How to choose parts and make a DIY mini-tractor for a household: drawings, video
Manual work on a home farm takes a lot of time and effort. Plowing the land, hilling potatoes, transporting goods – all this is hard physical labor that can be facilitated by small home-made tractors. Having experience in locksmith and welding work, you can make a mini tractor with your own hands.
Adaptations for a homemade tractor: making a cutter with your own hands
If you have built a homemade tractor for work on the site, then making additional devices for it will not be difficult..
Consider the process of making a cutter with your own hands.
- Manufacturing begins with a frame for which you can take a professional pipe or channel. Build a frame size and reach that the tractor engine power can handle.
- Add height adjustable wheels to the frame.
- Attach the shaft to the frame using two bearings. It can be made from a 50 mm metal pipe. The shaft will connect to the PTO shaft of your tractor..
- We make cutters from metal plates, 12-18 millimeters thick. Attach 3 curved knives to them using screws.
The photo shows what you should get.
The task of the transmission of a homemade mini tractor is to transmit torque from the engine to the drive wheels, change the speed of movement and provide reverse.
When driving in a low gear, the engine is protected from overheating by an additional cooling system. Depending on the motor used and on the wheel formula, the transmission scheme may be different:
- Simple. The torque is transmitted through a belt clutch, which is installed on the gearbox.
- Complex. To transmit torque, you need to use propeller shafts.
A complex scheme is often used on homemade products with a breaking frame. This is a laborious DIY option. For this, a 4×4 wheel arrangement with a Niva razdatka is made.
What drawings will be needed
In order to have a clear plan for working on a project for the construction of a mini tractor, you will need its drawing or sketch. They are compiled based on the required parameters and those assembly units that need to be installed.
The assembly of the tractor at home comes from the assemblies of motorcycles, trailers and used cars. Therefore, the drawings are drawn up on the basis of those units that are available..
First, a diagram is drawn on which the engine, gearbox, transfer case, chassis are located. These assembly units are lined up according to their design features and sizes. A kinematic diagram of the transmission of torque from the engine to the driving wheels is drawn up. Then the drawing displays the design features:
- frame dimensions;
- attachment points for units, suspension;
- reinforcing elements.
The rest of the drawings are not as important as the frame drawing, because they are constantly adjusted during manufacture..
Wheels and brakes
Since standard units from cars are used to build a minitractor, you can borrow a brake system from them..
The clutch cylinder can be used as the brake master cylinder. It is smaller and easier to install. For effective braking, it is enough to install the brakes on one axle. If the rear axle was taken from the car, then everything you need to connect the brakes is already there. It is only necessary to pass the brake pipes from the master cylinder to the working ones. The brake fluid reservoir can be taken as standard.
Suitable wheels are 14-inch rims with tractor tires on them.
A hitch for a mini tractor allows you to carry out any agricultural work:
- planting potatoes;
- hay making;
- transportation of goods.
Front and rear axle
The axles are used to transmit torque from the propeller shaft to the drive wheels. The track width of the mini tractor is 700-1200 mm, so the standard axles from cars do not fit and need to be revised.
In order to make a rear axle, a bridge is taken from a Moskvich car or a VAZ 2101 – VAZ 2107.
For a minitractor, the rear axle gearbox must be with a differential.
To reduce the track, the rear axle stocking is cut on both sides of the gearbox and reduced by the difference in track width. The half-shafts going inside are cut by the same amount. So that the axle shafts can be connected to the flanges, splines are cut on them. Or another approach is used: threads are cut on the half-shafts and on the inside of the flanges, then the half-shafts are screwed into the flange, after which the joints are welded.
In order to fix the rear axle to the frame, a channel is welded onto the gearbox housing. The bridge must be flexible in relation to the frame. For this, the channel and the frame are not fixed rigidly, but through two steering rods.
For a rear-wheel drive mini tractor, the front axle is made in the form of a beam. For this you need:
- Prepare a steering fist from Moskvich or Zhiguli assembled with ball bearings.
- Cut four 5mm thick plates. Drill holes in them for ball pins.
- Screw the plates to the ball joints. Then weld these plates together using corners. Two corners for one steering knuckle.
- With the help of a steel pipe of square section 50×50 mm we weld into a general structure.
- The steering knuckles can be located both on the car and be inverted, if required by the steering design.
In order for the front beam to have mobility relative to the frame, it must be installed through the hinge. A gimbal, limited by swinging in one plane, will do.
