Hydraulic press. brief introduction on purpose and operating principle
A hydraulic press is equipment designed to process materials, various products with pressure. The device is driven by a liquid, which is under high pressure. The press is based on Pascal’s law.
The equipment consists of two chambers (cylinders). In the first, smaller one, the fluid is brought in high pressure and fed through a pipeline or a special channel to the larger, operating cylinder, where the incoming fluid creates a force on the piston that is transmitted to the work material via executive tool. The necessary condition of the press is the presence of the stop, which prevents the movement of the part or workpiece under the influence of the working piston. Special oils are used as fluids.
In modern industrial hydraulic presses the arrangement of the operating cylinder is most often vertical and sometimes horizontal. Depending on their purpose and the type of material to be processed this equipment develops the force from several tens to several thousand tons. The press is widely used in metal working for stamping, forging, straightening and bending, extruding profiles and pipes, as well as in briquetting, bagging, pressing various materials, production of rubber, plastic, chipboard products and in many other applications.
Why do you need a press at home?
In the home workshop, a small power press can be a valuable aid for car repairs and other jobs. To press out a bearing or silent block and press in its place a new one, you don’t need to go to a car service center and pay a lot of money. Use the press to bend a metal workpiece, do straightening, press to glue two parts together securely, press plastic bottles, tin cans, paper or cardboard, squeeze oil or moisture.
Buying a factory-made press will cost a pretty penny. But you can make this equipment yourself, spending only the necessary materials. A device can be made which is suitable and adapted to the particular needs and tasks to be carried out. Since the homemade hydraulic press will in any case require some space, in the absence of workshop space it can be placed in the garage.
FILE. Homemade forging press
Sergey nickname Amato1 made a forging press.
All made from standard parts for tractor UMZ:
The hydraulic cylinder to side turn the bucket, hydraulic pump, hydraulic distributor (one channel is enough), homemade hydraulic tank, hoses.Home-brewed frame.
There are a couple of nuances:1 setup. Sergei says he had torn hoses at first.2 frame. this frame design is not very comfortable. plans to remake.
You can see the press in action. For the video special thanks to comrade Jonas, without his processing, I would not dare to show the public the footage.
And here is Sergei’s page:http://khudoshun.blogspot.com/
And here will be a link to the video, which we have just spliced on the computer, from which Sanja post and which I will upload to YouTube only at night, when I will bring it home. Because I can’t upload anything from work.
And I’m sorry that I had to wait so long. I just got home and found myself extremely frustrated with the picture quality of the horrible YouTube version. 6 pixels per screen (why didn’t we see that at work. )! And I decided to upload a 2 gigabyte variant, but it’s too big to fit on the net
Well, photos while you’re still throwing. but you’re poisoning your soul.
So it’s nighttime. I’m not going to lie down until I see it
Both positive ( about the forge ) and sad ( the last phrase in the movie ) But on the whole, well done!
amato1Thank you Sasha! And YoNas_Kaki ! I was not prepared for the meeting.But it was very nice to talk to a soplatnik. That’s what came out of the rusty iron.The press does not solve all problems, a sledgehammer helps.But it makes the blacksmith’s job a lot easier.
You’re welcome, Sergei! But thank you, too, first of all! For making such a thing and for meeting with Sanya and showing and telling me everything. I’m sure this movie will help someone make something similar. And just great that there is an opportunity to show such a workshop with all the tools and what is done in this workshop. If you need to, post a link to the movie on ost-metal and wherever you see fit.
And the blades are great! When I was watching the film, I thought it must be good and I really wanted to see it. No mistake, that’s great! I’d also like to see the kitchenette and the Persian
Positive ( about the forge ) and sad ( the last phrase in the movie )And on the whole well done.
It’s like that, although I don’t regret it one bit.Honestly.
I purposely left that phrase out because it is life. That’s why I wrote in the end nothing, we’ll get through this
Vertical hydraulic 100 ton forging press PGK-7
100 tons vertical hydraulic forging press PGK-7
PGK-7 100 tons is a universal forging vertical hydraulic press, 100 tons, which was specially designed for high-performance shops for cold forging and allows you to apply drawings on the heated metal, expanding the possibilities of their production without the need to install a forging hammer.
