Makeshift Gasoline Generator
The gas generator made by our own hands: a photo and a description of the home-made machine.
Before I tell you about the self-made, a little theory, on the subject of how to make a generator from an induction motor:
1) The rotor, of an ordinary induction motor, has a residual magnetism which, when this rotor is rotated by another motor, is greatly trapped by the stator windings. 2) Connect the three vessels in a triangle. Each of the capacitance must be in the ratio of 80 uF per 5 kW induction motor power. This will be the excitation system reactive energy. 3) Take an induction electric motor, with six leads of stator windings, connect its windings in a star, take the center of the star for 220 volt outlets. 4) Connect the vertices of the triangle of capacitors with the star taps of the induction motor stator. 5) Spin up this induction motor. with a combustion motor, at a speed 20. 30% higher than the rated frequency of the same induction motor in electric motor mode. The internal combustion engine should have an automatic speed regulator, subsequently tuned to this frequency. 6) As a result. get a generator from an induction motor.
So, we needed a gasoline generator, decided to make a homemade, in the presence of the electric motor and internal combustion engine, the only expense is the boring of the pulley at the turner.
The scheme: capacitors are connected to only one phase.
Residual magnetization of the rotor excites the eds in the stator windings, they charge the capacitors and the generator is excited.
Tests showed: at engine speed ~ 3000, phase voltage 250V, 240V, 215V.
I’m dropping the speed and connecting the load on the phase where the capacitors “hang”, angle grinder 840 W. no problems, angle grinder 2 kW. works, but can stand stiff under load, electric saw on 1.8 kW works great, sawed along the tree stump.
The motor is 3-phase, assuming in generator mode it will produce 6000 watts, one phase will have 2000 watts, you need a transformer to give all three phases power to one. Therefore, the work on the homemade device continues.
Petrol generator with their own hands
Homemade gasoline generator: detailed step-by-step photo instructions on how to make a gasoline generator with your own hands.
Compact gasoline generator can be made with their own hands, such a homemade will get 220V when turning off the household power grid, as well as in the field.
The basis of the home-made generator is a direct current motor, which operates in generator mode by converting mechanical energy into electrical energy through electromagnetic induction. The rotation of the armature in the magnetic field of the primary winding of the DC motor provides an engine from a brushcutter. When rotating in the DC engine in generator mode, a variable EMF is formed, which through the brush collector is converted into direct voltage.
To make a gasoline generator, the author used materials:
From a wide board, the author made a base to mount the motors.
Motor shafts must be centered. The less play between the shafts, the less vibration and wear on the driving part.
PVC pipes of various diameters can be used as connection pipes. Their flexibility will smooth out the smallest inaccuracy in shaft alignment. The author used two hoses of different diameters by inserting one into the other.
Start the petrol engine, measure voltage at the alternator output with a voltmeter. Use screwdriver to regulate fuel supply and number of revolutions. Guided by the rating of the inverter set the output voltage with a small margin.
Connect the contacts of the inverter to the generator wires to 12V, observing the polarity.
The housing of the gasoline generator can be assembled from PVC pipes.
In order not to constantly use the starter gasoline engine, the author has installed a lithium polymer battery for a short-term start DC engine. This comparative new device can really be powerful, and withstand a large number of operating cycles with minimal loss of capacitive power. Thus, the gasoline engine is started by an electric engine, while its starter remains as a backup.
This is a gasoline generator made by the author with his own hands, the device can be used to power household appliances in environments where there is no possibility of connecting to the mains.
We recommend watching the video, which shows a homemade gasoline generator in operation.
Generator for 220 volts with their own hands
Hello to all do-it-yourselfers! I want to present a home-made generator for 220 volts with my own hands.
I decided to put together a generator for 220 volts, for household needs, in case of power outages or if you need electricity in the field.
I will say right away that I made a generator from the things that were: a gasoline engine Carver 168 FL-2 with a capacity of 6.5 liters.With, without a gearbox and asynchronous motor for 1500 watts.
