Walk-behind tractor malfunctions
In this thread, we will disassemble the malfunctions of motoblocks and cultivators of all brands, Salute. Neva, Bison, etc., and their removal and repair. Most of the problems are typical for all types of motoblocks, their engines and other components.
Smokes uniaxial tractor
White smoke is pouring out of the walk-behind tractor, it starts working in a “bucket”.
Engine won’t start
Understanding PLANETARY GEAR set !
Engine power dropped
It often happens that a previously serviceable single-axle tractor that has served for several years suddenly loses power.
Engine runs intermittently, stalls
The starter squeals, the cord comes out
The cultivator made several claps, the revolutions began to “float”
The material will be updated, we are waiting for Комментарии и мнения владельцев with questions, stories about identifying a particular malfunction and how to fix it. Also, see the answers to questions about a particular model of a walk-behind tractor on the page of its description.
Adjusting the carburetor of the walk-behind tractor
The instability of the engine speed of the walk-behind tractor indicates that the carburetor needs adjustment. The need to perform this procedure, as a rule, arises either before the beginning of the agricultural season, when the equipment has not been used for a long time, or, on the contrary, at the very height of the season, when the cultivator is subjected to significant loads for a long period of time. Before proceeding with the adjustment, it is necessary to warm up the engine. The work process itself looks like this:
- The screws regulating low and maximum throttle are screwed in completely, after which they are loosened by about one and a half turns.
- The motor is started with a starting device or manually, and warms up for about 10 minutes.
- The lever that controls the operation of the power plant must be set to the minimum position. But the motor should not stop at the same time.
- The throttle throttle adjusting screw will help to adjust the minimum idle speed so that the diesel engine is stable, without extraneous noise and stops.
- The rotation of the screws makes it possible to accurately set the amount of combustible mixture that enters the motor.
- Tightening the propeller enriches the mixture, while unscrewing it, on the contrary, increases the volume of air entering the engine.
Using the idle screw, adjust the maximum idle speed. The same should be done with minimum speed, using the throttle stop screw. The essence of such an adjustment is that the shutter screw allows you to adjust the angle to which it is closed.
The lever responsible for controlling the motor should be moved to the “throttle” position. If the operation of the cultivator still cannot be called stable, the full throttle screw is adjusted until a perfect stroke is observed. However, the maximum permissible propeller speed is 2.5.
The accuracy of carburetor adjustment can also be determined by how the spark plug looks after a short period of time under load. If the working mixture is ideal, then there will be neither carbon deposits nor traces of fuel on the spark plug, which indicate that the combustible mixture is too lean or, conversely, too rich. However, it should be noted that carbon deposits or traces of fuel on the spark plug can speak not only of incorrect adjustment, but also of more serious problems of the Chinese or domestic walk-behind tractor, including faulty ignition or cooling system.
Adjusting the valve clearance of the walk-behind tractor
Over time, with significant loads, the valve clearance of the walk-behind tractor engine changes. This may be due to wear on parts. Insufficient distance leads to the fact that the stages of gas distribution change significantly. As a result, it is not possible to achieve a sufficient compression ratio, and the power device works intermittently, without reaching the declared power. In especially serious situations, you can even observe the deformation of the valves. If the gap is too large, significant mechanical noises are recorded, the gas distribution phases also change significantly, the valves open for too short a time, due to which the cylinder does not fill up properly, the power drops, and malfunctions occur. Clearance adjustment is necessary immediately, as soon as the engine operation becomes incorrect or begins to occur with significant noise. Ideally, the engine being adjusted should be cooled down.
So, first you need to get to the flywheel. It is on this part that the value of the top dead center is marked. But to get to the flywheel, you first need to remove the casing, and before that, remove the oil bath of the air filter. It is possible to facilitate the task in the process of removing the casing if you fix all the latches with rubber bands. All bolted connections are unscrewed with a key, after which the cover can be removed without problems.