Hydraulic 100 tons press is used for cutting figured artistic blanks and giving them volumetric shape. The possibilities of the press PGK-7 are quite wide and allow improving the technological process of the shop and expanding the range of manufactured products. This list may include parts for large-size constructions made of metal with large cross-section.
Versatile and technologically advanced equipment for your shop
Universal hydraulic press PGK-7 can be referred to industrial-class equipment that can be used by metal-working shops of various formats. To buy a hydraulic press PGK-7 forging workshop means to improve the technological process and move to the production of structures with large dimensions.
With the help of press PGK-7 can perform felling, give metal blanks 3D-shape, bend, as well as make three-dimensional drawing on the heated metal. The key features of the proposed equipment are robust design that allows you to perform almost any amount of work, noiseless operation, productivity, and no need for an industrial foundation.
KGK-7 is a modern analogue of the forging hammer. If you decide to buy a hydraulic press, its price is quickly enough to pay off in your production. The machine allows you to improve the manufacturability of work, expand the range of operations in almost any shop, and use hot metal processing without unnecessary labor costs, with minimum operating costs. only 5 kW.
Technical characteristics of the vertical hydraulic press PGK-7 100 tons
- When installing the machine there is no need for a foundation device, the equipment can be installed without additional room preparation in almost any blacksmith shop;
- The force of the hydraulic cylinder. 100 tons;
- Ukrainian engine with a hydraulic distributor with an output of only 5 kW;
- The maximum cross section of a sheet metal workpiece. 30 mm;
- Three modes of operation;
- Comfortable work table with emergency stop button.
Super Svarka offers modern equipment to equip your forge shop. The proposed machines are designed for different types of work and productivity, so they can be used to equip any workshop. from home to large industrial metalworking shop.
Pneumatic press based on the timer and temperature controller
Pneumatic press for feathering and hot stamping
In this article I will describe the design and wiring diagram of a pneumatic press for hot stamping on leather and cardboard, which collected his own hands. These pneumatic presses may have different names, depending on the application.
Unlike a hydraulic press, which is driven by a hydraulic pump, the pneumatic press develops pressure from the compressed air produced by the compressor.
Based on the scheme and design described in the article, such types of presses can work: peroral, hot stamping, various presses for molding and gluing parts.
Here is an example of my article on installation of temperature switch Euroautomatica RT-820M in a similar Turkish press.
Self-assembly of the press is impossible without the use of a number of tools:
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Home press construction
Hydraulic presses, made by their own hands, should not have too outstanding technical characteristics, it is enough that they develop the force of 10-20 tons. This parameter of the homemade hydraulic press depends on what actions you are going to perform with its help.
One of the most common and simple options of homemade press
There are a number of other parameters to which correspond not only industrial, but also homemade domestic hydraulic presses:
- the weight of the equipment;
- the stroke of the piston;
- presence of a manometer in the design of the press;
- characteristics of the frame used.
In self-made presses, the pressure in the working cylinder is usually created by means of a manual hydraulic pump, which can be either built into the design of such a device or located separately from it. Such a design feature depends only on what equipment you choose to make such a device. It is very easy to make a hydraulic press with your own hands, if you take a bottle-type jack as a basis for its design. In such a jack, conveniently, the design already has a built-in hand pump.
The bottle-type hydraulic jack is perfect for use in the hydraulic press made by your own hands
Before you are going to buy a suitable jack for making a home hydraulic device, it is important to decide what tasks you will solve with its help. This depends on both the design scheme of the manual hydraulic press, and the force that it will develop. The next step. is the development of a drawing of the hydraulic press, which you are going to make your own hands. You can, of course, find such a drawing on the Internet and even see photos and videos of the process of making a press from a hydraulic jack with your own hands. But in this case you will be faced with the need to adjust the tools you have under someone else’s homemade press.