Mounting the engine and hydraulics
The most profitable option for a homemade mini-tractor is the installation of a single-cylinder water-cooled diesel engine. It is profitable from an economic point of view, so the use of a unit based on it will not be costly. It is generally placed on the front of the frame so that balance is maintained when operating with optional equipment. In the place where the engine will be installed, a sliding fastening system is mounted – this will make the adjustment and tension of the belts easier.
Power transmission from the engine to the rear wheels of the mini-tractor is carried out by a belt drive. Gearboxes and PTO transfer case can be borrowed from a truck, for example, GAZ-53. The motor is installed so that the PTO pulley is in the same plane with the pulley of the rear axle of the unit. At the same time, it is necessary to determine the place where the clutch pedal will appear.
Homemade tractor 4×4 My working day
After installing the engine, the hydraulics must be installed. It must include an oil pump, an oil tank, a hydraulic cylinder and a distributor. These elements are connected with flexible oil-resistant hoses. The best option if the hydraulics are floating.
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Kinematic diagram of a mini tractor.
First of all, a kinematic diagram of the future minitractor should be developed. If you have some experience, then you can make such a scheme yourself or find ready-made options on the Internet. It is quite possible that you will be lucky enough to find drawings of alteration of a minitractor from a tiller for a specific model. This will greatly facilitate further work. In addition, on the Internet you can find a lot of video material showing the assembly and modernization of such units..
Frame and body
The material for the manufacture of the frame can be metal corners and pipes. For fastening various elements, it is better to use a bolted connection, which means that you will need a drill, as well as a welding machine, since you cannot do without welding. It is desirable to achieve an optimal ratio of frame weight and strength..
Whether or not to make a body is a matter of taste. However, with a body, a mini-tractor assembled by one’s own hands, for example, on the basis of the “Neva”, looks more presentable, and besides, additional protection is created from the driver’s dirt and various components. For the body, it is best to use stainless steel.
After the alteration is completed, you can paint the mini tractor and install attachments. Painting will prevent the occurrence of corrosive processes. Before using a ready-made mini-tractor based on the “Neva” or “Salyut” tiller, it is required to run it in. This is necessary in order to check the functioning of all units and promptly eliminate all possible malfunctions. It will be a shame if a self-assembled unit breaks down on the very first day of work. If the running-in went well, you can attach the trailer and run the mini-tractor again.
The video shows how a ready-made homemade mini tractor functions.
When the mini-tractor is fully assembled and run-in, it can be made more “sophisticated” in the future, as imagination and financial possibilities allow. Canopy, headlights, hydraulic system and so on can be installed. As a result, you have received a unit that will significantly facilitate the processing of a personal plot and exceed the factory models in terms of comfort..
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Do-it-yourself mini tractor from a tiller
To assemble a mini-tractor from a tiller with your own hands without making mistakes, you will need step-by-step instructions and drawings. In addition, it is necessary to determine in advance the size of the future technology. Often, owners of agricultural land are interested in how to make such equipment at home. Experienced farmers recommend adhering to tips and photos with a detailed description.
Types of replaceable cultivator nozzles
The cultivator for a motorcycle tractor can be equipped with various attachments.
They are divided into several types:
paws – necessary for plowing the soil while removing weeds. There are several types of these attachments. Chisel attachments are designed to loosen the soil to a depth of 15 cm. Pole universal plowshares are used for continuous or inter-row plowing of the soil to a depth of 14 cm. Attachments of this type cope well with crumbling the earth and cutting weeds. One-sided flat-cut tines are designed exclusively for cutting large weeds;
- harrows – nozzles of this type are used for soil cultivation between rows and in protective zones;
- feeding knives – used for loosening the soil in the aisles and simultaneously embedding fertilizers in the soil. The maximum working depth is 16 cm;
- needle discs – designed to break the earth crust and kill weeds. The working depth is 4 cm, and the ground shift is 1–2 cm;
- hillers – these attachments are used to cut ridges and destroy weeds in the aisles. Maximum processing depth – 16 cm:
- irrigation irrigation ditches – used to prepare furrows for further irrigation. The depth of the furrows does not exceed 20 cm.
All replaceable attachments are fixed on the cultivator racks by means of a bolt connection. To extend the life of the equipment, you should regularly clean it of weeds and avoid contact with too wet soil.
Required tools and materials
The first stage of work consists in drawing up the drawing and preparing the equipment. A diagram of nodes and mechanisms, if you have the appropriate skills, can be developed independently or you can use those presented below.