On the flywheel, you can see marks that indicate TDC, as well as values of 5, 10 and 20 degrees. The 20 degree mark indicates the injection of the combustible mixture. The flywheel should be brought under the top dead center, focusing on the appropriate division. The valve cover is unscrewed and removed.
In the process of adjustment, you need to use the following tools:
According to the technical data sheet, the valve clearance of the walk-behind tractor engine is from 0.1 to 0.15 millimeters, and therefore, with the help of a blade, it can be adjusted very accurately. However, you need to pay attention to the fact that some blades are 0.8 mm thick, which is unacceptable. The exact value can be found with a micrometer or on the manufacturer’s website.
The adjustment is carried out as follows:
- Use a screwdriver to loosen the nut, insert the blade and begin to tighten.
- Focus on the blade and tighten the nut gently.
- Adjust until valve free play is eliminated. It should fit snugly enough.
- Reassemble the casing and place the oil sump in place by hand.
If all manipulations are carried out without errors, then the engine will run smoothly and without unnecessary noise.
Power vs Torque. In Depth Explanation and Mythbusting!
Adjustment of the walk-behind tractor: carburetor, valves, fuel system
This article describes the adjustment of the walk-behind tractor, namely its main parts: the carburetor, valves and the fuel system. The process is not easy, so we have included some photos and videos as well. You can also read repair tips here.
Adjusting the fuel system of the walk-behind tractor
If no fuel is supplied to the cylinder, the first step is to check if there is enough fuel in the tank. You also need to check whether it goes to the carburetor. For this, a hose is removed from the inlet connection of the device. If we are talking about a carburetor of the K45 type, you should press on its quench so that the fuel begins to pour out through the drain hole.
If the fuel does not enter the carburetor, then you need to turn off the fuel supply valve, completely disassemble it and remove accumulations of dirt from the mechanical filter. To achieve maximum cleanliness, all components must be treated with gasoline. The fuel cock is assembled and returned to its original place.
2021 Peterbilt 367. Single Axle Tractor
If fuel enters the carburetor, but is not supplied to the cylinders, it is necessary to check the correct operation of the fuel valve, as well as the presence of dirt on the jets.
To deal with the carburetor of a gasoline walk-behind tractor of the KMB-5 type, you need to remove it from the engine and pour out the fuel from the float chamber. Through the fitting (see figure), with the help of which the gasoline is supplied, it is necessary to supply the air mixture, having previously installed the carburetor in the operating position. The passage of air should go unhindered, and when the carburetor is turned over, it should completely stop. These features indicate the full performance of the part.
Details in the figure: 1. fuel supply connection; 2. upper body; 3. throttle valve; 4. idle needle; 5. jet; 6. lower body; 7. air damper; 8. screw fixing the tie; 9. maximum gas needle; 10. spraying element; 11. float; 12. fuel supply valve.
The fuel level inside the float chamber can be adjusted using the float tab. Ideally, it should range from 3 to 3.5 centimeters.
To purge the jets, it is necessary to unscrew the screws responsible for full and low throttle. Cleaning the carburetor parts begins by unscrewing the screws that hold the upper housing. The lower body is removed, the fuel supply valve is flushed with gasoline, and the dirt from the nozzles is blown out by a pump. It is necessary to check if the float is intact. It is absolutely impossible to use rags in the cleaning process.
After completing the cleaning, the housings are connected. It is necessary to check that the spray tube is clearly inserted into the hole located on the upper body. Open the throttle valve and check how well the assembly is done. The screws that secure the upper case are tightly tightened. After the assembly process is completely completed, the carburetor should be adjusted. This will significantly improve the performance of a heavy walk-behind tractor with attachments, since for correct operation, perfect adjustment of all its parts is required.
If the carburetor DM 1.08.100 is installed on the engine of the cultivator, then the procedure for adjusting it will be as follows:
- Tighten the idle screw 10 until it stops and unscrew it half a turn.
- Then tighten the full throttle screw 9 and completely unscrew it 2 turns.