The development of the drawing of your future self-made press begins with the fact that it is decided on the scheme under which it will work. There are only two options here.
- The jack will be located at the bottom of the press. on its bed. and the pressure will go upwards.
- The jack is fastened in the upper part of the press and exerts downward pressure.
However, when choosing a scheme of work of the homemade press it is necessary to take into account the fact that for the main part of the jacks, produced by modern industry, the only correct position is the pressurizing rod upwards, and to place them in another way simply is not allowed. That’s why the first scheme of the hydraulic press is most often taken as a basis. The second variant is used only when it is necessary to make the hydraulic equipment by your own hands to extrude bearings or bushings from the individual units and mechanisms.
A variant of the press with the bottom position of the jack
What should be considered when developing a drawing of a homemade press
The bearing element of any press, including homemade, is the frame, to the development of the drawing of which should be approached with maximum responsibility. Structurally, the frame is a frame inside which there is a jack with a working tool that exerts pressure on the part or workpiece.
The type of frame can vary greatly depending on the purpose of the press
The frame of the hydraulic press, made by your own hands, must have high strength, because it will experience loads in both directions at once. The jack, creating a certain force, will simultaneously press on the upper and lower part of the frame, tending as if to break it. That is why when the frame is designed and the materials used to build it, they must be as strong as possible.
The bottom part of the frame. its base. is designed so that it must ensure high stability of the entire structure. Calculating the width of the internal opening of the frame of the homemade press, take into account both the size of parts and blanks, which will be processed on it, and the total dimensions of all the components of the future press.
One more variant of the frame with the simplest design of the base for stability
When calculating the height of the inner frame opening, the following parameters are added: the height of the jack, the desired free travel of its piston rod, the thickness of the tool and the workpiece to be processed. If a home-made press is made according to the first scheme, its design is as follows: the jack is installed on the lower base and the part is in the upper part of the frame; the force from the jack to the part is transmitted through its rod and movable working platform which moves along guides in the lateral elements of the frame.
To ensure the return of the rod to its original state, two springs are used, the lower part of which is attached to the base and the upper part to the movable working platform. If you decide to make a press from a jack with your own hands, it is very important to correctly calculate the stiffness of the springs so they effectively perform all the functions assigned to them.
In the implementation of the second scheme, the workpiece is placed on the lower base, and the jack is installed on the movable platform, to which are also attached springs that connect it to the upper crossbar of the frame. Both in the first and in the second case, at the place of contact of the rod with the moving platform or the upper crossbar of the frame, a so-called socket is made, as which a piece of pipe of the appropriate diameter can be used.
Impossibility to adjust the height of the working area simplifies the design, but significantly limits the options for using the press
A hydraulic press made by your own hands will be much more convenient in operation if you provide for the possibility of adjusting the jack free rod, which also affects the permissible height of the workpiece. To do this, the following can be done.
- At the top of the frame’s inner contour is an additional plate that can be moved along the guide rails by a screw drive with a handwheel. By doing so, the clearance for positioning parts within the frame can be varied within a fairly broad range.
- It is possible to make a removable stop, which is most often used as a mobile removable platform. The position of such a stop inside the frame can be fixed by means of bolt connections, for which holes are drilled in the frame at a certain pitch. In this case the height of such holes must not exceed the free stroke of the jack rod.
- Several interchangeable inserts with different thicknesses can be made from a single piece of metal or metal profile.
- It is also possible to use several of the above methods at the same time.
If you make a drawing, which your own hands will make a press, be sure to specify not only the dimensions of the main elements of such a device and workpiece, but also the dimensions of channels and other rolled metal, from which the frame will be made.
Appointment and functions of the press: applications of the device
The press has a wide range of applications. Sometimes a must-have item in the workshop or garage. A small device is often used in the repair of cars. You can use the press for silent blocks as well as for pressing out bearings.
This equipment is used to create briquettes from waste, when gluing two surfaces, as well as for bending metal parts. At the same time, factory devices can be a lot of people can not afford. If you decide to make such a device with your own hands, it can easily be adapted to specific tasks.