As for the accessories, ready-made factory conversion kits are suitable – in any case, they are cheaper than the mini-tractor itself. But this option is suitable only for those who do not want to save on absolutely everything..
Making a homemade tractor will become impossible without:
- angle grinder and discs.
- Fasteners and hardware (bolts and nuts).
- Channels and pipes with a metal base.
- Drill coming with drill sets.
- Welding equipment.
- Tool kits.
You cannot do without two suitable wheels, together with a hitch and a driver’s seat, steering gear, pedals, and the tiller itself. It must have a sufficient power level.
Heavy class diesel tiller – ideal for a homemade mini tractor.
Recommendations for choosing a tiller
The choice of the model of the original technical means must be approached with the utmost responsibility. Special attention should be paid to several characteristics:
- Engine power – a more powerful tiller will be needed to handle a large plot of land.
- Fuel – it is advisable to opt for models using diesel fuel. They are more economical and are great for working on large land plots..
- Weight – the lower this indicator, the easier it is to control the tiller. However, if the unit is the basis for a mini tractor, then preference should be given to more massive models.
- Cost – no need to focus on expensive units, because it is to save money that the tiller is purchased.
Additional tips and warnings about the mini tractor
If you have enough money, you can buy some old Zhiguli, Oka, a tiller to use it as a “donor” for a future homemade mini tractor.
You can buy without documents, while it is quite used, therefore, which is relatively small, in comparison with a ready-made mini tractor.
The essence of this advice is simple: in order not to look for spare parts and parts everywhere, you can take everything from one machine, i.e. gearbox, clutch, etc. By the way, the car body can then be sold.
Also, an important point is the registration of a home-made unit in the traffic police. Of course, you can not do it if you do not plan to leave your garden, but for those who plan to use public roads, this action is necessary.
The fact is that a mini-tractor, even a home-made one, belongs to special equipment, therefore, it requires mandatory registration with the inspection. If these rules are not followed, the employee may impose a financial fine on you, and the vehicle itself may be removed to a parking lot..
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Advantages and disadvantages of a homemade design
In a crisis, the defining moment that affects many areas of life and industry is the issue of saving money. It is this circumstance that pushes many enthusiasts to independently manufacture not only mini tractors, but also other agricultural equipment..
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To facilitate labor and increase productivity, various types of manual cultivators have been created for cultivating the soil in the country – gasoline, electric, manual, light and heavy. By clicking on the link, get acquainted with the manual cultivator for summer cottages.
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This fact, in many respects, becomes decisive, especially for rural areas, where there has been no employment for a long time, and, as a consequence, no money. All that people living in villages and villages have is their personal economy, which feeds them throughout the year.
Therefore, homemade units in rural areas will be popular for a long time..
In addition to the obvious cost savings, self-assembly has a number of advantages:
- Due to its compact dimensions, a home-made unit is capable of performing work in fairly small areas. Given that most private gardens are small, this circumstance becomes important, because the use of large-sized equipment, in this case, is inappropriate.
- A quick return on investment – literally in one season. This is a consequence of the savings on components that were described earlier..
- Quite good performance, which is demonstrated by a homemade unit.
However, no matter how you might want it, homemade mini tractors also have certain disadvantages that must be pointed out:
- When assembling, there is a certain problem of finding the right parts and spare parts.
- A consequence of the previous problem is the issue of repair, because if a certain part fails, it will be quite difficult to find it.
- Self-assembly requires certain knowledge in technology, as well as the ability to work with a welding machine and a lathe. In other words, the assembly is not suitable for everyone..
- Due to the fact that an all-wheel drive home-made mini tractor is made mainly from old components, this may affect the frequency of equipment breakdowns..
As we can see, there are a lot of disadvantages. But, at the household level, self-assembly becomes almost the only alternative, due to its relative cheapness..
Of course, the power of a home-made unit may be somewhat weaker, but at the level of domestic use, this fact is almost imperceptible..
The main area of application of this do-it-yourself unit is agricultural work. This term covers a fairly wide range, including many related works. In other words, a homemade mini tractor is needed for the following purposes:
- plowing of land holdings for the purpose of their further use;
- cultivation of the soil, as well as getting rid of weeds;
- soil harrowing;
- sowing operations on treated soil;
- planting and digging potatoes.
In principle, this is the main purpose of the mini tractor, for which it is made. But, its application can be significantly expanded if a special connection for additional equipment, mounted and trailed type is provided in its design..
