How to Increase RPM on a Circular Saw
All modern motherboards allow you to monitor and control the cooling system. This is done with the help of special drivers that come with your notebook. If the motherboard installed on your PC has this feature, you can overclock the fan through the BIOS. To do it in the following way:
- Enter the BIOS environment. To do this press the Del key on the keyboard during the boot of the operating system. Key to enter BIOS may be different (for example F12 or F9). This depends on the company that made your motherboard.
- Open the Power section and go to Hardware Monitor.
- Set the required fan speed (specified as a percentage of maximum capacity) or select the Intelligent cooling mode.
- Save your changes and exit the BIOS.
The Hardware Monitor may look different in different BIOS versions. However, knowing what to look for, you should have no problem making the necessary adjustments:
- set the fan speed on the CPU Min line.FAN speed (CPU FAN speed or CPU FAN Control);
- The activation of intelligent work of the cooling system is triggered by the item CPU Q-Fan Control (it is necessary to set the Enable value);
- the line CPU Fan Profile is responsible for selecting the intellectual mode. Here you can select one of four modes: Silent (preferring quiet operation of the cooler), Standard (the fan will work at 50% of its power), Turbo or Performance (overclocking is performed at maximum power);
- the line CPU Temperature specifies the processor temperature which the cooling system will try to maintain.
Video card fan regulation
Experienced users and especially gamers sooner or later come to the decision to adjust not only the speed of rotation on the processor, but also want to fine-tune the work of the video card cooler.
To begin with, let’s define what will influence the speed of the cooler:
- The higher, the more noise emits a notebook during operation, the faster discharges (slightly), but at the same time, the temperature of the CPU and the system as a whole is lower, and thus less freezes and slowdowns due to trotling (reducing CPU frequency to reduce the temperature load). Used power supply circuitry High performance.
- The lower it is, the quieter the notebook works, the slower the battery drains, but at high loads there is a possibility of overheating the device. Power scheme in use Power saving circuitry.
It is recommended to overclock CPU only if you have cleaned coolers and filters from dust and debris as well as replaced thermal paste on all key points: Processor, graphic card, north and south axes.
In most cases, cleaning the cooling system and replacing the thermo-intake solves the problem of overheating and trotting. But if these manipulations are difficult to perform due to the difficulty of disassembly or warranty of the laptop (which prohibits disassembling the device), it is better to speed up the cooler to get the desired cooling.
Cool’n’Quiet Technology by AMD
AMD developed Cool’n’Quiet technology is Intel’s answer to the old problem of heat and noise produced by cooling system. New technology intended to reduce power consumption and noise emission is used in all modern AMD mainboard chipsets for processors. CPU fan and other attached to the motherboard cooling fans will only increase speed when the temperature is rising, and they may even shut down when there is no load.
Recall that AMD platforms are usually also equipped with D.O.T. (Dynamic Overclocking Technology) with maximum automated overclocking of 10%.
Let’s also note that each chipset and motherboard manufacturer for this or that platform brings its own additional technologies to support such solutions to reduce the noise from computers.
How to increase fan speed on your notebook
If you are an active user of your laptop, sooner or later (and in the hot summer for sure) you will face the problem of its overheating. It turns out that the default settings of notebooks initially overclock the fans of the cooling system to only 30-50% of their power, saving energy for other devices. Therefore, you can make the coolers work faster on your own: using BIOS or special programs (SpeedFan, AMD OverDrive, Riva Tuner).
BIOS. If your motherboard supports cooler adjustment you don’t have to install any programs, but just change something in the BIOS-menu settings. Just open it (usually by pressing the “Del” key when you turn on your notebook), go to “POWER” and look for “HW Monitor configuration”.
Here we search for the option responsible for the fan speed. look for the word “Fan” as it has different names in different notebook models. Find it, press “Enter”, then select “Enable” and the “Profile” line. From the appeared speed modes choose “Performance” or “Turbo”, which will make the coolers work at maximum. Now save your new settings and leave BIOS.
After that notebook will reboot and will work with the maximum cooling.
SpeedFan. Quite effective, free, simple and therefore popular software for cooler adjustment. After installing and running the application first of all study the temperature readings of the devices of our laptop. Where they are “over the top”, using the “up” button adjust the speed of the cooler blades, responsible for cooling these devices. The program allows you to control 6 coolers, but it all depends on the laptop model. in most notebooks there are only 3 (for the processor, graphics card and hard drive). When the temperature returns to normal, simply minimize the program window without closing it.