The hydraulic principle makes life much easier. Thanks to the simple mechanism different equipment works effectively.
Self-made unit is used for work in the garage and workshop
So, let’s consider in more detail what you need such a device for:
- Pressing out of different bearings is used in small machine shops;
- Bending hardware of various shapes;
- Providing pressure to glue the two elements together;
- rivet installation.
Try to make a press with your own hands in the garage. Such a device is used for pressing and pressing all kinds of parts. This equipment performs a huge range of repair, maintenance and preventive maintenance.
- even a small car repair shop needs a hydraulic press, which can be purchased or made by your own hands. To make such a machine you need to determine the installation of the gauge, weight, size and performance of the piston. Before designing the press it is necessary to consider the models of vehicles. A simple design is not suitable for large machines;
- For the workshop and at home often need a press for waste paper. If there is a large accumulation of paper, it needs to be disposed of. This design has a medium power rating and can operate from the electric network. With the help of a small machine you can remove a significant amount of waste paper;
- The cardboard press, which can be used to press plastic bottles and tin cans, is also useful. When mounting the device independently, you need to take into account the parameters of the piston, the bed, the dimensions of the equipment and weight. Such a device uses a ready-made or manual hydraulic pump;
- sawdust baler is used to create briquettes. The resulting briquettes are used for heating private homes. Such a device consists of a table, power frame, base and drive. A jack is often used for the manual mechanism, while an electric motor is suitable for mechanical construction;
- Homemade baler for hay is a special box, which is installed on a frame structure made of beams. Such frames can be made of metal profiles. The design is made in the form of a box, but without the upper part. We will need some materials to make a press for hay with their own hands. Drawings with dimensions make the task easier. It is worth using angles, metal laths and treated boards.
To make a machine for hay you need to connect the boards with metal corners. After that, the box is lined with slats. This will give strength to the product. Then you need to proceed to the wicket or door, which is fixed with hinges.
To assemble you will need an element for fixing to the headstock, a base to mount all the assemblies, a running gear and a transport picker. You will also need a special chamber with a gearbox and hay. The bale pickup apparatus is used to perform a single cycle of packing and collecting straw or hay.
This involves picking up the dried hay in the field as well as baling the bales. Then bales are formed from the webs. This process is characterised by baling without distorting the crop. Factory pickups have a fairly complex design that is rarely possible to make at home.
Machines for waste paper are used at the points that are engaged in receiving various secondary raw materials. Such a unit is distinguished by an increased pressure of about 15-50 tons, which helps to make bales of small size. Some kind of manipulator can be used for loading them. Presses for fuel briquettes also have great power.
Such a construction can be made of two types:
- The mechanical version represents a simplified design with low power. At the same time, the force can reach one ton;
- more powerful includes homemade hydraulic machine, the capacity of which can be up to 4 tons.
The manufacture of a press for plastic bottles takes place in a similar way.
Design of the press: features of existing devices
To create a significant force on a certain area, the design of the hydraulic press is used, you can buy such a unit in specialized stores. Such a device is an effective and simple device.
If you decide to make such a construction according to the drawings, it is necessary to understand what it consists of:
- The lower part or base is necessary for the stability of the structure. It looks like a platform and is made of solid metal. Metal corners and channels will do;
- The uprights are vertical parts of the structure. The height of the elements is calculated as the sum of the length of its rod, the height of the jack and the thickness of the fixed stop. The columns are made of steel angles welded to the base;
- The fixed stop is fixed in the upper part of the uprights. To make it used the same angle, as the columns;
- the jack allows to develop the necessary force. It is attached to the mobile end stop. It is electrically or manually operated;
- the movable stop puts the main pressure on the mechanism. Can be made of angles or strips of steel;
- The return device is used to move the movable stop to the normal position. They use springs, the degree and length of which are calculated depending on the parameters of the press.
How to make a simple construction can be seen in the video below:
When making a vacuum press with your own hands, it is worth considering that the device consists of a thermomodule, a table and a vacuum chamber. The last element is often rectangular in shape and made of rigid material.