If everything is done correctly, then your homemade product can additionally perform the following work:
- transportation of various goods (transportation of firewood, construction waste, etc.);
- snow removal in the winter season;
- mowing lawns and lawns, as well as making hay for livestock.
As we can see, the mini-tractor breaking the classic 4×4 with its own hands is able to significantly facilitate the life of any villager, because with the help of this technique it becomes possible to perform all types of work that are required with competent maintenance of subsidiary farming.
The indispensability of a home-made unit is also due to the fact that a minimum of investments and funds are used in its manufacture, which is very important for rural areas.
For more information about the operation of an all-wheel drive mini tractor, see
Do-it-yourself 4×4 fracture on VAZ bridges – four-wheel drive minitractor with Lifan engine – drawings and diagrams
Here all sorts of craftsmen appear who have adapted to make such units out of all the rubbish that they have in the garage.
What a careless owner would have thrown into a landfill, a savvy and resourceful person is able to make a completely workable device out of this that can perform basic agricultural work.
Quite popular among such craftsmen is the do-it-yourself 4×4 fracture mini-tractor, which is a rather bizarre design.
Instructions on how to make an all-wheel drive mini tractor with your own hands – drawings and dimensions
Having appreciated all the advantages, many are wondering – how to make a 4×4 mini tractor? In principle, this assembly method is not much different from traditional methods, except, perhaps, the structure of the frame structure..
Basically, the frame is solid, but in the breaks, an option with a breaking frame is provided, from which the name itself comes.
The appearance of the structure may be a little puzzling to an outside observer, but its seeming unpretentiousness should not be misleading. The fact is that everything inside is located so proportionally, if you follow the drawings exactly, which allows the unit to show quite good performance indicators.
Speaking of drawings. This is probably one of the most important stages of the entire assembly, because the success of the entire design depends on the correctness of leaving a detailed drawing and determining the exact dimensions..
The fact is that the specifics of self-assembly involves the adaptation of some parts to the individual characteristics of the frame or power unit. This is understandable, because the components are taken from completely different equipment, which leads to their dimensional mismatch..
The adjustment itself is carried out mainly on a lathe, which in itself presupposes the presence of a detailed drawing. After all, it is much easier to make certain holes or grind, looking at the drawing, than keeping all this abstraction in your head..
So, having made a drawing, we proceed to the assembly process:
- The frame itself will consist of traverses and side members. The spars, in this case, have a three-stage structure. The first stage is made of channel number 10, and the last one is a square steel pipe with dimensions of 80 × 80 mm..
- The rear traverse is made from channel number 16, and the front one – from channel number 12.
- If you are converting a tiller into a mini tractor, then the main power unit will be the engine located on the tiller. If not, you will have to purchase the engine separately. In principle, any diesel engine of the required power (at least 12 hp) can be used..
- However, experts advise taking a more powerful one – a motor with 40 hp. and water cooling.
- The gearbox and power take-off shaft, as well as the clutch, can be taken from the GAZ-53 and GAZ-52 cars, respectively. They will not work ready-made, so you will have to modify them a little. To do this, you need to re-make the engine flywheel, cutting off a little from the back and drilling one hole in the middle..
- The bridge can be installed in the unit in the desired form without any manipulation. It is attached to the frame structure with four ladders.
- Wheels can be taken from old cars, but 18 inches is considered the optimal diameter. The process of installing the wheels on the hubs is quite simple. It is enough to cut a hole of the required diameter from the center of the disk, and the center of the disk from the ZIL-130 is welded to this place.
- The front axle is not so important, because it will not be the driving one. Therefore, you can take a bridge from another technique..
- The steering is best hydraulically assisted. You can take it from old agricultural equipment, but for its correct operation you need an oil pump.
- By the way, the driver’s seat must also be installed correctly, because a person spends not a single hour controlling the unit. The seat should be positioned so that the steering column does not rest on the person’s knees.
In general, the assembly of a home-made all-wheel drive minitractor is carried out using third-party spare parts, among which, mainly, automobile.
In particular, the drum brake will be used in the front wheelbase system, and the steering rack will be borrowed from the cars of the VAZ family..
Other components can be freely found on the spare parts market, where there are quite a lot of useful things. In addition, on specialized sites there are a sufficient number of advertisements for the sale of parts that can be purchased for mere pennies..
And for the household level, this is the very thing, especially since there is an almost ideal combination of those manufacturing costs and the quality that is obtained at the output and the scope for the selection and manufacture of additional equipment (see do-it-yourself rotary tiller).
with an article about a mini tractor with a cabin.