AMD OverDrive. This utility is good for those who also have AMD processor. Here after loading the program look for item “Fan Control”, submenu “Performance Control” and with the help of sliders adjust required power of fans. Fix the changes with the “Apply” button. Then we need the button “Preferences” and the item “Settings”. There we tick “Apply my last settings”, click “OK” and close the program. Now it will automatically “tune” the notebook coolers after each power on.
Is it worth to buy
It is not difficult to buy the linings. Various types are available for sale, they differ in the wood used, the color, the texture, the shape of the outer surface, so you can choose the material that is ideal for any project. For all that, the linings have a significant disadvantage. a high price.
Intending to make a major repair, it would not be out of place to consider the option of independent production of paneling. It is worth noting that even the simplest machine of this type will have a high price, and before you decide to buy it, it is necessary to evaluate its profitability.
Need in the home workshop such a machine or not. to decide the master himself, you can only give a few arguments in favor of the purchase:
- The production of cladding in the home workshop will allow you to save a significant amount of money on building material;
- The products made by their own hands will be known to be of higher quality than similar products on sale;
- the machine can be source of additional income due to the significant difference in price between the edged boards and the finished lining boards.
Also, do not forget that this machine is multi-functional. its scope of application is not limited to the production of linings. With its help, you can make a number of other profiled wood products, among others: platbands, skirting boards, shaped laths for all kinds of frames.
Circular saw attachments
Desktop circular saw, how to get the best performance from it? Using a variety of attachments and accessories can make working on a circular saw safer, get precise cuts, reliable spikes, cut precisely wall panels and more. Continue reading →
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Every carpenter often wonders how to get a clean cut in wood and at different angles without having a coping saw, but only with a manual circular saw. In this article, see how to start cutting and sawing at an angle on wide boards. The first and most important prerequisite is that the board must be robust
Tags: saw blade clean cut, boards, wood saw blade for clean cut, cutting
Learn how a handheld circular saw quickly and accurately cuts long strips on a board or plywood. Plus, shown is a fixture in the diagram that will help with making laths and easy saw cuts. Even if your woodworking machine has a solid board Continued reading →
Tags: fixture, handheld, circular, circular with guide
The circular saw and skids hold the parts firmly, safely, at different angles to the saw blade and makes precise cuts. To make these skids is not difficult, they consist of a base and a stop, instead of a metal profile, have a wooden, uncomplicated in the manufacture of T-profile. Note: To ensure cutting accuracy, first adjust the slide parallel to the saw blade.
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The comb attachment is often not on all stationary machines. Not all machines have a slot parallel to the router or saw blade in which to conveniently place the end fixture. Or press the comb. stop to the surface of the table, other auxiliary devices. The fact that my milling table does not have a similar slot, made me find Continue reading →
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The circular saw fixture presented in this article joins the dining table, chairs and some other common design elements have one of the most noticeable features. tapered (conical) legs. Cut a contraction, as on a template, will help a fixture that requires almost no auxiliary parts. The solution to this splicing is a sheet of plywood or particle board, which holds the workpiece leg at a chosen angle in relation to the saw blade. Continue reading →
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In this article we will look at the offer of a circular saw as a planer machine. The bottom line is that when splicing wooden parts or when there is not a high requirement for the jointered parts, the role of the jointer can freely perform the circular saw. An uncomplicated fixture, the skids, can serve as an aid in this. Continue reading →
Tags: fixture, thicknesser, guide rail, circular saw table, jointer, filleting machine, circular saw
To make a crosscutting attachment to the circular saw in your workshop is not difficult, having in your hand a steel rod, a length of 250 mm, 6 mm thick and 18 mm wide. Such a fixture will help cut the ends of workpieces on the circular table at different angles. The first thing is to make a slot (groove) for the full length of the circular saw table, the depth and width of the slot (groove) must match the dimensions Continue reading →
SIMPLE JIG! Turns Table Saw into a jointer! Flatten Stock!!!