This design has some special features:
- The machine is operated manually only;
- Affordable materials are used for operation;
- the speed of operation should not be inferior to their factory analogues.
The vacuum construction is assembled from the following parts
- the frame is made of a rail for the thermomodule and a profiled tube. To work you will need a welding machine and an electric drill;
- The vacuum table is made of a clamping frame, clamps and a tub;
- You also need a water ring pump.
The thermo-vacuum press is made similarly.
Such machine as a baler is installed as a trailed mechanism for power tillers. It is used on small farmers’ fields and on large farms. After the crop is cut with the mower, the machine processes it. The stalks are rolled into rolls and then the machine is used to produce bales.
Here are the advantages of using such a machine:
- it reduces the drying time, and the amount of hay lost
- The labor costs are reduced by several times;
- it improves the quality of the hay during storage;
- self-adjustment of the implement is possible.
The diagram shows a version of the bale implement
The most common variant is the roll mechanism. Spring tines make it possible to gather the mass of hay. Each bale is then rolled into bales. A mini-tractor can load up to 20 tonnes of straw in 20 days with this baler. Rolls have small dimensions.
Roller press of the pressyuk variety make briquettes in the shape of a rectangle. The grass in the windrows is picked up by the tines and sent to the baling compartment. The dimensions can be adjusted by machinery. The bales are securely wrapped and tied with twine. The block is then dumped into the field.
It is also possible to make a homemade version from walking beam and lumber. A large box made of boards is made and a horizontal method for loading the hay is used. A rack and pinion or screw jack is used as a press. This machine is used to grip and bale straw.
Tabletop mechanical press
The table press can operate on both automatic and manual traction. Such equipment is often made of strong steel.
Manual presses are used for machining:
The mechanical press is used to press out bearings and bushings, punch and die small items. Such a unit saves time on manufacturing parts.
The manual hydraulic unit makes the force with the help of a hydraulic cylinder rod. In this element is the liquid that is compressed under pressure. The machine is used for compressing, deforming and joining parts.
Hole punching machine is used for punching holes in sheets of different materials. Manual mechanical units are required for pressing tubing sleeves and cables.
Vibropress allows you to reduce the time of construction works, as well as reduce their cost. The device of the machine assumes the presence of three drives: hydraulic, mechanical and pneumatic. The work of the unit is based on the technology of vibro-pressing.
Even with a manual and the necessary drawings, the creation of a vibropress with your own hands may not work. This can occur due to incorrect calculations, inaccurate setting and low productivity.
Press with electric drive
The hydraulic press with an electric drive has a simple construction. Most often it consists of a thick angle and a channel. All elements are connected by thick bolts.
Making a juice squeezer with your own hands
Important! All materials must be suitable for food products. The wood species must not be resinous. Options. oak, birch, beech. Metals. food grade, stainless steel. This applies to all components. from screws to the pallet.
The selection of materials for creating the press is very important, because it can affect both the quality of the press itself, and the taste of the juice!
Steps of Creation
Start with the foundation of the press. a container for the product. According to its size, we will make the frame and other parts of the structure. There are several options: you can calculate the necessary size of the body yourself, and you can be guided by any tank, if any. Dimensions may vary, look at how many berries and fruits on average you want to process into juice.
It is easier to orient on the tank (a large straight pot, barrel, distillation cube). by it you can measure the height of the hull, keep track of the number of slats while sawing the wood.
- Let’s begin to make the laths. They must be the same length, width, height. Thickness of laths. not less than 0.5 cm, 3-5 cm width for structural strength. Saw the amount you need. You need 20 to 50 laths per barrel, depending on the size.
- Grind the laths, smooth out the corners. Smoothing is necessary to prevent the bag of product from breaking on sharp corners. On the plus side, it will look neater.
- From the flexible metal plate cut strips to a length slightly larger than the circumference of the body. You need to take into account their length, taking into account the gaps between the laths and the mount. We do the gaps with a distance of 0.8-1 cm. Take 2 strips 5 cm wide, up to 0.5 cm thick.
