7 cm, which will adjust or cut the drawing if necessary
- After leveling, the coating is laid on the floor and must be fitted. In the case of a perfectly flat room without the presence of elements that require additional incisions, the material does not need to be adjusted, or you can immediately start finishing the trim.
- To simplify the fitting of angles at 45 degrees, it is recommended to use a special line of the square, which allows you to create the most accurate and even cutting of the material.
- If the drawing is complex or in the form of an ornament, then linoleum is allowed to cut only from the front side.
- It is necessary to start the process of work from the window.
- The joints should be almost invisible, then the whole canvas will look like a single composition.
On the floor
The base in the form of linoleum is perfect for any carpet, but only on the quality of its styling depends on how smoothly and beautiful it will look on the floor.
There are some nuances of working with linoleum on the floor, the essence of which is as follows:
- The roll is laid in such a way that one edge is tightly fitting to the wall, and the second unfolds on it.
- The coating should be straightened to create a clear fishing line for the trimmer of the cut. As an option for accuracy, the level is used that press the coating against the wall, leaving a small gap to pass the knife blade.
On the wall
When carrying out the workflow with linoleum in an upright position, it is necessary to take into account the fact that the walls often have obvious irregularities.
Following a few simple rules, you can easily fulfill any incision:
- So that it has a neat look, it is worth using a special cutter with a durable blade.
- The maximum allowable gap can be no more than 1 cm so that there are no problems with the installation of skirting boards in the future.
How to choose the right?
When choosing, you should take into account the glazing of the balcony, the insulation of the walls and gender. The less security in all respects, the more carefully approached the choice of material: choosing the most unpretentious.
Attention: under linoleum itself, you cannot lay warm floors. This will lead to deformation of the flooring after a short period of time.
For an open balcony, it is better to choose a rough coating to avoid sliding. You need to pay attention to the presence of new linoleum of irregularities and stratification. The fault of this is the factory marriage or incorrect storage. Such material will not last long.
Existing types of linoleum
Polyvinyl chloride linoleum is the most popular among the rest, as it has the greatest strength.
As a rule, the main division is carried out by the types of materials that are used in the manufacture of. So, there are several main types of this building material:
At the moment, the polyvinyl chloride type of material is in great demand.
How to prepare the balcony and linoleum to lay down on the floor.
Before laying the selected type of structure, you need to carefully prepare the floor. Of course, the dismantling of the previous coating and a thorough check of the floor surface for any flaws are necessary. If too many irregularities are on the floor, you must definitely make a concrete screed.
Linoleum behaves perfectly on the flat floor surface. However, if you lay it on an uneven floor, it will quickly fail. Depending on the purpose, it is worth connecting the technology of warm floors. If the balcony is closed, then before laying this component, you need to mount a special flat roll with wires into a concrete screed that will heat the floor. As a rule, after a concrete screed, you need to give the floor to dry for several days, and then carry out finish finishing work. a primer. a primer.