Tags: fixture, fixture for the circular saw, fixtures for the circular saw with their own hands, trimmer, stop, circular saw
How a manual circular saw helps add more capability to your circular saw operation. The fixture shown below is a suggestion to create a portable circular table out of 3/4 inch thick plywood Continue reading →
Tags: hand circular saw, hand circular saw, homemade circular saw, circular saw with my own hands, circular saw
Guide and hand circular saw for straight cuts, consider one of the fastest and easiest ways to make a straight cut in the right place, it will make a hand circular saw. But there is one problem and that is that you can’t always make a straight cut. The best way to make a straight and always have a square workpiece after the cut is to make a cross guide ruler. Continue reading →
Tags: circular saw guide, manual circular saw guide, manual, stop, circular saw, circular saw manual
Flanging with this tip will give you the opportunity to get smooth and even edges on the workpiece, without having, a good flanging table. Even if you have a good planing machine, planing the edges to glue the boards into an array on a circular table is also a convenient and effective way. Clean and smooth the edges of workpieces such as plywood, Particle board, Continue reading →
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I need a table circular saw to cut boards into straight and level slats. It turns out that having a hand held circular saw is not difficult to make a circular table by applying three basic criteria: Continue reading →
Tags: table, saw, manual, homemade circular saw, circular saw, manual circular saw, circular saw with their own hands, circular saws
The ruler for the circular saw with their own hands is a fixture, a related part or a steering wheel in a car. There are many suggestions in the form of different stops, different shapes and different sizes, different ways of fixing. In my opinion, when it comes to adjusting the ruler guide on the circular table, the most important question is how to reduce the amount of time in the adjustments, and it is quite difficult to do. Continue reading →
How to determine if the knives are set correctly
Proper blade installation is the key to a successful machine. Experts say that the height of the blades should be about the same as you height of the work table. In order to determine if the machine is set up correctly, you need to try machining the workpiece. If there are any irregularities or noticeable chips on its surface after machining, it is likely that the knives are not adjusted correctly. Professionals use a ruler or a very flat wooden block to determine the accuracy of the adjustment of the machine.
5 Amazing Woodworking Tips / Hacks
In order to remove the blades or to secure them you will need a wrench. In the first case you just need to unscrew the nuts and remove the tool, in the second case the same work is done in reverse order.
Removed and sharpened blades fugark necessarily require cleaning from contamination with organic solvents, you can also wipe the blades with motor oil. This procedure is done to keep them sharp longer and not to corrode. For better work you will definitely need a perfectly flat board, which will be used to adjust the attachment of the blades.
Adjustment of the blades of the jointer is possible only if they are loose, this is done so that during the adjustment you do not have any difficulties.
To simplify the work, use a wrench to loosen the clamping plate, the nuts of the clamping plate do not need to be tightened much.
Adjustment is carried out by moving the blade down or up. Pay attention to the shaft with knives, it will be necessary to turn it, and to move the knife with the blade upwards. Then you need to put on the machine a board, prepared beforehand, which by length should be a little bit bigger than the back area of the machine.
Lay the board so that its edge is just above the blade of the knife, and gradually twist the shaft in different directions, thus adjusting the height of the knife. Gradually the blade will rest against the board, at which point you should fully secure it. After that, you need to adjust the second blade, or others if you have more than one. When the work is done. rotate the cutter head, all blades should only lightly touch the ruler or bar. After you have done this at least a few times, you will hardly have to worry about how to position the blades on the jointer in the future.
Positioning of knives on the shaft.
Knife slots or pads on the shaft should be smooth and without roughness. The edge of the shaft, on which the knife cutting edge, the so-called chip breaker, rests, must be even and sharp, no scored or milled edges are permitted.
The knife shaft must rest in its bearings without play and should rotate easily by hand.
knives are set in the socket so that the blade protrudes (hangs down) over the edge of the chip breaker by the amount from 0,25 to 2.km (normal limits are 1 to 1.5 mm). The large euro is used when it is desirable to increase the cutting angle.
The position of all the blades in relation to the machine table must be absolutely equal. It is reached by alignment of knives on the machine. To do this, the knives are first screwed loosely so that they can easily be moved by hitting them with a wooden hammer or by tightening the adjusting screws.
The following methods are used to check the position of the knives:
а. Checking with a wooden template.