- Unscrew the screw 4 minimum engine revolutions right up to the stop of the lever against the bore of the carburetor body and tighten 2 turns.
- Start the engine of the walk-behind tractor, and then adjust stable operation at maximum speed after warming up with screw 9.
Do not disengage the engine control lever. Move it to the position of minimum throttle (revolutions) and by unscrewing screw 10 set stable idle revolutions. This completes the setup.
That, in principle, is the whole repair. The main points of adjusting the main parts of the walk-behind tractor are considered. Use our manual (instructions) and prevent faults. Enjoy adjusting your single axle tractor or cultivator!
Why a single axle tractor shoots a muffler?
Often, when working with an agricultural unit, loud uncharacteristic sounds from the muffler are clearly audible. At the same time, a single-axle tractor also produces a lot of smoke and stalls. To be able to fix a malfunction with your own hands, you need, first, to determine its essence.
The most common uniaxial tractor shoots at the muffler due to a number of the following problems:
- Excessive engine oil in the fuel mixture. in this case, you need to drain the remaining fuel, flush the fuel pump and hoses, and fill in new fuel with less oil;
- Incorrectly set ignition. if the mechanism works with a delay, then this leads to the appearance of atypical shots, which are clearly audible in the area of the muffler. In such a situation, you should immediately set the correct gap between the electrodes of the ignition system of the walk-behind tractor;
- Incomplete combustion of fuel in the engine cylinder. Repairing a walk-behind tractor engine in this case means disassembling the piston group, thoroughly washing and drying the engine cylinder, as well as adjusting the carburetor of the walk-behind tractor.
Repair of all of the above breakdowns does not require special skills and a lot of experience. The most important thing is to act strictly according to the operating instructions for the agricultural unit.
Why does a single axle tractor stall under load??
Almost every owner of a walk-behind tractor, regardless of the brand and model of the agricultural unit, has encountered a problem in which a single-axle tractor starts up and stalls after 5 minutes of operation. The main reasons for this breakdown lie in the problems with the fuel supply and the breakdown of the ignition system of the machine.
As practice shows, if a single-axle tractor stalls during operation, then its owner should immediately inspect the details of the fuel supply system. First of all, turn out and look at the spark plug. if it is completely dry, then this indicates that fuel does not enter the engine cylinder. After that, you need to make sure that there is a sufficient amount of fuel in the fuel tank. If there is gasoline and it is enough for work. inspect the fuel cock. it is quite possible that it is in the closed position. To start the walk-behind tractor, just open the fuel cock and continue working with the unit.
Another reason why a single-axle tractor starts up and stalls after 5 minutes of operation is a breakdown of the ignition system. It is quite simple to determine that the unit is faulty for this very reason. take a look at the candles. if they are wet, it means that the malfunctions have appeared in the ignition system of the walk-behind tractor. The best way out of this situation is to re-adjust the ignition system of the unit. All actions, in this case, must be performed in this order:
- Remove the cover that protects the elements of the ignition system;
- Turn the flywheel of the motor until the contacts open in the magneto;
- Using a special probe, measure the gap between the “anvil” and the “hammer” of the ignition system of the walk-behind tractor;
- After that, turn the flywheel until the piston of the walk-behind tractor is compressed. In this case, the latter must reach its highest point;
- Turn the flywheel again until you hear a characteristic knock. this means that the freewheel has worked;
- Then turn the flywheel in the opposite direction so that the mark on it coincides with the mark on the walk-behind tractor;
- Set the gap between the break contact and the cam. it should be 0.3 mm;
- At the end, fix the cam with the screw located on top of the part, and install the protective cover back into the walk-behind tractor body.
