Posted by admin-hm on 09.28.2010 · updated 12.03.2012
Since courses and study circles for cutting and sewing still exist, then there are still people who want to sew on typewriters. I do not know how much time is devoted to studying the material part, that is, the machine, in these courses, but, in my opinion, it is too small, since knowledge of this material part leaves much to be desired. Therefore, I would like to talk about machines of past years of production in this material, which is a continuation of the story about sewing machines of the Podolsk factory, published in the almanac No. 5 for 1999.
It is known that in the field sewing machine repair masters It is not easy to gain fame and respect. often you hear from car owners this: "That’s while the master was. the machine sewed, the master left. and the machine stopped sewing". They themselves don’t know how to put the needle correctly, but the machine is not some kind of mythical machine that automatically solves all problems, you need to be able to sew on the machine. In addition, you need to know her. What then to expect from the owners of modern cars, which are much more complicated than the old ones ?! I know of cases where a home-grown techie who failed to fix the machine, with fury, banged it on the floor. Former workers at factories and ateliers, who always had a handyman at hand, had a low level of knowledge. In the transition to individual sewing at home, everyone who sews is forced to become an adjuster. Thus, we brought you to the idea that working on a typewriter needs to be learned!
So, here is the machine of the Podolsk plant of past years (or similar). You decided to sew, say, a skirt. Where to begin? The machine is oiled, cleaned and when scrolling without threads emits a loud sound without sharp knocks and rumble. After winding the thread on the bobbin from the spool or bobbin that will be left at the top, you put the bobbin with thread into the bobbin case, wind the end of the thread under the pressure plate and try how the thread is pulled. If this process is jerky, try replacing the bobbin or saw off a little of the edge of the sides. When the bobbin (now working!) Is inserted into the bobbin case, and the cap is inserted into the hook with a slight click, and when the lower thread is raised up under the presser foot, pull the thread by the end again, again checking how it is pulled. Usually everything is fine. But if the thread does not go, then this is due to the fact that the bobbin is pinched between the bottom of the hook and the bobbin case. In this case, try to file the bobbin hub on one side with a file or rub it against the abrasive. It is not forbidden to file both sides of the hub. there will be no trouble.
Then we lay the top thread. Here, attention should be paid to the degree of pinching it in the plates of the tension unit with the foot lowered (when the foot is raised, the thread in the tension unit is released). If the thread between the plates passes with difficulty and even breaks at the same time, you need a round nut located on the bearing rod of the tension unit (it is there alone) "scroll" counterclockwise at least one revolution. Normal tension of the upper thread is achieved later, with trial sewing. (We will talk more about the tensioning unit below). From the tensioning unit, the thread goes into the eye of the thread take-up, then through a spiral ring on the front plate, then it is put into the guide hook near the needle itself, and then they are inserted into the needle’s eye. The needle of the 2M or PM3 machine is set flat on the cone to the left, and a long groove on the needle shaft. to the right. Pulling the end of the upper thread of centimeters by 8. 10 from the needle and holding it with his left hand, we make one revolution with the flywheel of the machine. In this case, the needle drops down and rises again, capturing the lower thread. If the latter did not appear under the foot, press a piece of fabric with the foot and again make one revolution with the handwheel. If the machine is working. the lower thread will be lifted. Taking both threads away from you (they are under the raised foot), check the quality of the stitch on the trial flap of fabric, lowering, of course, the foot. Having carried out manually two or three stitches, it is not forbidden to sew further using the drive.
What line can turn out is shown in fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Stitching options (with normally adjusted lower thread tension): a. the upper thread is too tight; b. the upper thread is too loose; in. normal line
Our further conclusions are based on the fact that the tension of the lower thread is adjusted normally, as described in a previous article. So, in fig. 1, and there is too much pinching of the upper thread. The round nut on the tension unit should be rotated counterclockwise until the threads begin to weave in the middle of the stitched materials. In fig. 1b, the already slight pinching of the upper thread is evident. The nut of the tension unit will have to be rotated clockwise until the threads begin to weave in the middle of the fabrics. In normal weaving of threads, when the weaving unit is between the fabrics (Fig. 1, c), the lower thread is viewed from above in the form of small dots, among the dashed stitches of the upper, and the upper thread is visible with dots from below, among the dashed lines of the lower thread. Remember, only having achieved a good line, you can start sewing the coveted skirt.
Video: How To Lubricate A Husqvarna Viking Sewing Machine
I will add to the above that not always tightening the nut at the tension unit leads to the desired result. Then you will have to partially sort through this assembly: remove the nut, conical spring and curly washer with a jumper from it (you can not disassemble further). Then, with a small screwdriver, they check whether the pusher located inside the supporting rod easily walks. If it moves freely, try to remove it and file off the head with a file at least half a millimeter. If this does not help, you will have to bend the jumper of the curly washer in the convex side (out), also at least half a millimeter.
It happens when the foot is raised, the thread is not released. There is either improper assembly of the tension unit, or there is no pusher. Owners of cars do not react particularly actively to this malfunction, as well as to a malfunction of the compensation spring located here. With such malfunctions, the machine continues to sew, however, when visiting the wizard, they must be eliminated.