The pulley was made by a turner I know, and the belt was picked up by size.
I welded a simple frame from a profile pipe, put a couple of wheels from a cart. On the frame I have installed the internal combustion engine and the induction motor, pulleys and the belt. The motor windings are connected through the starting capacitor.
The residual magnetization of the rotor excites the eds in the stator windings, they charge the capacitor and the generator is excited.
The result is such a homemade gasoline generator for 220 volts. Tested self-made angular grinder connected to the 500 watt, works.
Also, watch the video test homemade gasoline generator for 220 volts.
In this video, connected the angle grinder to the 500 watt self-made generator.
If you are interested in this home-made device, there is another similar home-made gasoline generator.
The principle of operation of the electric generator
The operation of generators is realized by the principle of electromagnetic induction, when in a closed frame the current is induced by the rotating magnetic field crossing it. The magnetic field is created by the windings or the permanent magnets.
When the electromotive force from the collector reaches the closed circuit and the brush assemblies, the rotor begins to rotate in concert with the magnetic flux. This is how voltage is created in the spring-loaded brushes pressed against the plate-type collectors.
The electric current is then transmitted to the output terminals, passes into the mains, spreads through the generator.
AC and DC generators are used. The alternator is small, does not produce eddy currents, and has the ability to operate at extreme temperatures. The DC apparatus does not require close monitoring, has a significant number of resources.
Structurally the alternator includes: brushes with brush holders, collector, anchor winding, armature, starter, contact rings, starter winding, rotor, housing, fan, drive and bed
The alternator can be both synchronous and asynchronous. The first. with a permanent electric magnet and the number of rotations of the stator is equal to the rotor, which forms the magnetic field. The advantages of such a generator are called a stable high voltage, but the disadvantages include overcurrents due to overloading of the regulator, which increases the current of the rotor winding.
Construction of asynchronous generator: short-circuited rotor, stator. When the rotor rotates, the generator induces current, and the magnetic field produces a sinusoidal type voltage.
Step by step instructions for assembling
Generator assembly at home should be done after all the necessary radio components, electrical tools and materials are prepared.
Step 1. preparation of radio components
To assemble a module of a mechanical oscillator with electromagnets you will need a motor. To make a low-power generator you can use the electric motor from the washing machine such as “Oka”, “Volga”, the pump “Aghidel” and others.
The current generated by the motor determines the choice of parts and components. Rectifier diodes are needed to convert the current from AC to DC, for example, a high-power diode bridge of tens of amperes with a voltage of no more than 50 V. Smoothing filters with the ability to equalize the DC voltage ripple are important for polar DC capacitors.
In order to make a homemade wind turbine does not require great precision performance and highly specialized materials. Constructed sample works at wind speed of 9 to 10 m/s, provides 800 W of power.
As an additional board with a USB port to connect gadgets selects a device to convert the voltage of 1.5-20 V. This list of radio components is sufficient for a low-power generator up to two dozen volts. In the case of an asynchronous motor it is possible to connect mobile devices directly.
Step 2. Preparation of tools and materials
From the power tools need an angle grinder, a set which has a cutting disc for metal, wood and grinding disc (hard or circle-grinding).
You also need an electric drill with metal drill bits. You may need a rotary drill with percussion drill bits, concrete drill bits. Sometimes the torch is equipped with an adapter with simple, conical drills, core bits for wood. Also comes in handy an electric screwdriver with heads for the nut adapter, a head for nuts.
To assemble the frame of the generator you will need materials. They are chosen according to one’s discretion. This can be rolled tubing of different diameters, metal fittings, profiles, etc.п.
During the assembly of the generator the master must have at hand screwdrivers of various diameters, pliers, hammer, wrenches, etc
To connect, stock up on fasteners. nuts, washers, self-tapping screws, bolts. This is a universal set of inventory, having assembled which, you can begin to make a generator set with your own hands.