- On the top and bottom of each rail, mark out an indentation of 6 cm, it will be needed for the assembly of the body. Join the plates to the slats with self-tapping screws at the indentation points. Bend the remaining length of the plate on both sides to a 90 degree angle. We make holes in them, fasten them with a screw and nut. We get a round container for laying the pulp.
From solid wood cut a circle 1-2 cm smaller in diameter than the pail for the pulp. Grind, polish. The thickness of the lid should be no less than 1-1,5 cm. If there is no solid array. you can fasten a few laths in two rows between them and cut out a circle from them, also grind.
If desired, make handles on the sides of the lid.
The tray can be already prepared. it is a dish made of steel with walls height of 7-10 cm. This should be larger in width than the vessel. In the tray, we make a hole on the side for the drain.
Based on the height of the container and the width of the tray. The frame should be higher than the bowl, and a little wider than the tray. The upper thrust beam will be wide enough to accommodate the jack’s extension screw.
Calculate the dimensions of the frame, sawing the metal beams to the desired length. Make a rectangle out of the beams. At the bottom of the frame perpendicularly weld a few more beams for stability. Then we get a crossbar, like on the picture.
If you want, you can make a juice collector from a sheet of plywood or by sawing off the bottom of a metal container larger than the body of the basket.
The press is ready. It took 3 days to make. Put the pallet in the frame and the basket on the pallet. On top of the piston, bars along the squeeze stroke and the jack. You get juice while working with the jack.
Advantages and disadvantages of the homemade press
Let’s start with the good: you will make the press with your own hands, choose the size and design that is convenient for you personally. And if you have all the necessary tools, wood and stainless steel at home, you will get such a press cheaper than a purchased one. You can brag to your friends and family about your talent.
But look on the other hand: you have decided to make the thing with your own hands for the first time and chose a press. There are no tools, you have to buy materials and a jack, and wood and metal are more expensive for food. Without experience it will be difficult to get flat parts, welding.
Due to improper design, the spin will be weak, you will waste energy, time and money.
I advise beginners to start with something simpler, and if in great need to buy a press in the store. Only choose stainless steel models. For example, this one, even the jack is included.
Make a quality juice-press at home is possible. The selection of material and skillful hands will give it decades of service. But for lack of experience materials think about buying a press in the store. save money and time. Spend it better on making that very juice and making wine or other beverages.
Jack and its features
To make a hydraulic press most often use a cup jack. It is relatively inexpensive, and it can produce 20 tons of pressure.
There are two ways to assemble a jack-based hydraulic press in your garage:
Jacks have a parameter of the right position. The operation of some jacks excludes the upside down position. Therefore, before you start work, you need to make sure of the capabilities of the selected equipment.
Before starting work on the creation of a hydraulic press, it is highly recommended to make a drawing. The dimensions of all parts of the design must be completely the same, otherwise, when you first use the unit, the design will hang sideways.
Specialists are recommended to make a drawing of the future system on their own, since ready-made options will not always satisfy the owner in terms of dimensions, and it is possible to make a mistake with the choice of jack type. In this case, a lot of time will be missed to adjust the system to its parameters.
Photo of the drawings of the hydraulic press can be easily found on the Internet.
Step-by-step instructions for making your own hydraulic baling equipment.
One of the main steps involved in making a hydraulic press with your own hands is the preparation of the frame. It has the name “bed” and it is inside it that the future press will be located. Its strength must have some reserve, because the pressure inside the frame is applied in both directions (both up and down), so there is a possibility that the frame will burst.
The first thing to do: cut all the main parts of the construction according to the drawing data. It is necessary to drill holes in the structure. Next, a special plate is installed by welding.
The next step is to assemble the model. Mounting the jack in the design is the last stage of construction.
To build a more reliable system, it is recommended to use a channel and mounting angles, and for a more stable operation of the press you can add a portable support beam.
Thus, making a press yourself is a fascinating activity, which will not only save on the purchase of new equipment, but also to adjust such parameters as the size and power of the tool to your own needs.