Make a template from hardwood The machine table is set up so that the template can be slipped under the knife shaft (when installing a thicknesser). Holding the template firmly with one hand on the table, with the other turn the blade shaft by the pulley or the clutch (with belt transmission the belt must be removed, in electrified machines the motor must be de-energized during installation) and bring the blade of the knife to the template. Then place the table so that the blade slightly touches the template. After setting the table at one point, check whether the template touches the entire length of the blade evenly.
Check the other blades in the same way. After checking, tighten the blades with a normal wrench from the middle to the edges.
Do not lengthen the arm of the ratchet to tighten it.
б. Checking the setting with the Wadkin gauge.
The wooden template described above is useful for checking knife settings on the Swiss machine. To check the setting of blades on the planer is more convenient Vadkin’s template. The gauge consists of a ruler, with two templates set at its ends projecting forward The templates are advanced at an equal distance from the edge of the table and one knife is set first, and then the others.
When installing knives in square shafts under the nut or under the bolt head, washers should always be placed.
в.Checking with a ruler.
The methods considered can only provide a relative accuracy of blade setting. To obtain high purity of processing theoretically needs the accuracy of installation in the range 0.0025, checking by templates gives an accuracy of up to 0.05. A better and at the same time rather quick way is to check the setting with an indicator. the precise and sensitive indicator is mounted on a special stand with a ground sole By placing the indicator on the blade of the knife at one point and moving it along the knife along the table, it is possible to position the knives with almost the required extreme accuracy.
The above described procedures make it possible to carry out a static check of the blade setting (static centering) on the machine. After testing, the knives are finally clamped on the knife shaft.
Using a special tool. The knife head can be set up and checked off-machine. This setup and alignment procedure requires considerably less time.
The necessary setting accuracy, depending on the feed rate, which allows both knives to be used can be found in the diagrams in Fig. 1 and 2. 246 и 247.
The static alignment allows the knives to be positioned with sufficient accuracy in relation to the geometric axis of the shaft. However, at high circumferential speeds of knife shafts (common in modern machines) there is a deviation of the geometrical axis from the actual rotation axis. Due to the elasticity of the knife shaft and the bearings, misalignment of the rotating shaft will occur, so that the knife paths may not coincide even with the most accurate installation. This off-axis increases sharply and can exceed 0.25 mm if the knife shaft and knives are not balanced and especially if there is bearing play, the transmission belts are too tight, or if the self-centering devices on the detachable heads are not working properly.
To check the dynamic balancing of the knife shaft, a special device is used with a “pencil” made of hard abrasive with a cross section of approx. 25 mm. This device consists of a frame, on which the carriage with the “pencil” moves by means of a worm grip. The frame is firmly fixed on the machine bed above the knife shaft and the sizer is mounted so that when the shaft is rotated, the knives come close to it without touching it, but with a minimum gap. After that the knife shaft is set in motion and the arbor is set in motion along the knife shaft by rotating the handwheel. In the case of off-axis, which is caused by rapid rotation of the shaft, the knives will run into the sizer and wear down as they are deflected. The deflection of the knives may gradually be brought out as the carriage is repositioned to either side.
When checking the balancing with such an arbor, it must be ensured that the arbor is not too close to the blade of the knife, which could cause it to strike the blade too sharply. The progressive movement of the sizer along the knife shaft should be uniform and not too fast.
The movement must never pause during the movement of the planer over the blade of the knife. The direction of motion of the sagger may only be changed when it is outside the blades.
Setting up the blades on the planer. Setting up the cutting tool. To understand the process, let’s look at the construction of a hunting knife
At first glance, the construction of the planer seems quite simple. a long, flat surface, with sharp blades. Feeding and receiving tables, if you look closer show that they are actually two separate tables:
- Feed table, the place where the workpiece is placed and moved to the cutting head;
- the receiving table, where the workpiece is placed after passing over the cutting head. (See. the photo below, it will help you identify the main parts of the jointer.)
Setting up the tables with each other is a critical point and is the first step to set up
jointer. The picture on the left shows how to use a ruler to check that the two tables are parallel, remove the cutterhead guard. Now to check, put a ruler along the tables. Check for parallelism at several points across the width of the table to make sure they are level, (photo right).
common problems you will encounter, unevenness in the form of convexity or concavity on the workpieces. The concave shape of the workpiece is the result of the outer edges of the feed or receiving tables being lowered below the. (This will show up as gaps at the ruler edges at the beginning and end of the jointer tables.) The convex shape of the workpiece means that the inner edges of the tables are tilted toward the cutting head.