Also, the household unit often stalls when tilted. This indicates an insufficient amount of fuel in the fuel tank. If you put the unit in a horizontal position, pull out the starter rope, and the engine will start, which means that you will need to add gasoline to the tank.
uniaxial tractor starts up and stalls. reasons and repairs
Repair of walk-behind tractors in case they start up and, after a few seconds, stall, you must start by looking for the main causes of this malfunction. To do this, you need to inspect:
- Candles, wires and electrodes. in most cases, the unit starts up and immediately stalls due to too large a gap between the electrodes of the ignition system, poor contact between the wires, as well as a dirty spark plug. Repair should begin with cleaning the spark plug. If this does not help, then you need to check the integrity of the wires. If this did not bring the desired result, then it will be necessary to re-set the gap between the electrodes of the ignition system;
- Carburetor for contamination and sufficient fuel intake. If you have been using low-quality gasoline and have added too much engine oil to it, you will need to change the fuel and reduce the amount of oil. In addition, you need to dismantle, disassemble, and thoroughly clean the carburetor;
- The presence of gasoline in the fuel tank. if a single-axle tractor is not picking up speed, then this often indicates a lack of fuel necessary for the engine to function properly. Very often, owners of walk-behind tractors are faced with a problem in which gasoline spills through a small hole or crack in the fuel tank of the car. In this case, you need to try to patch up the defect, and if it was not possible to do this, you will need to completely replace the tank of the walk-behind tractor.
Why is a single axle tractor intermittent??
Among other typical malfunctions of the walk-behind tractor, a number of such breakdowns can also be distinguished:
- The motor of the unit hits the return line. this indicates the use of low-quality fuel for refueling the unit. In this case, you will have to not only replace the fuel, but also thoroughly flush the fuel pump and fuel supply hoses;
- a uniaxial tractor works in jerks. the reason for this lies in the insufficient warming up of the engine. Be sure to turn off the engine, wait for it to cool completely, and start the engine again, giving it at least 10 minutes to fully warm up;
- The motor of the walk-behind tractor does not noticeably pull, the engine power has decreased. in this case, you need to check and, if necessary, clean the air and fuel filter. Another reason for this breakdown lies in the wear of the magneto ignition system. It is best to replace the part immediately without trying to repair it.
Repair: why a uniaxial tractor stalls under load, shoots at the muffler, works intermittently, and more
a single-axle tractor is one of the most useful household implements. Even a simple and not very powerful machine can significantly facilitate the care of the garden and the surrounding area. At the same time, a single-axle tractor is a technique that tends to break down. Let’s look at the most common breakdowns of an agricultural unit, their causes and methods of elimination on our own.
The engine of the walk-behind tractor does not start well when hot
The question of why the motor of the walk-behind tractor stalls when heated is quite simple to solve. The whole essence of the problem lies in the excess air supplied to the carburetor of the walk-behind tractor. Part of it is mixed with a mixture of gasoline and engine oil, and the second part cools the carburetor. As a result, the temperature of the carburetor becomes much lower than that of the engine of the unit. This problem is observed only during the operation of the walk-behind tractor. When its engine is turned off, the carburetor, on the contrary, lends itself to heating from the side of the hot walls of the engine.
During the heating of the carburetor of the walk-behind tractor, fuel residues begin to actively evaporate, filling all the voids in the walk-behind tractor device, including the air filter and the intake manifold. This leads to the complete disappearance of fuel, due to which a single-axle tractor does not start when the engine is heated.
To fix this problem, it is necessary to act in a certain algorithm every time the walk-behind tractor is started “hot”. Your main task is to achieve a combination of the mixture so that the engine can start. This will require:
- In the process of starting a hot engine, squeeze the gas trigger halfway;
- Do not try to pull the gas trigger over and over again, otherwise this will only aggravate the situation, since during frequent pressing of the gas trigger, the fuel pump will supply new portions of fuel to the carburetor, which will lead to flooding of the engine;
- After several attempts to start with the gas trigger half pressed, you will start the engine of the walk-behind tractor, after which you will need to gas it 2-3 times and continue working.
All of the above methods will help to effectively cope with typical breakdowns of the most famous manufacturers of walk-behind tractors. They are equally successfully used by the owners of agricultural machinery brands Honda, Agro, Kaskad and Neva.