Stage 3. preparatory work
After preparing the tools and materials the preparatory work begins. They are necessary before assembling the generator, because they include the initial calculation of the power of the device.
Calculate the power, connecting the engine to the mains. The number of rotations issued will determine the power of the motor. Sometimes a tachometer is used for measurements, and 10% is added to the obtained data to compensate for the load (preventing overheating of the motor when in use).
After the output has been accurately calculated, the capacitor must be selected according to the previously calculated engine output.
After the power calculation it is necessary to choose the capacitor. The device prevents the motor from overheating during operation of the generator
At the end of the preparatory work think through the grounding of the future generator. This process helps to avoid traumatic situations and prolongs the working life of the generator.
Step 4. Study star-delta circuit
To assemble an alternator in 220, you need a star or delta circuit.
Sometimes a combined star-delta circuit is used in complex equipment. In a star connection, the ends are connected at a single point. The graphic view is the divergence of the phases from the center in different directions, as if the rays form a star. In a delta circuit, the ends of one winding are attached to the beginning of the next
According to the star circuit, the electrical connection is made for each of the winding ends of a single point, for a delta circuit, the connection is of the series type.
Step 5. actual assembly
Let’s look at several ways of assembling a genset.
Assembling an asynchronous alternator
Making an asynchronous generator does not require resharpening the rotor for neodymium magnets, so the circuit of the device is called a conversion of a ready-made induction motor. In this version, there is no need to power the rotor winding, it is removed from the engine, and the rotor axis is ground for flat magnets.
According to the asynchronous generator assembly diagram, the device power reaches 2 to 5 kilowatts with capacitor capacity from 28 to 138 microfarads. To ensure that the voltage is static, a capacitance is required, depending on the intended load of the generator.
The unit is assembled in three steps. The first involves assembling a single supporting structure, installing a motor with a transmission-type drive.
The connection is as follows: the end of the 1st winding is connected to the beginning of the 2nd winding. The end of the 2nd winding is then connected to the beginning of the 3rd winding. The end of the 3rd winding is connected to the beginning of the 1st winding
The second stage involves connecting variable and non-polar capacitors to the windings. The latter are turned on by the star scheme, when part of the ends are connected to the center of the body, and the rest are derived separately.
Finally, the free winding ends are connected to the tops of the capacitor according to the delta circuit.
Generating sets with squirrel-cage rotor are the most common application. They are inexpensive and require little or no maintenance. Devices equipped with a starting capacitor, have a decent efficiency.
Asynchronous alternators are often used as an autonomous or backup power source. Portable gasoline generators work with them, they are used for powerful mobile and stationary diesel generators.
Alternators with a three-phase winding start three-phase motors, so they are often used in industrial power plants. They can also power equipment in single-phase networks. Biphasic mode saves combustion engine fuel since the idle winding is not used.
The scope of application is quite extensive:
Asynchronous alternators are convenient for the construction of local wind and hydraulic power plants.
How does the electric generator work?
The principle of operation of an electric generator is based on the physical phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. A wire that passes through an artificially induced electromagnetic field generates an impulse that is converted into direct current.
The generator has an engine that can produce electricity by burning a certain type of fuel in its compartments: gasoline, gas or diesel fuel. The fuel, in turn, getting into the combustion chamber, in the process of combustion produces gas, which turns the crankshaft. The latter transmits an impulse to the slave shaft, which is already able to provide a certain amount of energy at the output.
How to choose a generator for the house: power calculation, phase, engine type
Finally, you have asked yourself this question. what happens if the lights go out?? A lot of things are unpleasant. the house will defrost, information will disappear, the production will lose power, the pump will stop working, the machine will stop working, etc.
And You decide to get your own independent power source (alternator, diesel generator, mini power plant, gasoline generator, etc.д.).
Do you want to provide full electricity or only provide the most basic needs: lighting, operation of the refrigerator, support for the heating and/or alarm system, water pump, etc.?д.?