Set CMT792 consists of two setters having:
- Ceramic magnetic adjusting element;
- magnetic soles;
- precision stopper;
- comes in a hardwood case.
- installation on the body over the place where the replaceable blade is mounted, defining its position;
- Mounted simultaneously on the work surface of the machine table and on the cutter body above the place where the replacement knife is mounted, determining its position (allows perfect alignment of the replacement cutting elements, even if the machine table is riddled with wear).
View CMT792 Instructions for use in Russian in pdf format Manufactured by CMT (Italy).
“CMT Utensili SpA produces high quality cutting tools and accessories for working wood, wood-based panels, OSB, plastics, aluminium. routers, drills, circular saws, interchangeable blades, etc. The history of CMT began in 1962 in Italy, today it is a big production center with subsidiaries in Italy, Spain and USA. For over 40 years, CMT has invested in state-of-the-art CNC equipment, engineering and staff expertise. CMT tools are easy to recognize thanks to the CMT ORANGE TOOLS orange coating, the best materials are used in production: von Moos Stahl AG steel (Switzerland), CERATIZIT hard alloy (Luxembourg), Du Pont coatings.
The next thing to check are the knives. The height of the knives should be equal to the height of the work table. If the workpiece is choppy or has large chips after planing, it is likely that the knives are out of alignment. The pictures to the left show how to use a ruler to check that all the knives are at the same height. Using a wrench, loosen the blade clamping plate, make any necessary corrections and tighten the clamping plate nuts. Check the height of each blade. The figure on the left shows the correct end result. When rotating the cutting head, each of the knives should make very light contact with the ruler at the very top of the arc, across the width of the table.
planing depth. After adjusting the height of the knives, we move on to adjusting the depth of the planing knives, which means how deep the planer will plan the wood with each pass. The planing depth is actually set by moving the infeed table up or down. There are two most common mistakes. The first mistake is a deep planing depth, a shallower planing depth helps keep jerks and chipping on the workpiece to a minimum. Another common problem that requires adjustment of the receiving table is when the planer makes a deeper cut at the edge of the workpiece. Usually it is corrected by adjusting, you need to look for where there is no parallelism between the tables and the cutting head.
Thrust. The next step in the setup is to check the footing on the jointer. For most products stop should be set at an angle of 90 ° in relation to the feed and receiving tables. It’s a pretty simple adjustment. All you need to do is use an angle piece to make the adjustment of the stop in relation to the tables. Make sure the tables are clean during setup.
Features of the machine
Moscow (self-delivery) free of charge Moscow MO (within the city to the point of delivery SDEK) 220
JOINING OF BLANKS.
The first step in the jointing of lumber, the connection of two blanks with each other, the operation we are most familiar with. Alignment of edges and planes requires their absolute parallelism and squareness. Next, consider a few tips that will help you get good results.
The direction of the fibers. The first thing to consider is how to determine the direction of the fibers on the workpieces. To avoid bumps and chips, you need to define a wedge-shaped direction of the fibers on the product and feed the workpiece to the blades with the narrow part of the wedge, not with the wide. If the orientation of the workpiece is not correct, you will feel the knives hit the workpiece hard at the beginning of planing. The photo on the left illustrates the direction of the fibers. Depth of cut. As I mentioned earlier, the planing depth on my planer is set to no more than 1.7mm. This setting, contributes to a smooth planing, and it also helps to increase the life of the sharp knives between sharpening. The exception is when working with very uneven lumber. In this case, I don’t mind cutting the workpiece more aggressively until I get a more or less flat side. That way, even if there is a chipping, it will be repaired later. Edge flaring. The trick here is to keep the workpiece facing the stop and keep the edges square. The photos below, show the basics of the method.
The cost of ready-made devices, how much it will cost to make your own hands and what is the benefit?
The guide rails that are available through tool retailers cost as much as the circular saw itself. There are guide rail models for 7t.р., And there are some for 12 t.р. This price range should be considered when buying.
If you make the guide yourself, you can save a lot of money. Doing it yourself will cost you hardly more than 2 tons.р.
In addition, self-made allows you to make your own engineering improvements.
How to adjust the cooler speed in BIOS?