Fig. 2. Tension unit of the upper thread: 1. adjusting nut; 2. pressure spring; 3. curly washer; 4. clamping plates; 5. compensation spring; 6. front plate; 7. foot lift lever; 8. stock; 9. bearing rod; a. rod protrusion
In case of insufficient lifting, the tabs are removed from the front plate (see Fig. 2), the screw on the stem bracket is removed with a screwdriver (Fig. 3), the stem with the tab is lifted and the latter is installed exactly along the rail, the screw is fixed again. Be sure to check whether there is a free play on the lever for raising the presser foot when it is in the lowered position, i.e. "hanging out" whether the lever is in this position. If not. the bracket is lifted until a free play at the named lever appears.
Fig. 3. Foot assembly: 1. tubular nut; 2. spring; 3. screw; 4. foot lever; 5. foot
It is also necessary to monitor the sharpness of the needle, which, if necessary, is not very difficult to sharpen.
Why do I have to dwell on such seemingly trifles? Yes, just because they do not know them, and somehow they do not want to know. And there are hundreds of these little things. For example, in the book of A.I. Zyuzin gives 59 reasons for the breakage of the upper thread. Immediately thought, it would be nice if Alexander Ivanovich found another reason, well, for good measure. But this figure should not plunge us into gloom, if only because these reasons are embedded in machines of all designs.
And now a little more about adjusting the foot. Perhaps no one adjusts its pressure, although a tubular nut is provided for this, screwing it in, you can increase the pressure on the stitched material and vice versa. And she, poor, so "sat up"that you can hardly touch it not only by hand, with pliers (see Fig. 3).
Knock in the car
Often, for no apparent reason, a rather strong knock appears when the machine is operating. One of the reasons for the malfunction. the gap that appears between the bushings of the main shaft. It is very easy to identify the gap, for which it is enough to pull the flywheel along the axis of the machine, but to eliminate this defect, you will need to seriously disassemble the machine, during which you will have to:
Fig. 4. Friction unit: 1. machine body; 2. the main shaft; 3. flywheel; 4. conical hairpin; 5. friction figured washer; 6. curly nut; 7. stop screw; 8. sleeve
Next, the assembly is assembled in the reverse order, observing the relative position of the sleeve and the shaft. When hammering the pin, constantly check the ease of rotation of the shaft. If you feel additional force when turning the shaft, then the stud is not buried further, and the protruding end of the stud, if it remains, is cut off. Usually one washer to remove the gap is enough.
Of course, a knock may occur in the machine for another reason, for example, when the toothed rack, going up, hits the needle plate. This knock can be stopped by turning 180 ° around the axis of the finger in the lower head of the connecting rod of the gear rack drive "back and forth".
A knock in the hook also arises from too large a gap between the ends of the push rod and the shuttle itself. In this case, be sure to check whether the end of the cushioning plate that the pusher is equipped with has broken. It happens that it is completely absent.
What to do when the upper thread does not pull up the lower one?
This happens when unacceptably large gaps appear in the machine, for example, in the lower head of the connecting rod at the place of attachment to the short intermediate roller. Then you need to release the lock nut, use a screwdriver to adjust the necessary joint, eliminating the excessive clearance, but also not allowing "jamming". In addition, it is necessary to establish the same gaps in all the rollers located under the platform. I met cars that were sewn very badly as a result of factory marriage. The fact is that the shuttle pusher and the backstage crank on the shuttle drive roller are unregulated, rigidly connected. And when installed at the factory, they are not mounted correctly, so either the shuttle does not reach the desired point in the upper position of the nozzle (the shuttle run is not sufficient), or it goes too far (too big run). The actual situation is established by slowly turning the flywheel and observing the shuttle with the clamping ring removed. It is bad when the shuttle nose stops too close to the needle (at a distance of 1 mm or less), and goes far beyond it (by 4 mm or more). In both cases, the machine sews very poorly. The correct and incorrect shuttle positions are shown in fig. 5. Such a marriage can be eliminated, but we will have to work here (Fig. 6). In the repair process will have:
Fig. 5. Run of the shuttle nose for the needle (when the needle is in the lowest position): a. insufficient; b. normal; in. too big
Now we have an adjustable shuttle rotation unit, which allows you to install the shuttle nose in the desired location. Just make sure that the newly installed screws do not interfere with the rotation of the crank during operation.
Fig. 6. Shuttle rotation unit: 1. pusher; 2. platform cars; 3. shuttle drive shaft; 4. hairpin; 5. crank backstage; 6. screw hole (new)
Some require adjusting the machine so that it sews with one thread and one needle both silk and leather. It’s impossible. the machine must be adjusted to each type of stitched materials. And I must warn you that when dealing with a typewriter, be extremely careful, because, due to the slightest trifling seemingly malfunction, the typewriter can stop sewing. I once had to rack my brains for a long time: why is the upper thread torn? The reasons for this. well, no! It turns out that on this machine patterns were embroidered for more than forty years and a real gap was cut through the decorative needle thread on the needle hook, in which the thread sometimes got stuck and torn.