Consequently, the first question is the electrical power rating (PRP) of the generator (genset) you purchase.
You must determine for yourself which consumers will be connected to the generator at the same time. It is best to check the capacities of the appliances with their nameplate data.
To calculate the capacity of the alternator to choose, take the triple of the power rating of the appliance with the largest electric motor and add to this the power of all the other active consumers (lighting, electric stove, kettle, etc.).д.).
The power you need is multiplied by the one-time use factor (or demand factor) which equals 0.6-0.8 is the power of the alternator you need.
The second question you have to decide: should your generator (diesel generator, petrol generator) be single-phase (230 V) or three-phase (400 V)??
If you do not have three-phase consumers and your house (cottage) is connected to the 1-phase network, the choice is clear: 1-phase generator.
If you do not have three-phase consumers, but your house (cottage) is connected to a 3-phase network, then you still need a 1-phase GU, since buying a 3-phase, you will have to “parallelize” the output to three 1-phase lines by analogy with the supply from the outside network.
If you have a synchronous type generator, the difference in loading of each winding should not exceed 30%, if you have an asynchronous type generator, then not more than 60%, which is better, but not really good, because it is a big inconvenience. to constantly calculate how many kilowatts and on which phase (generator winding) you should still connect or overload to observe approximate evenness of phase loading.
And only when there are 3-phase consumers, you need to buy a 3-phase GC.
The third question is what engine your generator should be equipped with. diesel or gasoline?
Often people ask: “And what is better?”, “What do you advise?”.
There is no unequivocal answer to this question. Each type of engine has its own advantages.
However, if we are talking about electrical power above 15 kVA, it is impossible to find a generator with a gasoline engine in the market of power plants, and diesels in this power range are mostly liquid-cooled.
A liquid-cooled (antifreeze) diesel engine has a shaft speed of 1500 rpm. Such engines are capable of running 24 hours a day.
And the noise from them is less than from the same, but rotating twice as fast, so-called “standby generator”, the life of which is much less because of the high speed of rotation of the shaft.
By the way, all gasoline mini power plants, as well as diesel generators, air-cooled. standby.
And I want it to start by itself. it is possible?
Autostart. All generators that have an electric starter can be equipped with our autostart system. Then human involvement in a power outage is reduced to monitoring the fuel.
No blackouts for a short time.
And if it is important not to lose power even for a second, then you need an additional UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply or UPS).
On the generator
In the second picture you can see the diode, but with such a length of wire is not very convenient. all in a stretch. It is better to make the wire length of about 2cm from the diode. so in my opinion it will be easier to insert into the alternator PH socket. As far as I remember, I have a diode K223. т.е. it is silicon. Raises the voltage by about 1.3.
I’m going to correct myself. I checked on the Internet reference data what diode K223 is. I must say that I was very much mistaken, when I pointed out exactly this name. Actually there are diodes KD223 and D223, but they have very different housings.
However in photos shown by me diodes D214 or D242 are most likely wrapped in duct tape (there may be different letters after digits), here is such a case (M6 thread):
Makeshift gasoline generator from asynchronous motor
So, for this we need:1. Ordinary induction motor, or rather its rotor. Since such a rotor has residual magnetism, if you rotate it with another motor. it is significantly captured by the stator windings.2. Next you need to connect the three capacitances in a delta. The ratio of each capacitance to induction motor power is 80Mcf to 5kW. This will be the reactive energy excitation system.3. Next, take an induction electric motor, which has six terminals of the stator windings. Then connect its windings in a star shape. Take the center of the star for a 220 volt outlet.4. The next step is to connect the top of our capacitance triangle and the induction motor stator star leads.5. Next, using the internal combustion engine you need to spin our induction motor. The speed should be 20-30% higher than the induction motor’s rated frequency. It is necessary that the internal combustion engine has an automatic speed regulator, which is then important to adjust to this frequency.6. As a result you will have a generator from an induction motor. Now actually about the homemade.