How to increase the speed of the cooler on a laptop if over time it starts to run a little slower, noisier and sometimes even overheats. Overheating is one of the most uncomfortable and harmful incidents for the computer, because it is additional wear and tear of the equipment and increases the chance of failure.
To remedy this situation you can replace the thermal paste and improve cooling. If changing the thermal paste is not very difficult, then to strengthen the cooling system (CO) you need either to buy a cooling pad, or to increase the speed of the cooler. The cooling pad is pretty noisy, it costs extra money and takes up space, but you can speed up the regular CO.
There are two ways to speed up the cooler speed on your laptop:
How to increase cooler speed in notebook BIOS
BIOS allows you to adjust various settings of the device. from booting parameters to password to controlling CPU or memory frequency. Not all laptops have overclocking capabilities, so you need to check this option on your laptop.
To enter the BIOS/UEFI of your computer press the appropriate key at reboot:
|Acer||DEL, F2||Lenovo||F1, F2|
|Asus||F9, DEL, F2||Lenovo||DEL|
|Fujitsu||F2||Sony||F1, F2, F3|
|HP||ESC, F10, F1||Toshiba||F1, F2, F12|
If you have a classic BIOS, go to the Power tab and select Hardware Monitor
Then, if you have the opportunity to control the minimum speed of the cooler or set the temperature target value set the necessary settings.
- For temperature. the less the better. 40-55 C°
- For speed. better to test on your device. choose from 100% to 35% in 5-10% increments to find an acceptable noise and temperature level.
For owners of laptops with UEFI the interface is slightly different, but the functionality is much richer.
The desired settings will be in the Monitor, Hardware or Advanced tabs. Settings may vary depending on manufacturer and UEFI version.
Programs to overclock the cooler in your laptop
If you do not like to work with the BIOS environment, you can use special software designed to control the cooling system to increase the fan speed.
In this area the most effective programs are:
“- Sucking” extraneous air into the carburetor
The culprits can be. the hose from the vacuum brake booster to the intake manifold, sealing rubber rings on the screw “quality” and solenoid valve, nipped or broken tube to the body of the vacuum ignition advance regulator on the trambler, not tight housing or damaged diaphragm housing vacuum regulator, deformation of the mounting surface of the carburetor, or wear of its gaskets, the crankcase ventilation tube.
“Sucking” causes depletion of the fuel mixture and as a consequence, the car engine does not operate normally at idle speed. Read more about how to look for the cause of “suction” on the page “Extraneous air suction in the carburetor”.
THE CONNECTION OF BLANKS.
The first step in fugovaniya lumber, joining the two blanks with each other, the operation is most familiar to us. Aligning the edges and planes requires them to be absolutely parallel and rectangular. Further we will consider some tips that will help to get good results.
Fiber Direction. The first thing to consider is how to determine the direction of the fibers on the workpieces. To avoid irregularities and chips, you need to determine on the product wedge-shaped direction of the fibers and feed the workpiece to the knives of the narrow part of the wedge, rather than wide. If the orientation of the workpiece is selected incorrectly, at the beginning of planing you will feel the strong blows of the blades on the workpiece. The photo on the left illustrates the direction of the fibers. Depth of cut. As I mentioned earlier, the planing depth on my planer is set to no more than 1.7mm. This setting gives a smoother planing action, and it also helps increase the life of the sharp knives between sharpening. An exception is when working with very irregular wood. In this case, I don’t mind cutting the workpiece more aggressively until I get a more or less flat side. So even if there is a splinter, it is removed later. Edge planing. The trick here is to keep the workpiece facing the stop and keep the edges square. The pictures below show the basics of the method.
Start by applying pressure to the leading edge of the workpiece as you move it toward the cutter head. Moving the workpiece, shift the pressure on it, first toward the middle, and then toward the edge. Your efforts should be focused on keeping the workpiece in constant contact with the worktable and the stop. At the last pass, you need to reduce the speed of the product, this step will get even edge without ripples. A slow pass will produce a smooth edge and make a solid connection. When preparing parts for splicing, carefully inspect each workpiece, carefully perform edge trimming that there are no gaps and pick up in the direction of the fibers of each workpiece in the joint so that the joint is as inconspicuous as possible. Matching the direction of the fibers in the workpieces is often more difficult than matching the edges to the joint. The diagrams below show planking techniques, how to plan a curved and twisted plank.