I decided to make a gasoline generator from an induction motor. I had an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. Of the available costs. pulley boring at the turner.
Materials used:- electric motor with power of 7.5 kW;- gasoline engine (Chinese) P175FB for 7.8 Ls. pulleys that have a diameter of 160 mm and 80 mm. belt. starting capacitors, the calculation of 175 microns per phase (in fact, I connected 210 microns). a pair of wheels. metal corner. sheet metal.
Schematic: capacitors are connected to one phase only.
Residual magnetization of the rotor excites the eds in the stator windings. The emf in turn charges the capacitors and the generator is excited.
The final test brought: at engine speed ~ 3000, voltage by phase 250V, 240V, 215V.
I then turned down a little speed and connected the load to the phase, where the “hung” capacitors, angle grinder 840 W. no problem, angle grinder 2 kW. works, but it can be, and it will stand on a slope under load, power saw at 1.The 8kW works like clockwork because I was sawing along the stump.
If the 3-phase engine is assumed in the generator mode. it will give out 6,000 watts. So it would be 2000 watts on one phase. That is, in order for all three phases to give power to one. will need a transformer. That is why the work on the homemade must be continued.
Assemble a gasoline generator with their own hands from a lawnmower
In today’s world, it is quite difficult to live at least a little time without electricity. In almost every human activity, to a greater or lesser extent, there must be access to electrical energy. Everyone knows what kind of inconvenience leads to a sudden, and scheduled power outages, and even to emergencies.
Independence from the central power grid. this is what would like to get a lot of people, owners of country houses and summer cottages. This is quite feasible, if you have a gasoline generator. With it you can solve problems with the lack of electricity. over, such a device is quite possible to assemble their own hands, you do not need to spend money to buy in the store.
Gasoline generator. an indispensable thing in the household and in the industrial sector
Such a unit is useful in various situations: when there are emergency shutdowns; in summer homes and construction sites far from the central power grid; as source of electricity for a decent life of geologists, huntsmen, deer breeders, drillers. for all those for whom work is located in remote areas. A gasoline generator will also be useful in the garage and at home in the cottage. With this unit, manual labor can be replaced by mechanized labor, even in situations where there is no access to the central power supply. Lighting, electrical equipment and tools, household appliances can be connected to the generator. It is necessary to highlight the following advantages of gasoline generators: ease of use; the ability to move, thanks to their small size and weight; high performance; ease of repair and maintenance; lower price, compared to diesel generators.
How does the gasoline generator work
If you do not count on buying a factory generator, and you need access to an autonomous source of electricity now, then you can assemble a gasoline generator with their own hands. For this purpose, first of all it is necessary to consider how the unit is arranged and according to what principle it works.
According to its design, the generator is arranged quite simply, it consists of three main elements: a gasoline internal combustion engine. a two-stroke motor is put on the generator of less power, four-stroke. on more powerful models; an electric current generator; an electrical modulation unit.
How to assemble a gasoline generator with your own hands
Before assembling a gasoline generator, it is imperative to decide on the type of engine. For a constant supply of electricity to a large number of household appliances and equipment for more than 5 hours, it is recommended to use a four-stroke engine. But if you need short-term power for lighting or a few tools, a two-stroke motor is also sufficient.
At the heart of the homemade generator is a direct current motor. It works as a generator as mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy by electromagnetic induction. The possibility of rotation of the armature in the magnetic field of the primary winding of the DC motor is provided by the motor from the brushcutter. During rotation, a variable electromotive force is generated in a DC motor in alternator mode. Through a brush collector this power is converted into direct voltage.
To assemble the gasoline generator we took the following components: electric motor. 12 V; inverter. 12220 V; motor from lawnmower.
By taking a wide board, the author made a base to fix the motors.
It should be noted that the motor shafts need to be aligned. With less play between the shafts there is less vibration and less wear and tear on the driving part.PVC hoses of different diameters can be used as connections. Their flexibility smoothes out the smallest imperfections in shaft alignment.